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1. Acanthaster planci (sea star)  English 
Coral gardens from Micronesia and Polynesia provide valuable marine resources for local communities and environments for native marine species such as marine fish. In coral ecosystems already affected by coral bleaching, excess tourism and natural events such as storms and El Nino, the effects of the invasive coral-feeding starfish (Acanthaster planci) on native coral communities contributes to an already dire state of affairs. Acanthaster planci significantly threatens the viability of these fragile coral ecosystems, and damage to coral gardens by the starfish has been quite extensive in some reef systems.
Common Names: coral-eating starfish, coral-feeding starfish, crown-of-thorns-starfish, giant thorny starfish
2. Acanthogobius flavimanus (fish)  English   
The yellowfin goby, Acanthogobius flavimanus is native to Asia. It has been introduced to Australia and the west coast of North America through ship ballast water and hull fouling. It negatively interacts with native and endangered species competing for food and resources.
Common Names: Cá Bong, Cá Bong hoa, Japanese river goby, Mahaze, Oriental goby, spotted goby, Yaponskii rechnoi bychok, yellowfin goby, Zheltoperyi bychok
Synonyms: Aboma snyderi Jordan & Fowler, Gobius flavimanus Temminck & Schlegel, Gobius stigmothonus Richardson
3. Acanthophora spicifera (alga)  English  français 
Acanthophora spicifera is a red algae which is found in most tropical or subtropical seas of the world. Its plastic morphology allows it to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions, and hence it can invade a diverse range of habitats. It is an alien invasive species in Hawaii. It is amongst the most successful alien algal species in this region, where it may modify native communities and compete with native algae.
Common Names: bulung tombong bideng, culot, red alga, spiny alga, spiny seaweed
Synonyms: Acanthophora antillarum Montagne ex Kützing 1865, Acanthophora intermedia Crouan, Acanthophora orientalis J. Agardh 1863, Acanthophora orientalis var. wightii (J. Agardh) Sonder 1879, Acanthophora spicifera f. orientalis (J.Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera f. wightii (J. Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera var. orientalis (J. Agardh) Zaneveld 1956, Acanthophora thierryi f. gracilis P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan 1878, Acanthophora thierryi J.V. Lamouroux 1813, Acanthophora wightii J. Agardh 1863, Chondria acanthophorara C. Agardh 1822, Fucus acanthophorus J.V. Lamouroux 1805, Fucus spicifer M. Vahl 1802
4. Aedes albopictus (insect)  English     
The Asian tiger mosquito is spread via the international tire trade (due to the rainwater retained in the tires when stored outside). In order to control its spread such trading routes must be highlighted for the introduction of sterilisation or quarantine measures. The tiger mosquito is associated with the transmission of many human diseases, including the viruses: Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis.
Common Names: Asian tiger mosquito, forest day mosquito, mosquito tigre, moustique tigre, tiger mosquito, tigermücke, zanzare tigre
Synonyms: Culex albopictus Skuse, 1895, Culex albopictus Skuse,1895
5. Alexandrium minutum (alga)  English     
Alexandrium minutum is a small dinoflagellate that forms algal blooms in many coastal regions around the world. It was originally described from a red tide in the Alexandria harbour. Toxins produced in high concentrations by these single-celled organisms are responsible for many global cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. Toxins may also affect other components of the ecosystem including mammals, birds, fish and zooplankton.
Common Names: red tide dinoflagellate, red tide phytoplankton
Synonyms: Alexandrium ibericum E. Balech 1985, Alexandrium lusitanicum Balech, Alexandrium minutum Halim, 1960 NIMPIS, 2006, Pyrodinium minutum (Halim) Taylor 
6. Alitta succinea (annelid)  English 
The infaunal polychaete Allita succinea, also known as the pileworm, is native to the Atlantic coast and now occurs along the coasts off North, Central and South America, Europe, Africa and the Black Sea. A. succinea can alter nutrients available in sediments, which affect other sediment dwellers.
Common Names: nereidid worm, pile worm, ragworm
Synonyms: Neanthes succinea Imajima 1972, Nectoneanthes alatopalpis Wu et al. 1985, Nectoneanthes oxypoda Imajima 1972, Nereis (Neanthes) succinea Hartman 1945, Nereis alatopalpis Wesenberg-Lund, 1949, Nereis succinea, Leuckart 1847.
7. Ascidiella aspersa (tunicate)  English 
Ascidiella aspersa (European sea squirt) is a solitary marine and estuarine tunicate that is native from Norway to the Mediterranean. It is a suspension filter-feeder and was introduced via foulling on the hulls of ships to the northwest coast of the Atlantic, India, Australia and New Zealand. Commonly called the European sea squirt, it has become a moderate to serious threat by displacing native fauna.
Common Names: ascidie sale, dirty sea squirt, European sea squirt, ruwe zakpijp, Spritz-Ascidie, vuilwitte zakpijp
Synonyms: Acidia expansa (Kiaer, 1893), Ascidia aculeata (Alder, 1863), Ascidia affinis (Hancock, 1870), Ascidia albida (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia aspersa (Müller, 1776), Ascidia elliptica (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia minuta (Kiaer, 1893), Ascidia normanni (Alder & Hancock, 1870), Ascidia opalina (Macgillivray, 1843), Ascidia patula (Müller, 1776), Ascidia pedunculata (Hoffman, 1829), Ascidia pellucida (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia pustulosa (Alder, 1863), Ascidia scabra (Müller, 1776), Ascidia sordida (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia triangularis (Herdman, 1881), Ascidia truncata (Herdman, 1881), Ascidiella aspersa (Kiaer, 1893), Ascidiella cristata (Roule, 1884), Phallusia aspersa (Traustedt, 1883), Phallusia cristata (Risso, 1826)
8. Asterias amurensis (sea star)  English     
Originally found in far north Pacific waters and areas surrounding Japan, Russia, North China, and Korea, the northern Pacific seastar (Asterias amurensis) has successfully invaded the southern coasts of Australia and has the potential to move as far north as Sydney. The seastar will eat a wide range of prey and has the potential for ecological and economic harm in its introduced range. Because the seastar is well established and abundantly widespread, eradication is almost impossible. However, prevention and control measures are being implemented to stop the species from establishing in new waters.
Common Names: flatbottom seastar, Japanese seastar, Japanese starfish, Nordpazifischer Seestern, North Pacific seastar, northern Pacific seastar, purple-orange seastar
Synonyms: Allasterias rathbuni nortonens Verrill, 1909, Allasterias rathbuni var. anom Verrill, 1909, Allasterias rathbuni var. nort Verrill, 1914, Asterias amurensis f. gracilispinis Djakonov, 1950, Asterias amurensis f. acervispinis Djakonov, 1950, Asterias amurensis f. flabellifera Djakonov, 1950, Asterias amurensis f. latissima Djakonov, 1950, Asterias amurensis f. robusta Djakonov, 1950, Asterias anomala Clark, 1913, Asterias nortonensis Clark, 1920, Asterias pectinata Brandt, 1835, Asterias rubens Murdoch, 1885, Parasterias albertensis Verrill, 1914
9. Batillaria attramentaria (mollusc)  English   
Batillaria attramentaria, commonly known as the Asian hornsnail, was introduced to America from Japan at some point in the late 1920s and early 1930s. It is found in the United States in California and Washington. The Asian hornsnail has become a problem because it displaces the native snail, Ceritidea californica, through superior competition for benthic diatom food resources. Its relative success over the native snail is aided due to its resistance to parasites that affect C. californica.
Common Names: Asian estaurine mudsnail, Asian horn snail, Japanese false cerith, Japanese mud snail, Japanese snail
Synonyms: Barillaria attramentaria (Sowerby, 1855), Batillaria cumungi
10. Boonea bisuturalis (mollusc)  English   
Boonea bisuturalis is native to the St. Lawrence River and the northwest Atlantic coast. It primarily feeds on other molluscs and grasses. It is an extoparisitic species and feeds on internal parts of its prey. It can be found under rocks at the line of low tide. B. bisuturalis has been introduced further south to the Gulf of Mexico and San Francisco. This species has been introduced to Califonia through contaminated oyster stock.
Common Names: two-groove odostome
Synonyms: Odostimia bisuturalis (Say, 1822), Turritella bisuturalis (Say, 1822)
11. Bugula neritina (bryozoan)  English 
Bugula neritina (brown bryozoan) is an erect, bushy bryozoan. It is an abundant fouling organism that colonises any freely available substratum, including artificial underwater structures and vessel hulls.
