Go to IUCN        Go to SSC     ISSG logo

logo Image
Mnemiopsis leidyi /American comb jelly [Tamara Shiganova]
Erugosquilla massavensis/Erythrean mantis shrimp
Rhopilema nomadic/jellyfish
image image image image image

Resources that may assist risk assessment practitioners.


1. Risk Assessment: Models and Tools

1.1a Risk assessment for the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates in Australia

This report examines the factors that can be used to distinguish between species that pose a high risk of becoming a new pest and those that pose a lower risk. This information is used to construct a scientifically based risk assessment model to evaluate the risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic species in Australia. This report provides information and guidance that will assist those responsible for assessing and managing the risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates, including government policy makers, quarantine officials and wildlife managers.

Citation: Bomford, M. (2003). Risk assessment for the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates in Australia Australian Government Bureau of Rural Sciences: Canberra.

Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

1.1b Risk assessment models for establishment of exotic vertebrates in Australia and New Zealand.

The report provides information to assist government agencies increase public awareness and assess the risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic species.

Citation: Bomford, M. (2008). Risk assessment models for establishment of exotic vertebrates in Australia and New Zealand. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra.

Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/Risk_Assess_Models_2008_FINAL.pdf

I.2 Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes (Technical Report –UK)

Citation: Copp, G.H., Garthwaite, R. & Gozlan, R.E. (2005). Risk identification and assessment of nonnative freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Cefas Science Technical Report

Available from: http://www.cefas.co.uk/publications/techrep/tech129.pdf

I.3 Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for Responsible Use

This publication aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue.

Citation: Hewitt, C.L., Campbell, M.L. and Gollasch, S. (2006). Alien Species in Aquaculture. Considerations for responsible use. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. viii + 32 pp.

Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2006-036.pdf

1.4 ICES Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms

The ICES Code of Practice sets forth recommended procedures and practices to diminish the risks of detrimental effects from the intentional introduction and transfer of marine (including brackish water) organisms. The Code is aimed at a broad audience since it applies to both public (commercial and governmental) and private (including scientific) interests. In short, any persons engaged in activities that could lead to the intentional or accidental release of exotic species should be aware of the procedures covered by the Code of Practice.

Citation: ICES. (2005). ICES Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms 2005. 30 pp.

Available from: http://www.ices.dk/reports/general/2004/ICES%20Code%20of%20Practice%202005.pdf

1.5 Climate habitat-matching software

The CLIMATE software package matches the climates of selected regions around the world to the climate of other selected regions. The potential range of a species within the analysis site is produced as images and text.

Authors: Bureau of Rural Sciences (BRS) Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Australian Government

Available from: http://adl.brs.gov.au/brsShop/html/brs_prod_90000003434.html

I.6 Live import list (Australia)

The import of live plants and animals into Australia is regulated under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). All species permitted for import into Australia are included on the list of specimens suitable for live import (the live import list). Species not identified on this list cannot be legally imported into Australia.

Any one, whether a member of the public, a public institution or a commercial enterprise, can apply to the Minister for the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts to amend the live import list to include a new species. The purpose for applying to amend the live import list to include a new species may be either commercial or non-commercial.

Follow this link for the process to apply to import new animal species into Australia.

I.7 Standard methodology to assess the risks from non-native species considered possible problems to the environment (UK)

In response to a key recommendation from the Defra Review of Non-Native Species Policy in 2003, this project has developed a scheme for assessing the risks posed by any non-native organism to species, habitats or ecosystems in all or part of the UK. The UK non-native risk assessment scheme is based on internationally recognised procedures developed by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) following International Plant Protection Convention standards for pest risk analysis.

Available from: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=WC04004_2971_EXE.pdf

I.8 Decision support tools: Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas)

The electronic tool kits (listed below) available for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi (with contributions from David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp), based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).

• Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK)

• Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (MFISK)

• Marine Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit (MI-ISK)

• Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FI-ISK)

• Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit (AmphISK)

Available from: http://www.cefas.co.uk/projects/risks-and-impacts-of-non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx

I.9 The Weed Risk Assessment (Australia)

The weed risk assessment (WRA) process is a science-based quarantine risk analysis tool for determining the weed potential of proposed new plant imports.