Common Names: brown bryozoan, bryozoan, common bugula
Synonyms: Anamarchis neritina, Sertularia neritina
12. Bythotrephes longimanus (crustacean)  English   
Bythotrephes longimanus, the spiny water flea, is a predatory cladoceran native to northern Europe and Asia. It was introduced to the North American Great Lakes through ballast water and has since spread to a number of inland lakes. B. longimanus competes directly for prey with juvenile and small fish along with predatory zooplankton. It can foul fishing lines and downrigger cables, and can have substantial impacts on zooplankton community structure.
Common Names: Cederstroem-Blattflusskrebs, Eurasian spiny water flea, spiny water flea, spiny waterflea
Synonyms: Bythotrephes cederstroemii Schodler, 1877
13. Carcinus maenas (crustacean)  English     
Carcinus maenas is native to Europe and northern Africa and has been introduced to the North America, Australia, parts of South America and South Africa. It is a voracious food generalist and in some locations of its introduced range it has caused the decline of other crab and bivalve species. Its success with invasion has also caused numerous other problems that require management.
Common Names: European green crab, European shore crab, green crab, le crabe enragé, le crabe vert, le crabe vert Europeén, shore crab, Strandkrabbe
Synonyms: Cancer maenas Linnaeus, 1758, Cancer marinus sulcatus Rumph, 1705, Carcinides maenas (Linnaeus, 1758), Carcinus maenas Leach, 1814, Portunus maenas Leach, 1814
14. Carijoa riisei (coral)  English 
Carijoa riisei commonly known as "snowflake coral" or "branched pipe coral", is a soft coral species. Originally from the tropical Western Atlantic it was first reported in the Pacific Ocean around the Hawaiian Islands in the 1970's. Its introduction was thought to be benign until recent surveys began showing it proliferating at depths as far down as 120m off the island of Maui, where it is rapidly changing habitat and out-competing native black coral colonies.
Common Names: Branched pipe coral, orange soft coral, snowflake coral
15. Caulerpa taxifolia (alga)  English     
Caulerpa taxifolia is an invasive marine alga that is widely used as a decorative plant in aquaria. A cold-tolerant strain was inadvertently introduced into the Mediterranean Sea in wastewater from the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco, where it has now spread over more than 13,000 hectares of seabed. Caulerpa taxifolia forms dense monocultures that prevent the establishment of native seaweeds and excludes almost all marine life, affecting the livelihoods of local fishermen.
Common Names: caulerpa, killer alga, lukay-lukay, Schlauchalge, sea weed
Synonyms: Fucus taxifolius Vahl, 1802
16. Caulerpa webbiana (alga)  English 
         Interim profile, incomplete information
17. Celtodoryx ciocalyptoides (sponge)  English 
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The sponge Celtodoryx ciocalyptoides is know from shallow waters of the NW Pacific Ocean more precisely from the Russian far East, South Korea and from China. Since 1996 it is recorded from Ria of Etel, Brittany, France and shortly later it occurred in the Oosterschelde estuary, Netherlands. In the NE Atlantic the sponge strongly proliferates within populated biotopes, i.e. competes successfully for space with various other marine invertebrates, such as Octocorallia and other poriferan species. The transfer of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to aquaculture farms in lagoons along the French and the Dutch coast is the most likely vector for the invasion of this sponge into the NE Atlantic Ocean.
18. Ceratostoma inornatum (mollusc)  English   
Ceratstoma inornatum is an oyster driller that destroys populations of oysters, especially that of Crassostrea gigas. In stocked populations though it causes 25% mortality. It is native to Asia and was introduced to the west coast of USA and the Atlantic coast of France.
Common Names: Asian drill, Asian oyster drill, Japanese oyster drill
Synonyms: Ocenebra japonica (Dunker, 1860), Ocinebrellus inornatus (Recluz, 1851)
19. Cercopagis pengoi (crustacean)  English     
Cercopagis pengoi is a water flea native to the Ponto-Aralo-Caspian basin in South Eastern Europe, at the meeting point of the Middle East, Europe and Asia. It has spread from its native range and become invasive in some waterways of Eastern Europe and in the Baltic Sea. It has been introduced to the Great Lakes of North America, quickly becoming established and is now increasing its range and abundance. Cercopagis pengoi is a voracious predator and may compete with other planktivores. Through this competition, C. pengoi has the potential to affect the abundance and condition of zooplanktivorous fish and fish larvae. It also interferes with fisheries by clogging nets and fishing gear.
Common Names: cercopag, fishhook waterflea, Kaspischer Wasserfloh, petovesikirppu, röövtoiduline vesikirp, rovvattenloppa, tserkopag
Synonyms: Cercopagis (Apagis) ossiani (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi 1968)
20. Charybdis hellerii (crustacean)  English 
Charybdis hellerii is an Indo-Pacific, portunid crab that has invaded several locations in the Mediterranean Sea, by Erythrean invasion through the Suez Canal, and the South Atlantic in the Caribbean and United States via ballast water fouling. Charybdis hellerii is a potential threat to native crab populations and benthic communities and its introduction should be avoided by adhering to ballast water management guidelines.
Common Names: Indo-Pacific swimming crab, Ishigani New Caledonia, New Caledonia-íshigani, spiny hands
Synonyms: Charybdis (Goniosoma) merguiense (Alcock, 1899; Nobili, 1906, Chopra, 1935; Leene, 1973; Shen, 1937), Charybdis amboinensis (Leene, 1938), Charybdis merguiensis (Sakai, 1934; Barnard, 1950; Guinot, 1962), Charybdis vannamei Ward 1941, Goniosoma hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867), Goniosoma merguiense (DeMan, 1888), Goniosoma sexdentatum (De Man, 1879), Goniosoma spiniferum
21. Charybdis japonica (crustacean)  English 
The Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonica is a portunid (swimming) crab native to marine environments of Central and South East Asia. It may impact native esturine communities by competing for space and resources with native crabs. As it transmits disease and preys on native shellfish it is a potential threat to fisheries and traditional shell-fishing.
Common Names: Asian crab, Asian paddle crab, blue crab, paddle crab, swimming crab
22. Chthamalus proteus (crustacean)  English     
Chthamalus proteus is a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic. It was introduced to the Pacific in 1970s and first reported in Hawaii in 1995. It is now one of the most abundant organism in the upper intertidal harbors and bays throughout the Hawaiian Islands. C. proteus are likely to be spread by ship hull fouling and larvae by ballast water.
Common Names: Atlantic barnacle, Caribbean barnacle
23. Cichlasoma urophthalmus (fish)  English 
The Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) is a medium sized cichlid native to Central America. It has invaded regions of Florida including the Everglades National Park and has more recently been reported from Thailand and Singapore. It is a generalist predator, and tolerates a wide range of salinities, temperatures and habitat types; factors which have contributed to its range expansion throughout the Florida peninsula. It can reach high densities and may compete with and predate upon native fish, possibly reducing biodiversity and ecosystem function.
Common Names: castarrica, catarrica, Central American cichlid, false red terror, halepletcichlide, Mayan cichlid, Mexican mojarra, Mexican mojarra, mojarra del México, mojarra del sureste, mojarra del sureste, orange tiger, rengaskirjoahven, schwanzfleckbuntbarsch
Synonyms: Parapetenia urophthalma, Amphilophus urophthalmus, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Nandopsis urophthalmus
24. Ciona intestinalis (tunicate)  English 
The sea vase, Ciona intestinalis, is a tunicate that has such widespread distribution that its natural range continues to be a source of constant debate. A major pest on shellfish aquaculture production, C. intestinalis is a highly competitive species. There is evidence of C. intestinalis displacing native species, reducing biodiversity, and altering community properties in some invaded habitats. Control of C. intestinalis is difficult due to its rapid recolonisation, difficulty of containment and proximity to valuable aquaculture production that limits the control options able to be used.
Common Names: ascidie jaune, cione, doorschijnende zakpijp, gelbe seescheide, sea vase, vase tunicate, yellow sea squirt
Synonyms: Ascidia viridiscens (Brugiere, 1792), Ciona canina (Mueller, 1776), Ciona diaphanea (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834), Ciona ocellata (Agassiz, 1850) , Ciona pulchella (Alder, 1863) , Ciona robusta (Hoshino & Tokioka, 1967), Ciona sociabilis (Gunnerus, 1765) , Ciona tenella (Stimpson, 1852), Phallusia intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767), Tethyum sociabile (Gunnerus, 1765)
25. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (alga)  English     
Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides is an alga that has been introduced around the globe through shellfish aquaculture, recreational boating, and transport on ship hulls. The species fouls shellfish beds and causes a myriad of impacts on shellfish communities. This species also causes a nuisance to humans when it accumulates on beaches and rots producing a foul odor. C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides has been documented altering benthic communities and habitats causing serious environmental implications.