Biosecurity Australia conducts WRAs on all new plant species proposed for introduction into Australia as seeds, tissue culture or any other material for propagation. WRAs are usually done at the species level but sub-specific taxa or hybrids are also occasionally assessed.

The WRA process is a three-tiered system that involves the importer, Biosecurity Australia and the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS).

If the plant is not present in Australia, the species advances to Tier 2 - weed risk assessment.

Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/ba/reviews/weeds/system

I.10 I3N Tools for the Prevention of Biological Invasions

I3N is the invasive species thematic network of the Inter- American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN)

In January 2008 the development of the first two I3N value added tools was completed: a Risk Analysis Tool for the prevention of alien plants establishment and invasion, and a Vectors and Pathways Analysis Tool, both developed to work in association with the database on invasive alien species in the network.

A manual to use these tools is available in Excel format, both in English and Spanish

Available from: http://i3n.iabin.net/HerramientasdePrevenciondeInvasionesBiologicasdeI3N.html

II. Handbooks

II.1 Handbook on Import Risk Analysis Animals and Animal Products [World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)]

Volume 1. Introduction and qualitative risk analysis

Volume 2. Quantitative risk assessment

II.2 Import Risk Analysis Handbook (Australia)

The Import Risk Analysis Handbook 2011 sets out the process that Biosecurity Australia follows to undertake an IRA.

Citation: Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry 2011, Import Risk Analysis Handbook 2011, Canberra

Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/1897554/import-risk-analysis-handbook-2011.pdf

III. Training relating to risk assessment

III.1 Training material on pest risk analysis based on IPPC standards

Under the IPPC, three international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPMs) on pest risk analysis (PRA) have been developed and adopted:

ISPM No. 2 (2007): Framework for pest risk analysis

ISPM No. 11 (2004): Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms

ISPM No. 21 (2004): Pest risk analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests.

To help countries understand and implement these standards, an international advisory group of PRA experts was established to develop a training course and training materials designed to increase countries’ capacity to conduct PRA. Information on this international advisory group is available by clicking on the link "Advisory group on PRA" in the sidebar to the left.

The training course is designed to take place over 5 days, and consists of 14 presentations that explain PRA concepts and practices and 14 group exercises to demonstrate these. These materials are freely available for use by any interested party.

Available from: https://www.ippc.int/servlet/CDSServlet?status=ND0xODYyMDgmY3RuX2luZm9fdmlld19zaXplPWN0bl9pbmZvX3ZpZXdfZnVsbCY2PWVuJjMzPSomMzc9a29z

IV. Some examples of National approaches

IV.1 Strategic Approach to the Management of Ornamental Fish in Australia

This report contains seven recommendations for the future management and regulation of the ornamental fish trade in Australia.

Citation: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (2006) A strategic Approach to the Management of Ornamental Fish in Australia Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Canberra

Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/288425/Management-of-ornamental-fish-in-Australia.pdf

IV.2 National strategy for the management of vertebrate pest animals in Australia

The Australian Pest Animal Strategy is a national strategy for the management of vertebrate pest animals in Australia. The focus of the Strategy is to address the undesirable impacts caused by exotic vertebrate animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish) that have become pests in Australia, and to prevent the establishment of new exotic vertebrate pests.

Citation: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2007) Australian Pest Animal Strategy-A national strategy for the management of vertebrate pest animals in Australia, Australian Government and Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Canberra.

Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/pubs/pest-animal-strategy.pdf

IV.3 Review of the impacts of introduced ornamental fish species that have established wild populations in Australia

Many ornamental fish are brought into Australia each year for stocking into home aquaria or garden ponds and between 12 and 14% of Australians are thought to keep aquaria. It is inevitable that some of these ornamental fish end up in natural waterways and although many don’t survive, some have established feral populations. Accordingly, there has been a rise in the number of exotic freshwater ornamental fish species establishing wild populations in Australia over the past 20-30 years. Of the 41 alien fish species currently known to have established populations in Australia, up to 30 are now thought to have arrived in the country via the ornamental fish trade. This is a relatively large number of new species and there is growing concern over the potential for one or more of these to create an expensive environmental problem.