Common Names: dead man's fingers, green fleece, green sea fingers, oyster thief, Sputnik weed
Synonyms: Codium mucronatum var. tomentosoides van Goor
26. Crassostrea gigas (mollusc)  English  français   
The bivalve Crassostrea gigas is a filter feeder. It has been introduced from Asia across the globe. In North America and the Australasia-Pacific regions C. gigas is known to settle into dense aggregations, and exclude native intertidal species. It has been documented destroying habitat and causing eutrophication of the water bodies it invades.
Common Names: giant oyster, giant Pacific oyster, immigrant oyster, Japanese oyster, Miyagi oyster, Pacific oyster
Synonyms: Ostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 , Ostrea laperousi Schrenk, 1861 , Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862
27. Crepidula fornicata (mollusc)  English   
Crepidula fornicata is a protandrous hermaphrodite mollusc, which means that the animals start their lives as males and then subsequently may change sex and develop into females. This species can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Populations are particularly well developed in wave-protected areas such as bays, estuaries or sheltered sides of wave-exposed islands. C. fornicata competes with other filter-feeding invertebrates for food and space, and often occur in enormous numbers. Few management options are available to combat this species. Dredging operations to clear slipper limpets from oyster beds have been attempted in some areas, but it was concluded that further spread of the species could not be prevented.
Common Names: American limpet, common Atlantic slippersnail, crépidule, oyster-pest, Pantoffelsnecke, slipper limpet, Toffelsneg
Synonyms: Crepidula densata Conrad, Crepidula maculata Rigacci, Crepidula mexicana Rigacci, Crepidula nautiloides auct. non Lesson, Crepidula roseae Petuch, Crepidula violacea Rigacci, Crepidula virginica Conrad, Crypta nautarum Mörch, Patella fornicata Linné
28. Cygnus olor (bird)  English   
Cygnus olor (mute swans) are a large swan species that can utilise a variety of aquatic habitats. They consume submerged aquatic vegetation to the point of overgrazing, which in turn reduces the carrying capacity of natural habitats for native waterfowl. They will occasionally overgraze to such an extent that certain vegetation is eliminated from the ecosystem. Cygnus olor is also very territorial and will drive off native waterfowl species and has been known to attack and kill native species while defending territory. Mute swans have also been known to attack and injure humans and can be especially dangerous to small children.
Common Names: cygne tuburculé, fysyldayan gu gushu, lebed-shipun, mute swan
Synonyms: Anas olor Gmelin
29. Elminius modestus (crustacean)  English 
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Elminius modestus has spread successfully throughout the Western Europe coastal areas, since its introduction to the southeast coast of the Uk most probably on the hull of ships from New Zealand and /or Australia between 1940 and 1943. There are several factors that aid Elminius success as an invader. Elminius larval stages are eurythermal and euryhaline, enabling them to survive in a wide range of habitat types. E. modestus is a highly fecund species and has a short generation time. It is highly tolerant of changes in tempertaure and salinity. E. modestus compete with native barnacle species for space. It has been observed that the successful range expansion of the barnacle could be facilitated by a changing climate with warmer seas and tempertaures.
Common Names: Australian barnacle, Australische Seepocke, Australseepocke, Firepladet rur, Kruisridderpok, New Zealand barnacle, Nieuw-Zeelandse zeepok, Sterretje
Synonyms: Austrominius modestus
30. Gemma gemma (mollusc)  English   
Gemma gemma, commonly known as the gem clam or amethyst gem clam, is a small benthic organism found in marine, brackish and freshwater environments along the Atlantic coast. The gem clam has been introduced to the California and Washington coasts of the United States. It is not competively aggressive against native populations and has minimal impact, but is oppurtunistic. An extraneous factor, such as increased predation on native fauna, will allow it to competively increase its population.
Common Names: Amethyst gem clam, gem clam
Synonyms: Cyrena purpurea (Lea, 1842), Gemma fretensis (Rehder, 1939), Gemma totteni (Simpson, 1860), Parastarte concentica (Dall, 1889), Totteniana gemma (Totten, 1834), Venus gemma (Totten, 1834), Venus manhattensis (Jay, 1852)
31. Geukensia demissa (mollusc)  English   
Geukensia demissa (ribbed mussel) is native to the east coast of North America and have been introduced to California, Mexico, Texas and Venezuela. Geukensia demissa are reported to cause problems for the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), with whom they share the same habitat, by the trapping and drowning of birds in marshes caused by their shells sticking out of the mud.
Common Names: Atlantic ribbed marsh mussel, ribbed horsemussel, ribbed mussel
Synonyms: Arcuatula demissa (Dillwyn, 1817), Ischadium demissa (Dillwyn, 1817), Modiola plicatulus (Lamarck, 1819), Modiola semicostata (Conrad, 1837), Modiolus plicatulus, Mytilus demissa (Dillwyn, 1817)
32. Gracilaria salicornia (alga)  English  français     
The introduction of alien algae in the marine environment is a potential threat to the health and stability of near-shore ecosystems. Gracilaria salicornia threatens coral reefs and native benthic communities in Hawaii and elsewhere. It may reduce marine species diversity and alter marine community structure.
Common Names: canot-canot, red alga
Synonyms: Corallopsis cacalia Agardh, Corallopsis concrescens Reinbold, Corallopsis dichotoma Ruprecht, Corallopsis opuntia Agardh, Corallopsis salicornia Greville, Corallopsis salicornia var. minor Sonder, Gracilaria cacalia Dawson, Sphaerococcus salicornia Agardh
33. Gracilaria vermiculophylla (aquatic plant)  English 
Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss is a red alga and was originally described in Japan in 1956 as Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla. It is thought to be native and widespread throughout the Northwest Pacific Ocean. G. vermiculophylla is primarily used as a precursor for agar, which is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. It has been introduced to the East Pacific, the West Atlantic and the East Atlantic, where it rapidly colonises new environments. It is highly tolerant of stresses and can grow in an extremely wide variety of conditions; factors which contribute to its invasiveness. It invades estuarine areas where it outcompetes native algae species and modifies environments.
Synonyms: Gracilaria asiatica Zhang & Xia, Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla Ohmi
34. Gymnodinium catenatum (alga)  English     
Gymnodinium catenatum is a toxic, bloom forming species of microalgae. It is usually seen in long, swimming chains of tiny cells, with up to 32 cells in a chain (occasionally 64). It is also seen as solitary cells with a green-brown colour. The size of these cells ranges from 38 - 53 um long and 33 - 45 um wide. The cells are circular to squarish in shape, with many rounded organelles within them. Cysts of G. catenatum are brown, spherical and range in size from 45 - 50 um in diameter. G. catenatum is the only known unarmoured dinoflagellate that produces toxins responsible for PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning). This species is widely distributed, from the Mediterranean to the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Australasian waters.
Common Names: chain-forming dinoflagellate, estuarine dinoflagellate, naked dinoflagellate
35. Halophila stipulacea (aquatic plant)  English 
Halophila stipulacea is a seagrass which has been introduced to the Mediterranean and more recently the Caribbean most likely through fragments transported by commercial and recreational shipping. Studies suggest that H. stipulacea is capable of displacing native seagrasses and associated communities and while yet to be confirmed, the potential threat to biodiversity posed by this rapidly spreading plant is serious H. stipulacea is included in the "100 Worst Invasive Alien Species in the Mediterranean".
Common Names: Halophila seagrass
Synonyms: Zostera stipulacea (Forsskål, 1775)
36. Hemigrapsus sanguineus (crustacean)  English 
Hemigrapsus sanguineus is commonly called the Asian shore crab and is native to the Asia-Pacific region. It has a very broad diet and, in its introduced range, has the potential to affect populations of native species, such as crabs, fish and shellfish by disrupting the food web. It also occupies habitats very similar to native mud crabs. Hemigrapsus sanguineus may compete with larger species, like the blue crab, rock crab and the non-native green crab.
Common Names: Asian shore crab, Japanese shore crab
37. Hypnea musciformis (alga)  English     
Hypnea musciformis (basionym Fucus musciformis) is classified as a red algae and is distributed throughout most of the world. It was recently introduced to Hawaii and has quickly become invasive and a nuisance.
Common Names: hypnea
Synonyms: Fucus musciformis Wulfen 1791, Hypnea rissoana J. Agardh, nom. illeg. 1842, Sphaerococcus divaricatus C. Agardh, nom. illeg. 1827, Sphaerococcus musciformis (Wulfen) C. Agardh 1822
38. Kappaphycus spp. (alga)  English 
Kappaphycus spp. are red algae species that have been introduced in various parts of the world for the purpose of harvesting the gelling agent kappa carrageenan, which is used in industrial gums and as a smoothening agent used in ice cream, toothpaste, jellies, medicines and paint. This species can regrow from fragments as small as 0.5cm making it an extremely difficult species to control.
Common Names: agal agal, agal agal besar, agar agar besar, agar agar pulau, agar agar seru laut, agar-agar, algae, algues rouges, brown licorice, chilin-t' sai, cottonii, eucheuma, eucheuman, guso, kirinsai, red alga
39. Littorina littorea (mollusc)  English   
Littorina littorea is a mollusc which is often distributed on rocky coasts, from the upper shore into the sub-littoral. It is also tolerant of brackish water. Littorina littorea feeds on diatoms, Enteromorpha, Ulva and Porphyra. Littorina littorea are oviparous and reproduce annually. Egg capsules are shed directly into the sea. It has been suggested that Littorina littorea can serve as a highly suitable bio-indicator species for contamination of marine environments.
Common Names: common periwinkle
40. Lutjanus kasmira (fish)  English  français   
Lutjanus kasmira is a commercially important reef-associated tropical fish that has been introduced into Hawaii for fisheries. In introduced areas of Hawaii it has become abundant, forming dense schools. It may outcompete native fish for space, crowding them out of important refuge areas.
Common Names: blouband snapper, blue-banded hussar, bluebanded snapper, blueline snapper, blue-lined sea perch, bluelined snapper, blue-lined snapper fish, bluestripe seaperch, bluestripe snapper, bluestriped snapper, common bluestripe snapper, common blue-stripe snapper, common bluestriped snapper, gorara tikus, hamra, hobara, ikan nonya, irri ranna, janja, kelea, kuning-kuning, kunyit, kunyit-kunyit, madras, mbawaa, merah, naisarah, nga-wet-panni, nisar, pargo de raios azuis, pargo de rayas, pargo de rayas azules, perche à raies bleues, pla ka pong deng thab nam ngern, pla kapong, savane, taape, tanda-tanda, tembo-uzi, vali ranna, verikeechan, vivaneau à raies bleues, yellow and blue seaperch, yosuji-fuedai
41. Mnemiopsis leidyi (comb jelly)  English     
The ctenophore, Mnemiopsis ledyi, is a major carnivorous predator of edible zooplankton (including meroplankton), pelagic fish eggs and larvae and is associated with fishery crashes. Commonly called the comb jelly or sea walnut, it is indigenous to temperate, subtropical estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North and South America. In the early 1980s, it was accidentally introduced via the ballast water of ships to the Black Sea, where it had a catastrophic effect on the entire ecosystem. In the last two decades of the twentieth century, it has invaded the Azov, Marmara, Aegean Seas and recently it was introduced into the Caspian Sea via the ballast water of oil tankers.
Common Names: American comb jelly, comb jelly, comb jellyfish, Rippenqualle, sea gooseberry, sea walnut, Venus' girdle, warty comb jelly
Synonyms: Mnemiopsis gardeni L.Agassiz 1860, Mnemiopsis mccradyi, Mayer, 1990
42. Morone americana (fish)  English   
Morone americana is a semi-anadromous fish native the Atlantic Coast, that has made its way into the Great Lakes through the Erie and Welland canals. Dense Morone americana populations compete for food and feed on the eggs of native species. Hybridisation with other perch species is another threat that may cause dilution to local species gene pools.
Common Names: Amerikanbassi , Amerikansk bars , bar blanc d'Amerique, baret can, bars, cernier atlantique, havabbor, hvit havabbor, morona, narrow-mouthed bass, perche blanche, robalo do norte, robalo-do-norte, rokiel srebrzysty, sea perch , seebarsch, silver perch, spigola americana, vitabborre, White perch , wreckfish
Synonyms: Morone americanus (Gmelin, 1789) , Morone pallida Mitchill, 1814 , Morone rufa Mitchill, 1814, Perca americana Gmelin, 1789 , Perca immaculata Walbaum, 1792 , Roccus americanus (Gmelin, 1789)
43. Musculista senhousia (mollusc)  English   
Musculista senhousia is a small, short-lived mytilid mussel native to east Asia which has successfully spread to New Zealand, Australia, the Mediterranean and the Pacific coast of the USA. It can grow rapidly and is capable of marked habitat alteration through the construction of byssal mats on the surface of soft sediments.
Common Names: Asian date mussel, Asian mussel, cuckoo mussel, date mussel, green bagmussel, green mussel, hototogisu, Japanese mussel, senhouse mussel, Senhouse's mussel
Synonyms: Brachidontes (Arcuatula) senhousia Kira, 1959 , Brachidontes (Musculista) senhousia Kira, 1962 , Brachidontes aquarius Grabau and King, 1928 , Modiola (Arcuatula) arcuatula Hanley, 1844 , Modiola bellardiana Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 , Modiola senhausii Reeve, 1857 , Modiola senhousia Benson in Cantor, 1842 , Modiolus senhousei Hanna, 1966 , Musculista senhausia Morton, 1974 , Musculus (Musculista ) senhousia Yammamoto & Habe, 1958 , Volsella senhausi Smith, 1944
44. Mya arenaria (mollusc)  English 
Mya arenaria (soft shell clam) has a large global distribution, largely due to its adaptability to varying environments. Impacts of Mya arenaria range from habitat alteration to massive bioaccumulation.
Common Names: almindelig sandmusling, eastern soft-shell clam, hietasimpukka, liela smilšgliemene, liiva-uurikkarp, long-necked clam, nannynose, sand gaper, Sandklaffmuschel , sandmusslan, sandskel, smelinuke, soft-shell clam, steamer clam, vanlig sandskjell
Synonyms: Mya hemphillii
45. Mycale grandis (sponge)  English 
Mycale grandis is an introduced sponge that is considered invasive and a potential threat to corals and reefs in Hawaiian waters. It is generally restricted to shallow-water fouling communities in major harbours associated with disturbed habitats, but has recently been observed over-growing native corals in lagoon-patch reef communities in Kane‘ohe‘ohe Bay, O‘ahu, Hawaii.
Common Names: orange keyhole sponge, orange sponge
46. Mytilopsis leucophaeata (mollusc)  English   
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a bivalve mollusk native to the Gulf of Mexico and portions of the North American Atlantic coast that has invaded Europe and non-native locations of North America. It establishes dense populations that attach to natural and artificial surfaces and has become a problematic biofouler, especially to electrical and industrial plant cooling systems. Its ecological effects have yet to be determined.
Common Names: brackish water mussel, Conrad's false mussel, dark false mussel
Synonyms: Congeria cochleata , Congeria cochleatus , Mytilopsis cochleatus , Mytilopsis leucophaeta , Mytilopsis leucophaetus
47. Mytilopsis sallei (mollusc)  English   
Mytilopsis sallei, commonly known as the black striped mussel, is an opportunistic r-strategist mussel species, which is found in intertidal and shallow waters. It has similar impacts to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Mytilopsis sallei is a major fouling species, forming dense monocultures which can lead to a substantial reduction in biodiversity.