In summary, this review has identified a number of key issues for the future management of feral ornamental fish in Australia that need to be urgently addressed.

Citation: Corfield, J., Diggles, B., Jubb, C., McDowall, R. M., Moore, A., Richards, A. and Rowe, D. K. (2008). Review of the impacts of introduced ornamental fish species that have established wild populations in Australia’. Prepared for the Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/pubs/ornamental-fish.pdf

V. Resources on invasive alien species management in general -with good risk assessment related content

V.1 Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit for Best Prevention and Management Practices

Citation: Wittenberg R. & Cock M.J.W. (2001) (eds) Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit for Best Prevention and Management Practices.  Publisher GISP

English, French and Spanish

V.2 A Toolkit for the Economic Analysis of Invasive Species

Citation: Emerton L. & Howard G. (2008) A Toolkit for the Economic Analysis of Invasive Species. Publisher GISP

English and French

V.3 Toolkit for developing legal and institutional frameworks for invasive alien species

Citation: Shine C. (2008) A Toolkit for Developing Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Invasive Alien Species. Publisher GISP

English and Portuguese

V.4 Guide to Designing Legal and Institutional Frameworks on Alien Invasive Species

Citation: Shine C., Williams N. & Gündling L. (2000). A Guide to Designing Legal  and Institutional Frameworks on Alien Invasive Species. Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 40 IUCN - Environmental Law Centre A Contribution to the Global Invasive Species Programme IUCN - The World Conservation Union.

English, French and Spanish

V.5 National and regional legislation for promotion and support to the prevention, control, and eradication of invasive species

Citation: Young T., R. (2006). National and Regional Legislation for Promotion and Support to the Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Invasive Species. Biodiversity series, Paper No 108. 98 pp. Published by The World Bank Environment Department (2006).

The publication addresses different aspects of the invasive alien species issue, but has a lot of content relating to prevention. Part I provides a conceptual and scientific summary and introduction, and Part II provides a very brief overview of some of the key global developments in the field, while Part III examines in greater detail the legislative tools available for use in the control of species introduction, and invasive species. Part IV discusses some of the special concerns relating to the process of building one, or more legislative frameworks utilizing the legislative tools described in Part III, and, provides, in some cases, a brief identification of how the selection and use of those tools might differ within the developing country context.

Available from: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/03/08/000012009_20060308141046/Rendered/PDF/354330REV0EDP01ive0species01PUBLIC1.pdf

V.6 Assessment and control of biological invasion risks

Biological invasion, an issue of growing importance due to the significant increase in international transportation and trade, can disturb the balance of local ecosystems and even destroy them. This collection of papers presented at the International Conference on Assessment and Control of Biological Invasion Risks held in August 2004 at Yokohama National University discusses risk assessment, risk management and eradication.

It also includes contributions reporting on the current status of invasion and the properties of alien species in East Asia.

Citation:  Koike, F., Clout, M. N., Kawamichi, M., De Poorter, M. and Iwatsuki, K. (eds) (2006). Published by SHOUKADOH Book Sellers, Kyoto, Japan and the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland 216pp.

Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2006-061.pdf

V.7 IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species, approved by the 51st Meeting of the IUCN Council, February 2000.

English, Spanish and French versions are available from: http://data.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/policy/invasivesSp.htm

V.8 IUCN Guidelines for Re-introductions

This is a comprehensive set of policy guidelines that ensure that the re-introductions effectively achieve their intended conservation benefit, and do not cause unfavorable environmental side-effects.

These guidelines were approved by the 41st Meeting of IUCN Council in May 1995. They were translated into different languages that include French, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic and German as well as English and produced in a booklet form in 1998.

English, Spanish and French versions are available from: http://data.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/policy/invasivesSp.htm