Common Names: black striped mussel, caliche, Caribbean black-striped false mussel, Caribbean black-striped mussel, false mussel, Santo Domingo false mussel
Synonyms: Congeria gundlachi Dall, 1898, Congeria rossmasessleri Dall, 1898, Congeria sallei Dall, 1898, Dreissena domingensis Reculuz, 1852, Dreissena gundlachi Fischer, 1858, Dreissena morchiana Fischer, 1858, Dreissena pfeiferi Fischer, 1858, Dreissena riisei Dunker, 1855, Dreissena roosmassleri Fischer, 1858, Dreissena sallei Recluz, 1849, Dreissenia domingensis Dunker, 1855, Dreissenia gundlachii Dunker, 1855, Dreissenia moerchiana Dunker, 1855, Dreissenia pfeifferi Dunker, 1855, Dreissenia rossmaessleri Dunker, 1855, Dreissenia sallei Dunker, 1855, Mytilopsis allyneana Hertlein and Hanna, 1949, Mytilus domningensis Reeve, 1858, Mytilus morchianus Reeve, 1858, Mytilus rossmassleri Reeve, 1858, Mytilus sallei Reeve, 1858, Tichogonia domingensis Kuster, 1889, Tichogonia gundlachi Kuster, 1889, Tichogonia moerchiana Kuster, 1889, Tichogonia pfiefferi Dunker, 1853, Tichogonia riisei Dunker, 1853, Tichogonia rossmassleri Dunker, 1853, Tichogonia sallei Dunker, 1853
48. Mytilus galloprovincialis (mollusc)  English     
Mytilus galloprovincialis (blue mussel or the Mediterranean mussel) is native to the Mediterranean coast and the Black and Adriatic Seas. It has succeeded in establishing itself at widely distributed points around the globe, with nearly all introductions occurring in temperate regions and at localities where there are large shipping ports (Branch and Stephanni 2004). Ship hull fouling and transport of ballast water have been implicated in its spread and its impact on native communities and native mussels has been suggested by a number of studies and observations (Carlton 1992; Robinson and Griffiths 2002; Geller 1999).
Common Names: bay mussel, blue mussel, Mediterranean mussel, Mittelmeer-Miesmuschel
49. Neogobius melanostomus (fish)  English   
Neogobius melanostomus is a bottom dweller found in rivers and near the shore of lakes, preferring rocky habitats with many places to hide. It preys on small fish, such as darters and the eggs of lake trout, and many other fish. Adult Neogobius melanostomus aggressively defend spawning sites and will occupy prime spawning areas, preventing native species from utilising these sites. This fish may out-compete native fish for food resources, due to its ability to feed in darkness. Neogobius melanostomus often eats bivalves that filter water and becomes a vector of bioaccumulation, with contaminants becoming passed on to the larger game fish or humans that eat them. There is little information on successful management options for this species.
Common Names: babca neagrâ, babka bycha, babka okragla, black spotted goby, bychok kruglyak, chornorotyj bychok, gobie â taches noires, gobio pintato, grundel, guvid, Kruglyak, round goby, Schwarzmundgrundel, stronghil, trevno popche
Synonyms: Apollonia melanostoma Iljin, 1927, Gobius affinis Eichwald, 1831, Gobius cephalarges Pallas, 1814, Gobius chilo Pallas, 1814, Gobius exanthematosus Pallas, 1814, Gobius lugens Nordmann, 1840, Gobius melanio Pallas, 1814, Gobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814, Gobius sulcatus Eichwald, 1839, Gobius virescens Pallas, 1814, Gobius weidemanni Kessler, 1874, Neogobius cephalarges Vasil'yeva & Vasil'ev, 1994, Neogobius cephalarges Berg, 1949, Neogobius melanostomus affinis Berg, 1949, Neogobius melanostomus Berg, 1949
50. Oreochromis mossambicus (fish)  English  français     
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has spread worldwide through introductions for aquaculture. Established populations of Oreochromis mossambicus in the wild are as a result of intentional release or escapes from fish farms. Oreochromis mossambicus is omnivorous and feeds on almost anything, from algae to insects.
Common Names: blou kurper, common tilapia, fai chau chak ue, Java tilapia, kawasuzume, kurper bream, malea, mojarra, mosambik-maulbrüter, Mozambikskaya tilapiya, Mozambique cichlid, Mozambique mouth-breeder, Mozambique mouthbrooder, Mozambique tilapia, mphende, mujair, nkobue, tilapia, tilapia del Mozambique, tilapia du Mozambique, tilapia mossambica, tilapia mozámbica, trey tilapia khmao, weißkehlbarsch, wu-kuo yu
Synonyms: Chromis dumerilii Steindachner, 1864, Chromis natalensis Weber, 1897, Chromis vorax Pfeffer, 1893, Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters, 1852), Tilapia arnoldi Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917, Tilapia mossambica (Peters, 1852)
51. Oreochromis niloticus (fish)  English  français   
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) is a highly invasive fish that plagues a variety of ecosystems, particularly those located in the tropics. Oreochromis niloticus' effective mouthbrooding reproductive strategy allows it to increase in numbers at a rate which, not only crowds native species, but pollutes and unbalances the water column. Oreochromis niloticus is a frequently farmed aquatic species, due to its relative ease of culture and rapid reproduction rates. Most infestations are a result of aquaculture.
Common Names: chhnoht, chikadai, munruvare, Nile mouthbrooder, Nile tilapia, pla pla, planil, telepia, tilapia, tilapie, trey tilapia, wass
Synonyms: Chromis guentheri (Steindachner, 1864), Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983), Oreochromis niloticus filoa (Trewavas, 1983), Oreochromis niloticus sugutae (Trewavas, 1983), Oreochromis niloticus tana (Seyoum & Kornfield, 1992), Perca nilotica (Linnaeus, 1758), Tilapia calciati (Gianferrari, 1924), Tilapia cancellata Nichols, 1923, Tilapia eduardiana (Boulenger, 1912), Tilapia inducta (Trewavas, 1933), Tilapia nilotica (Uyeno & Fujii, 1984), Tilapia regani (Poll, 1932), Tilapia vulcani (Trewavas 1933)
52. Oreochromis spp. (fish)  English   
Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) is the common name applied to three genera of fish in the family Cichlidae: Oreochromis, Sarotherodon and Tilapia. These include over 70 species of fish, at least eight of which are used for aquaculture. Tilapia belong to a family of fish known as cichlids, among which most African members are mouthbrooders. The cage culturing of tilapia results in a reduction of water quality in the surrounding environment, which is particularly worrying when close to ecologically important areas. The unavoidable escape and establishment of wild tilapia from cages has sometimes resulted in other serious problems, such as the decline of culturally valued native fish species, particularly cichlids, and the alteration of natural benthic communities.
Common Names: boulti, freshwater snapper, mojara, ngege , pla nil, St. Peters fish, tilapia
53. Osteopilus septentrionalis (amphibian)  English  français 
The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis is a voracious, nocturnal predator that eats any prey that it can grab, including members of its own species, other frogs, lizards, insects, spiders, and small snakes. It is an arboreal species, but it can also survive in moist areas. It is an excellent climber and is variable in color. This species is a threat to native species primarily through predation and competition. The Cuban treefrog is easily distinguishable from other frogs by its comparably large size and warty skin. This species is very successful in colonizing and has a long life span, which can make it a very significant problem in regions where it is introduced.
Common Names: Cuban Treefrog, Giant Tree-frog, Marbled Tree-toad, rainette de Cuba, rana cubana, rana platernera
Synonyms: Dendrohyas septentrionalis Tschudi, 1838, Hyla dominicensis insulsa Mittleman, 1950, Hyla dominicensis septentrionalis Mertens, 1939, Hyla insulsa Mittleman, 1950, Hyla lesueurii Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828, Hyla microterodisca Werner, 1921, Hyla schebestana Werner, 1917, Hyla sueurri Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1831, Osteopilus septentrionalis Duméril & Bibron, 1841, Trachycephalus insulsus Cope, 1864 , Trachycephalus marmoratus Duméril & Bibron, 1841, Trachycephalus septentrionanlis Barbour, 1904, Trachycephalus wrightii Cope, 1864
54. Ostrea edulis (mollusc)  English   
Ostrea edulis (the European flat oyster) is native to Europe and the Mediterranean. It has been introduced to the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for aquaculture. Usually found in muddy areas, O. edulis has long been harvested for food. Over-harvesting in its native range, however, has caused it to be reintroduced to Europe. While in Atlantic waters, O. edulis became infected with the disease bonamiasis (Bonamia ostrae). This disease has caused widespread mortality in the vast majority of O. edulis.
Common Names: common oyster, edible oyster, eetbare oester, Essbare euster, European flat oyster, European oyster, huître comestible, huître plate Européenne, istiride, native oyster, oester, ostra Europa, platte oester, stridia, stridie, ustritsa
Synonyms: Ostrea adriatica Lam-Middendorff 1848, Ostrea taurica Krynicki 1837
55. Perna perna (mollusc)  English   
Perna perna, commonly known as the brown mussel, is a bivalve mussel that has recently invaded North America, around the Gulf of Mexico. It is quickly becoming a nuisance of water-cooling systems for power stations and can alter the physical structure of a habitat. Perna perna is an edible species and has been known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) outbreaks to those that consume contaminated mussels.
Common Names: brown mussel, Mexilhao mussel
Synonyms: Chloromya perna, Mya perna, Mytilus afe (Gmelin 1791), Mytilus africanus (Chemnitz 1785), Mytilus elongatus (Lamarck 1817), Mytilus perna, Mytilus pictus (Born 1780), Mytilus venezolanus (Andreu 1965), Perna indicata Kuriakose and Nair., Perna picta (Born)
56. Perna viridis (mollusc)  English   
Perna viridis is a bivalve mussel native to the Asia-Pacific region where it is widely distributed. It has been introduced elsewhere around the world through ship ballast, hull fouling and the experimental introduction for farming. Perna viridis can quickly form dense colonies in a range of environmental conditions. Impacts include; causing blockage in intake pipes of industrial plants, clogging crab traps and clam culture bags and impeding commercial harvest. Fouling creates a need for increased maintenance and if not carried out regularly can cause decreases in fuel efficiency. Perna viridis is also able to out-compete many other fouling species, causing changes in community structure and trophic relationships.
Common Names: Asian green mussel, green mussel
Synonyms: Chloromya viridis Dodge, 1952, Mytilus (Chloromya) smaragdinus Jukes-Browne, 1905, Mytilus (Chloromya) viridis Lamy, 1936, Mytilus opalus Lamarck, 1819, Mytilus smaragdinus Chemnitz, 1785, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, 1758, Perna viridis Ahmed, 1974
57. Phyllorhiza punctata (jellyfish)  English 
The jellyfish, Phyllorhiza punctata, has been introduced to North America from the Western Pacific Ocean and is threatening large commercial fisheries by feeding on the eggs and larvae of fish, crab and shrimp; clogging fishing nets; damaging boat intakes and fishing gear; and causing the closure of productive areas to fishing activities.
Common Names: Australian spotted jellyfish, spotted jellyfish, white-spotted jellyfish
Synonyms: Cotylorhiza pacifica Mayer, 1915, Cotylorhizoides pacificus Light, 1921, Mastigias albipunctatus Stiasny, 1920, Mastigias andersoni Stiasny, 1926, Mastigias ocellatus Modeer, 1791, Mastigias scintillae Soares Moreira, 1961
58. Polysiphonia brodiei (alga)  English     
Polysiphonia brodiei (red macroalga) is a common red alga with filamentous branches. It is abundant in northern Europe and has been introduced via ships to North America, Australia, New Zealand and Japan.
Common Names: red macroalga
Synonyms: Ceramium brodiaei , Conferva brodiaei, Grammita brodiaei Bonnemaison, Hutchinsia brodiaei, Hutchinsia penicillata, Polysiphonia brodiei, Polysiphonia penicillata
59. Potamocorbula amurensis (mollusc)  English     
The suspension-feeding clam, Potamocorbula amurensis is native to Japan, China and Korea in tropical to cold temperate waters. Known as the Asian or Chinese clam, it has been designated as a major bilogical disturbance with significant ecological consequences in the San Francisco Bay area of California where large populations have become established.
Common Names: Amur river clam, Amur river corbula, Asian bivalve, Asian clam, brackish-water corbula, Chinese clam, marine clam, Nordpazifik-Venusmuschel, Numakodaki
Synonyms: Corbula amplexa (for P. ustuala) Adams, 1862, Corbula frequens (for P. ustulata) Yokoyama, 1922, Corbula labiata (for P. ustulata) Reeve, 1844, Corbula pustulosa (for P. ustulata) Yokoyama, 1922, Corbula ustulata (for P. ustulata) Reeve, 1844, Corbula vladivostokensis (for P. ustulata) Bartsch, 1929, Potamocorbula amurensis Reeve (now considered to be, 1861), Potamocorubala ustulata separate spp by Carlton, 1999., 1844
60. Pterois volitans (fish)  English   
The Indo-Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is a beautiful but dangerous tropical fish that has spread to new marine environments through the aquarium trade. The lionfish has invaded the Northwestern Atlantic and the Caribbean in one of the most rapid marine finfish invasions in history. In some areas, it has the potential to displace commercially important species such as the grouper and reduce recruitment of juvenile fishes, which in turn disrupts marine ecosystem processes.
Common Names: butterfly cod, cá Mao Tiên, chale, firefish, hana-minokasago, Indo-Pacific red lionfish, laffe volant, lepu-penganten, lionfish, lionfish scorpion, ominokasago, ornate butterfly-cod, ornate butterfly-cod, peacock lionfish, poisson scorpion, poisson volant, poisson-dindon, red firefish, red lionfish, sausau-lele, scorpion fish, scorpion volitans, skrzydlica pstra, turkey fish, turkeyfish, volitan lion, zebrafish
Synonyms: Brachirus zebra (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825), Gasterosteus volitans, Pterois cristatus, Pterois geniserra, Pterois muricata, Pterois zebra Quoy and Gaimard, 1825, Scorpaena volitans (Linnaeus, 1758)
61. Rapana venosa (mollusc)  English   
Rapana venosa is a predatory marine snail which may impact both natural and cultivated populations of oysters, mussels and other molluscs. In areas where it has been introduced it has caused significant changes to the ecosystem. It has a high ecological fitness as evidenced by its high fertility, fast growth rate and tolerance to low salinity, high and low temperatures, water pollution and oxygen deficiency. Long distance dispersal is facilitated by ship ballast water, in which the larvae of the snail is found in its plankton phase.
Common Names: Asian rapa whelk, rapa whelk, veined rapa whelk, veined whelk
Synonyms: Rapana pontica (Nordsieck, 1969), Rapana thomasiana (Crosse, 1861)
62. Sabella spallanzanii (annelid)  English 
Sabella spallanzanii (the European fan worm) is a filter-feeding tube worm which has the potential to alter native marine ecosystems and compete with native organisms for food and space. It may also inflict economic damage by competing with mussels and oysters in aquaculture farms.
Common Names: European fan worm, giant fan worm, Mediterranean fan worm, sabellid fan worm
Synonyms: Spirographis penicillus , Spirographis spallanzanii
63. Salmo salar (fish)  English  français   
Salmo salar ranks among the most popularly cultivated fish in the world. Commercial stocks have inflicted significant impacts of wild populations of wild salmon and other fish by way of competition, hybridization, and spread of disease. Great care should be taken to protect these wild fish populations while cultivating S. salar.
Common Names: alabalik atlantik, Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos', Atlanterhavslaks, Atlantic salmon , Atlantic salmon, Atlantischer salmon, Atlantisk laks, black salmon, bradan, braddan, breeder, caplin-scull salmon, common atlantic salmon, echter lachs, fiddler, grayling, grilse, grilt, gullspångslax, hengst, hoplax, Ijle zalm, Jacobzalm, kapisalirksoak, kapisilik, kavisilik, kebleriksorsoak, kelt, kumaliq, kutenut lohi, k'wit'thet, k'wolexw, lachs, laks, laks, laks atlantisk, landlocked salmon, las, lax, lax, lax, lohi, losos, losos, losos, losos atlantsky, losos obecný, losos szlachetny a. atlantycki, N. Atlantic salmon, nedfaldslaks, ouananiche, ouinanish, outside salmon, parr, saama, saamakutaak, saamarug, sake masu-rui, salmao, salmão, salmâo-do-atlântico, sãlmao-do-atlântico, salmling, salmo, salmó, salmon, salmón, salmón del atlántico, salmon peel, salmone, salmone atlantico, salmone del reno, sâma, saumon atlantique , saumon d'eau douce, schaanexw, sea salmon, sebago salmon, semga, shamet skelex, shmexwalsh, silver salmon, sináech, skællaks, sk'wel'eng's schaanexw, slhop' schaanexw, slink, smolt, solomos, solomós, somon de atlantic, spak'ws schaanexw, spring fish, spring salmon, st'thkway', tacon atlantique, unaniche, vraklax, winnish, zalm
Synonyms: Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795, Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784, Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865, Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829, Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866, Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772, Salmo nobilis Pallas, 1814, Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832, Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803, Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803, Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912, Salmo salar brevipes relictus Berg, 1932, Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971, Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962, Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792, Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863, Trutta salar (Linnaeus, 1758)
64. Salmo trutta (fish)  English  français     
Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
Common Names: an breac geal, aure, bachforelle, blacktail, breac geal, brook trout, brown trout, denizalabaligi, denizalasi, Europäische Forelle, finnock, forelle, galway sea trout, gillaroo, gwyniedyn, havørred, havsöring, herling, hirling, kumzha, k'wsech, lachförch, lachsforelle, lassföhren, losos taimen, losos' taimen, mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar, meerforelle, meritaimen, morska postrv, morskaya forel', orange fin, öring, orkney sea trout, ørred, ørret, pastrav de mare, peal, pstruh morsky, pstruh obecný, pstruh obecný severomorský, pstruh obycajný, salmo trota, salmon trout, sea trout, sewin, siwin, sjøaure, sjøørret, sjourrioi, taimen, thalasopestrofa, troc, troc wedrowna, trota fario, trout, trucha, trucha común, trucha marina, truita, truite brune, truite brune de mer, truite de mer, truite d'europe, truta marisca, truta-de-lago, truta-fário, truta-marisca, urriði, whiting, whitling, zeeforel
Synonyms: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
65. Salvelinus fontinalis (fish)  English   
Introduced as a highly desirable fish for both angling and aquaculture throughout the world, Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) is an invasive that threatens native amphibians and fish, as well as the ecology of lakes and streams. Several native fish and amphibians face threatened or endangered status as a result of their introduction. Removal of Salvelinus fontinalis has been conducted in many places to allow for the recovery of endemic species.
Common Names: Âait, aanaatlik, aanak, American brook charr, Amerikanischer bachsaibling, Amerikanischer saibling, Amerikanski goletz, Amerikanskiy golets, ana, Âna, anakleq, anokik, anuk, aurora trout, azad mahi cheshmahi, Bachsaibling, bäckröding, baiser, Beekforel, bekkeror, bekkerøye, breeder, bronforel, brook char, brook charr, brook trout, brookie, char, coaster, common brook trout, eastern brook trout, eastern speckled trout, Elsässer saibling, fântânel, giigaq, humpbacked trout, i ha luk, iqaluk, iqaluk tasirsiutik, kawamasu, kaynak alabaligi, kildeorred, kildeørred, lindableikja, lord-fish, masamek, masamekos, masamekw, masumèk, mountain trout, mud trout, native trout, omble de fontaine, pastrav fântânel, pataki szajbling, pstrag zrodlany, puronieriä, salmerino di fontaine, salmerino di fontana, salmerino di fonte, salter, salvelino, salvelinos, saumon de fontaine, sea trout, siven, siven americký, sivon americký, sivon potocny, slob, speckled char, speckled trout, specks, squaretail, square-tail, squaretailed trout, Tiegerfisch, trout, trucha de arroyo, truite, truite de mer, truite mouchetée, truta-das-fontes, whitefin
Synonyms: Baione fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814), Salmo canadensis Griffith & Smith, 1834, Salmo fontinalis Mitchill, 1814, Salmo hudsonicus Suckley, 1861, Salvelinus timagamiensis Henn & Rinckenbach 1925
66. Sargassum fluitans (alga)  English 
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Synonyms: Fucus baccifer var. oblongifolius Turner 1807, Sargassum hystrix var. fluitans Børgesen 1914
67. Sargassum muticum (aquatic plant)  English     
Sargassum muticum is a large brown seaweed that forms dense monospecific stands. It can accumulate high biomass and may quickly become a strong competitor for space and light. Dense Sargassum muticum stands may reduce light, decrease flow, increase sedimentation and reduce ambient nutrient concentrations available for native kelp species. Sargassum muticum has also become a major nuisance in recreational waters.
Common Names: Butblæret sargassotang, Japanischer Beerentang, Japans bessenwier, Japansk drivtang, Japweed, sargasse, sargasso, sargassosnärje, strangle weed, Tama-hahaki-moku, Wireweed
Synonyms: Sargassum kjellmanianum f. muticus Yendo
68. Schizoporella errata (bryozoan)  English 
Schizoporella errata is a heavily calcified, encrusting cheilostome bryozoan. It colonises most freely available substratum, including artificial underwater structures and vessel hulls. Colonies may reach 25cm in height and are widely varying in growth form, sometimes dominating space in fouling assemblages.
Common Names: branching bryozoan, bryozoan, cheilostome bryozoan, encrusting bryozoan
Synonyms: Lepralia errata
69. Schizoporella unicornis (bryozoan)  English 
Schizoporella unicornis, or single horn bryozoan, is an encrusting bryozoan native to Japan. It has been unintentionally introduced along with the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), or by hull fouling, to several locations throughout the world. Schizoporella unicornis is an abundant fouling organism known to inhibit growth and settlement of native bryozoa.
Common Names: single horn bryozoan
Synonyms: Lepralia unicornis (Johnston, 1874), Schizoporella unicornis (Lagaaiji, 1952)
70. Spartina alterniflora (grass)  English     
Spartina alterniflora commonly known as smooth cord grass is a species that inhabits marsh habitat in its native range, where introduced It is known to establish itself in wave-protected mud and sand flats and grow very quickly into dense impenetrable stands. When introduced this species can have a negative effect on native species including some endangered. It can also hybridize with native non-invasive species of Spartina and offspring are known to have increased vigor and growth rates than either parent.
Common Names: Atlantic cordgrass , saltmarsh cordgrass , salt-water cordgrass, smooth cordgrass
Synonyms: Spartina alterniflora var. glabra (Muhl. ex Bigelow) Fern., Spartina alterniflora var. pilosa (Merr.) Fern.
71. Sparus aurata (fish)  English 
Gilthead bream (Sparus aurata) is a fish of Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean origin. It is one of the most important fish in the aquaculture industry in the Mediterranean. However the rapid development of marine cage culture of this fish has raised concerns about the impact of escaped fish on the genetic diversity of natural populations.
Common Names: cipura, cipura, daurade, daurade royale, dinigla, dorada, dorada, dorade, Dorade, Dorade Royal, dorade royale, dourada, dourada, Gemeine Goldbrasse, gilt head, gilt head bream, gilthead, gilthead bream, gilt-head seabream, Goldbrasse, goldbrassen, Goldkopf, goud brasem, goudbrasem, guldbrasen, komarca, kultaotsa-ahven, lovrata, n'tad, orada, orada, ovrata, podlanica, silver seabream, snapper, tsipoura, væbnerfisk
Synonyms: Aurata aurata (Linnaeus, 1758), Chrysophrys aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) , Chrysophrys aurathus (Linnaeus, 1758), Chrysophrys auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Chrysophrys crassirostris Valenciennes, 1830, Pagrus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Pagrus auratus (non Forster, 1801), Sparus auratus Linnaeus, 1758
72. Styela clava (tunicate)  English 
Styela clava is a fouling organism native to the Pacific Coast of Asia. Because of its hardy nature and ability to withstand salinity and temperature fluctuations, Styela clava easily establishes wherever it is introduced. It can reach extreme densities and out-compete native organisms for food in the water column. Styela clava also predate on the larvae of native species causing population declines. It is a nuisance to mussel and oyster farmers.
Common Names: Asian tunicate , club tunicate, leathery sea squirt, rough sea squirt
Synonyms: Bostryorchis clava Redikorzev, 1916, Styela barnharti Ritter and Forsyth, 1917, Styela clava clava Nishikawa, 1991, Styela clava Herdman, 1881, Styela mammiculata Carlisle 1954
73. Styela plicata (tunicate)  English 
Styela plicata (sea squirt) is a pandemic, temperate to subtropical tunicate. As a pest species, Styela plicata outcompete native encrusters and excludes them from hard substrates. It is a known fouler of sea vessels and other hard substrates, travelling the oceans in this fashion. Few places classify Styela plicata as an invasive species, but some effective management options are available to control this tunicate.
Common Names: leathery tunicate, pleated sea squirt, sea squirt, solitary ascidian
Synonyms: Ascidea plicata, Ascidia plicata Lesueur, 1823, Styela barnhart Ritter & Forsyth, 1917, Styela gyrosa Heller, 1877, Styela pinguis Herdman, 1899, Tethyum plicatum Hartmeyer, 1909
74. Tilapia zillii (fish)  English   
In its native, tropical range, Tilapia zillii is important as a food fish as well as for aquaculture. Tilapia zillii provided 70% of Egypt's fish production, however outside its native range, this freshwater fish has the ability to establish itself even in highly salinated waters, only being held back by a low tolerance to cold water. Often introduced for use in aquatic weed control, Tilapia zilli can alter native benthic communities through the elimination of macrophytes and exhibits aggressive behaviour towards other fish species.
Common Names: akpadi sila, akpasila, amnun matzui, a-sannoh, bere, biare, biering, bugu, bulti, cichlid, didee, disiwulen, Engege, Epia, Erihere, falga, garagaza, gargaza, gba gba ferah, gbatchekede, guring, ifunu, isiswe, karfasa, karwa, ka-yainkain, kido, kokine, kpro ibre, kuda, loroto, mango fish, mojarra, mojarrita, mpupa, ngege, ngipie, ngorkei, njabb, obrouyou, pastenague boulee, perege, punavatsatilapia, redbelly tilapia, sato, sili, silla, sohn, striped tilapia, tegr-pere, tha thompo, tihil, tilapia, tome, tsokungi, ukuobu, waas, waas gnoul, wesafun, Zilles Buntbarsch, zilli's cichlid, zill's tilapia
Synonyms: Acerina zilli (Gervais, 1848), Chromis andreae (Gunther, 1864), Chromis coeruleomaculatus (Rochebrune, 1880), Chromis faidherbii (Rochebrune, 1880), Chromis melanopleura (Dumeril, 1861), Chromis menzalensis (Mitchell, 1895), Chromis tristrami (Gunther, 1860), Chromis zillii (Gervais, 1848), Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Coptodus zillii (Gervais, 1848), Glyphisidon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Haligenes tristrami (Gunther, 1860), Sarotherodon zillei (Gervais, 1848), Sarotherodon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Tilapia faidherbi (Rochebrune, 1880), Tilapia melanopleura (Dumeril, 1861), Tilapia menzalensis (Mitchell, 1895), Tilapia multiradiata (Holly, 1928), Tilapia shariensis (Fowler, 1949), Tilapia sparrmani multiradiata (Holly, 1928), Tilapia tristrami (Gunther, 1860)
75. Tridentiger trigonocephalus (fish)  English   
Treidentiger trigonocephalus (the chameleon goby) is a native fish of Asia which is spread through ship ballast water or via eggs laid on hulls. It has established in California and Australia where it has been introduced. The main impact of this species is thought to be competition with native species.
Common Names: Chameleon goby, Japanese goby, Oriental goby, polosatyi trekhzubyi bychok, shimahaze, shimahaze , striped goby, striped tripletooth goby, trident goby
Synonyms: Gobius fasciapectoralis Fowler, 1938, Triaenophorichthys taeniatus Gunther, 1874, Triaenophorichthys trigonocephalus Gill, 1859, Triaenophorus trigonocephalus, Triaenophorus trigonocephalus Gill, 1858, Tridentiger bifasciatus Steindachner, 1881, Tridentiger bucco Jordan and Snyder, 1901, Tridentiger taeniatus Reeves, 1927, Tridentiger trigonocephalus Rendahl, 1924, Trifissus ioturus Jordan & Snyder, 1900
76. Trididemnum solidum (tunicate)  English 
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The colonial ascidia Trididemnum solidum is present throughout the West Indies to Florida, the Bahamas to Venezuela. T. solidum grow as mat like sheets that can grow over coral, sponges and macroalgae. It is widespread in the Netherland Antilles. A nine fold increase over a 15 year period was recorded along the 84 km of fringing reef in Curacao. Here it forms large mats actively outcompeting, overgrowing and killing live coral. T. solidum is a bacterial suspension feeder and bacterial increases in the environment have been implicated in its rapid increase in the Caribbean. The increased eutrophication has been linked to human activity and urban development.
Common Names: ascidie blanche encroûtante, Mattenseescheide, overgrowing mat tunicate, sinascidia entapizante
Synonyms: Didemnum solidum
77. Tubastraea coccinea (coral)  English  français 
Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) has been introduced to all continents except Antarctica and is thought to compete with native benthic invertebrates for space and to compromise their communities. The reduction of native sponges and native corals could also have significant flow-on effects for entire ecosystems.
Common Names: colonial-cup coral, orange-cup coral, orange-tube coral, tubastrée orange
Synonyms: Astropsammia pedersenii , Caryophyllia aurantiaca , Coenopsammia affinis , Coenopsammia aurea , Coenopsammia coccinea , Coenopsammia ehrenbergiana, Coenopsammia manni , Coenopsammia radiata, Coenopsammia tenuilamellosa , Coenopsammia urvillii , Coenopsammia willeyi , Dendrophyllia affinis , Dendrophyllia aurantiaca , Dendrophyllia danae , Dendrophyllia ehrenbergiana , Dendrophyllia manni , Dendrophyllia surcularis , Dendrophyllia turbinata , Dendrophyllia willeyi , Lobophyllia aurea , Placopsammia darwini , Tubastraea aurea , Tubastraea pedersenii , Tubastraea tenuilamellosa, Tubastraea willeyi
78. Undaria pinnatifida (aquatic plant, alga)  English     
The kelp (Undaria pinnatifida) is native to Japan where it is cultivated for human consumption. It is an opportunistic weed which spreads mainly by fouling ship hulls. It forms dense underwater forests, resulting in competition for light and space which may lead to the exclusion or displacement of native plant and animal species.
Common Names: apron-ribbon vegetable, Asian kelp, haijiecai, Japanese kelp, miyeuk, qundaicai, wakame
Synonyms: Alaria pinnatifida Harvey1860, Ulopteryx pinnatifida (Harvey) Kjellman 1885
79. Urosalpinx cinerea (mollusc)  English   
Urosalpinx cinerea (the Atlantic oyster drill) is native to the North American Atlantic coast. It has invaded a few bays in the North American Pacific, southern Great Britain and recently the Netherlands via commercial oyster transfers. Urosalpinx cinerea predation on oyster spat, inflicting up to 50% and higher mortality rates, renders it a serious pest to the oyster industry.
Common Names: American oyster drill, American tingle, American whelk tingle, Atlantic oyster drill
80. Varanus indicus (reptile)  English 
Varanus indicus (mangrove monitor) is a terrestrial-arboreal monitor lizard that has been introduced to several locations for its meat, skin or as a biological control agent. It has created a nuisance on many islands preying on domesticated chickens and scavenging the eggs of endangered sea turtles. Bufo marinus (cane toad) was introduced to control mangrove monitor populations in several locations, but this has led to devastating consequences. In many places both of these species are now serious pests, with little potential for successful control.
Common Names: ambon lizard, erebachi, flower lizard, George's island monitor, Indian monitor, Indian monitor lizard, kalabeck monitor, mangrove monitor, Pacific monitor, Pazifikwaran, regu, sosi, stillahavsvaran, varan des indes, varan des mangroves, varano de manglar
Synonyms: Monitor chlorostigma, Monitor doreanus, Monitor douarrha, Monitor indicus, Monitor kalabeck, Tupinambis indicus, Varanus chlorostigma, Varanus guttatus, Varanus indicus indicus, Varanus indicus kalabecki, Varanus indicus spinulosis, Varanus leucostigma, Varanus tsukamotoi
81. Vibrio cholerae (micro-organism)  English 
Vibrio cholerae is the bacteria that causes cholera; a potentially epidemic and life-threatening secretory diarrhea characterised by numerous, voluminous watery stools, often accompanied by vomiting and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis. It can also cause mild or unapparent infections. Vibrio cholerae occurs in both marine and freshwater habitats in mutualistic associations with aquatic animals. Vibrio cholerae is endemic or epidemic in areas with poor sanitation; it occurs sporadically or as limited outbreaks in developed countries. Cholera is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In coastal regions it may persist in shellfish and plankton. Long-term convalescent carriers are rare.
Common Names: Asiatic cholera, epidemic cholera
82. Watersipora subtorquata (bryozoan)  English 
Watersipora subtorquata (d’Orbigny, 1852) is a loosely encrusting bryozoan. It is tolerant to copper based anitfouling coatings and is infamous for fouling ships hulls and facilitating the fouling and spread of other marine invasives. Watersipora subtorquata is considered cosmopolitan and widely invasive among cool temperate water ports. Preventative measures are the only practical means of control at this time.
83. Zoobotryon verticillatum (bryozoan)  English 
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Zoobotryon verticillatum is a stoloniferous fouling organism found in many temperate and warm waters around the world, it is commonly found on boat hulls, which may explain its current worldwide distribution. This bryozoan has been recorded as an invasive alien species in many places all over the world, causing ecological and economical damages.
Common Names: spaghetti bryozoan
84. Zostera japonica (aquatic plant)  English     
Zostera japonica is one of approximately 60 seagrasses, or marine angiosperm species. The only documented invasive seagrass, it has invaded Pacific coast estuaries in Canada and the United States. Zostera japonica alters physical habitat structure as well as the richness and densities of resident fauna
Common Names: dwarf eelgrass
Synonyms: Zostera americana den Hartog, Zostera nana Roth

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland