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95 invasive species found

Alien Species

1. Acer ginnala (tree) English     
Acer ginnala, commonly known as Amur maple, is a decidous tree, native to Russia and northern China. It was introduced into the United States as an ornamental, due to its vibrant colours in autumn. It has since escaped from cultivation and has the potential of becoming naturalised. The Amur maple is tolerant of a wide range of environmental factors including temperature, drought, soil, pH and light.
Common Names: Amur maple, Amur-Ahorn, érable du fleuve Amour, érable ginnala, Feuer-Ahorn, ginnala maple, Mangolian vaahtera, Siberian maple
Synonyms: Acer ginnala subsp. theiferum (Fang), Acer ginnala var. euginnala (Pax), Acer tataricum, Acer tataricum subsp. aidzuense, Acer tataricum subsp. semenovii, Acer tataricum subsp. tataricum, Acer tataricum subsp. tataricum var. torminaloides, Acer tataricum var. laciniatum (Regel), Acer theiferum (Fang)
2. Acer platanoides (tree) English     
Acer platanoides is a decidous maple, native to Europe. It is commonly planted as an ornamental along streets and in parks. It has escaped and invaded natural forested habitats all over North America. The dense canopy of A. platanoides's shades out native species and the shallow root system prevents native species from establishing. Its foliage releases toxins that alter the soils fungal and microbial composition. The full impact of this species has not been seen yet as the majority of Acer platanoides are still in the sapling stage awaiting openings in the canopy.
Common Names: érable plane, Norway maple, Spitzahorn
Synonyms: Acer platanoides f. stollii Schwer., Acer platanoides subsp platanoides , Acer platanoides subsp turkestanicum , Acer platanoides var schwedleri K. Koch, Acer platanoides var schwedleri Nichols., Acer turkestanicum
3. Adelges piceae (insect) English   
Adelges piceae is a tiny, non-flying, sucking insect that causes great damage to fir forests in Canada and the United States. It is a serious pest to landscape and natural fir, and to the Christmas fir tree industry. Adelges piceae is invasive outside of its native central Europe from where it spread via timber imports. Adelges piceae is limited in its northern distribution by cold weather. Adelges piceae eggs and newly hatched nymphs are spread by wind, on animals, clothing, vehicles and other equipment.
Common Names: balsam woolly adelgid, balsam woolly aphid, puceron lanigère du sapin
4. Adelges tsugae (insect) English   
Adelges tsugae is a small, aphid-like insect that has become a serious pest of eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock. The most obvious sign of infestation is the presence of white, woolly egg masses on the underside of hemlock needles. Infested eastern North American hemlocks defoliate prematurely and will eventually die if left untreated. A. tsugae is a difficult insect to control as the white waxy secretion protects it from pesticides. It is dispersed to new habitats through the nursery trade and locally by wind, birds, mammals and humans. Hemlock trees provide important habitats for many wildlife species and A. tsugae has severe adverse ecological impacts which will become more severe as its distribution expands.
Common Names: hemlock woolly adelgid
5. Agrostis capillaris (grass) English     
Agrostis capillaris is a perennial grass that inhabits various environments ranging from urban to coastal wetland, including grassland as well as near arctic regions of the world. In areas of invasion A. capillaris reduces native biodiversity through disease transmission and competition. The many valuable uses of Agrostis capillaris have resulted in its widespread introduction into many non-native ranges around the world.
Common Names: agrostide commune, agróstide común, agrostide fine, agrostide ténue, agróstide tenue, browntop, capellini delle praterie, chépica alemana, colonial bent, colonial bent grass, common bent grass, gemeines Straußgras, Gewoon struisgras, heno ahumado, hierba fina, kus otu, New Zealand bent grass, Prince Edward Island bent grass, Rhode Island bent, Rhode Island bent grass, rödven, Rotes Straußgras, Rotstraußgras, waipu
Synonyms: Agrostis alba var. vulgaris, Agrostis sylvatica Huds., Agrostis tenius, Agrostis tenius Sibthorp, Agrostis tenuis var. aristata, Agrostis tenuis var. hispida, Agrostis tenuis var. pumila, Agrostis vulgaris
6. Ailanthus altissima (tree, shrub) English     
Ailanthus altissima is a very aggressive plant, a prolific seed producer (up to 350,000 seeds in a year), grows rapidly, and can overrun native vegetation. It also produces toxins that prevent the establishment of other plant species. The root system is aggressive enough to cause damage to sewers and foundations.
Common Names: Chinese sumac, stinking shumac, tree-of-heaven
7. Ascidiella aspersa (tunicate)
Ascidiella aspersa (European sea squirt) is a solitary marine and estuarine tunicate that is native from Norway to the Mediterranean. It is a suspension filter-feeder and was introduced via foulling on the hulls of ships to the northwest coast of the Atlantic, India, Australia and New Zealand. Commonly called the European sea squirt, it has become a moderate to serious threat by displacing native fauna.
Common Names: ascidie sale, dirty sea squirt, European sea squirt, ruwe zakpijp, Spritz-Ascidie, vuilwitte zakpijp
Synonyms: Acidia expansa (Kiaer, 1893), Ascidia aculeata (Alder, 1863), Ascidia affinis (Hancock, 1870), Ascidia albida (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia aspersa (Müller, 1776), Ascidia elliptica (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia minuta (Kiaer, 1893), Ascidia normanni (Alder & Hancock, 1870), Ascidia opalina (Macgillivray, 1843), Ascidia patula (Müller, 1776), Ascidia pedunculata (Hoffman, 1829), Ascidia pellucida (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia pustulosa (Alder, 1863), Ascidia scabra (Müller, 1776), Ascidia sordida (Alder & Hancock, 1848), Ascidia triangularis (Herdman, 1881), Ascidia truncata (Herdman, 1881), Ascidiella aspersa (Kiaer, 1893), Ascidiella cristata (Roule, 1884), Phallusia aspersa (Traustedt, 1883), Phallusia cristata (Risso, 1826)
8. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (fungus) English     
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a non-hyphal parasitic chytrid fungus that has been associated with population declines in endemic amphibian species in upland montane rain forests in Australia and Panama. It causes cutaneous mycosis (fungal infection of the skin), or more specifically chytridiomycosis, in wild and captive amphibians. First described in 1998, the fungus is the only chytrid known to parasitise vertebrates. B. dendrobatidis can remain viable in the environment (especially aquatic environments) for weeks on its own, and may persist in latent infections.
Common Names: chytrid frog fungi, chytridiomycosis, Chytrid-Pilz, frog chytrid fungus
9. Bellamya chinensis (mollusc)
Bellamya (=Cipangopaludina) chinensis or Chinese mystery snail is a freshwater gastropod native to southeast Asia, Japan, China, Korea and eastern Russia. It has been introduced to Canada and much of the United States probably via the aquarium trade, water gardening industry or for culinary purposes and first documented in Chinese markets of San Francisco, and has recently been discovered in the Netherlands which represents the first record for Europe. It may outcompete native snails and transmit human parasites, but very little is known about its ecological impacts in invaded systems and more research is necessary.
Common Names: Asian apple snail, Asian freshwater snail, Chinese mystery snail, Chinese mysterysnail, mystery snail, Oriental mystery snail, trapdoor snail
Synonyms: Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, Cipangopaludina chinensis (von Martens, 1861), Cipangopaludina malleata, Paludina japonicus, Paludina malleata, Viviparus japonicus (von Martens), Viviparus malleatus, Viviparus stelmaphora, Viviparus chinensis malleatus
10. Berberis thunbergii (shrub) English     
Berberis thunbergii is a shrub native to Japan. When introduced it can invade a variety of habitats from damp lowlands to dry roadsides and waste places. This species forms dense stands in a variety of these habitats, including closed canopy forests and open woodlands, wetlands, pastures and meadows. Berberis thunbergii is highly shade-tolerant and displaces a variety of native herb and shrub species in areas where it becomes well established. Manual hand-pulling is a favoured method of control as the species is easily unearthed. Chemical and mechanical methods are also often employed, depending on site conditions.
Common Names: crimson pygmy, Japanese barberry
Synonyms: Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea (Chenault), Berberis thunbergii var. maximowiczii, Berberis thunbergii var. minor
11. Bromus inermis (grass) English     
Bromus inermis is an invasive, perennial C3 grass that has made an extensive impact on the grasslands of North America. B. inermis has become established by invading disturbed prairies and through repeated introductions for soil retention and livestock graze. It is known to have negative impacts on growth of native plants by slowing their growth and increasing extinction. B. inermis is also known to significantly impact the population dynamics and movement behaviour of several native arthropod species in North American prairies.
Common Names: arva rozsnok, Austrian brome, awnless brome, bladfaks, brome de hongrie, brome sans arete, bromo inerme, bromo suave, bromo-liso, capim-cevadinha, cebadilla perenne, foderlosta, forasacco spuntato, grannelose trespe, Hungarian brome, idänkattara, ko suzume no chahiki, koster bezostyj, kweekdravik, magyar roz rok, rehukattara, Russian brome, smooth brome, smooth bromegrass, staklos hejre, stoklosa bezostna, sverep bezbbranný, vihneetön kattara, wehrlose trespe, wu mang que mai
Synonyms: Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub
12. Bromus tectorum (grass) English     
The invasive grass Bromus tectorum is troublesome to farmers and many ecosystems. It usually thrives in disturbed areas preventing natives from returning to the area. Disturbance such as overgrazing, cultivation, and frequent fires encourage invasion. Once established the natives cannot compete and the whole ecosystem is altered.
Common Names: broncograss, cheat grass, cheatgrass brome, downy brome, downy chess, drooping brome, early chess, military grass, Mormon oats, slender chess, thatch bromegrass
Synonyms: Anisantha tectorum (L.), Bromus tectorum L. var. glabratus, Bromus tectorum L. var. hirsutus, Bromus tectorum L. var. nudus
13. Bugula neritina (bryozoan)
Bugula neritina (brown bryozoan) is an erect, bushy bryozoan. It is an abundant fouling organism that colonises any freely available substratum, including artificial underwater structures and vessel hulls.
Common Names: brown bryozoan, bryozoan, common bugula
Synonyms: Anamarchis neritina, Sertularia neritina
14. Cabomba caroliniana (aquatic plant) English     
Cabomba caroliniana is a submerged perennial aquarium plant that grows in stagnant to slow flowing freshwater. It spreads primarily by stem fragments and forms dense stands that crowd out well-established plants. C. caroliniana may clog ecologically, recreationally or economically important water bodies and drainage canals. Depending on its location (ie: drinking water supply or small closed water body) it may be managed by a number of control techniques including mechanical removal (being careful not to spread fragments to new locations) and habitat modification to increase shading (via planting trees) or decrease hydration (via draining).
Common Names: cabomba, Carolina fanwort, Carolina water-shield, fanwort, fish-grass, Washington-grass, Washington-plant
15. Camelina sativa (herb) English     
Camelina sativa can prosper in many different climates and soils. Its ability to survive in a diverse range of habitats enables it to be introduced fairly easily into new environments. It is considered a common weed in many areas, but other areas embrace it for the use of its oils as a food, fuel or for its possible medicinal value. This is a hermaphroditic species, which contains seeds after pollination that are known for the oils that they produce.
Common Names: big-seed false flax, camelina, camelina pilosa, caméline ciliée, Cameline cultivee, false flax, German sesame, gold-of-pleasure, Huttentut, large-seeded false flax, Leindotter, Lin bâtard, Oljedodre, Ruistankio, Saatdotter, Sæd-Dodder, Siberian oilseed
Synonyms: Camelina parodii Ibarra & La Porte, Myagrum sativum L. (basionym)
16. Celastrus orbiculatus (vine, climber) English     
Celastrus orbiculatus is a deciduous, dioecious round-leaved vine that makes use of the 'sit and wait' invasion strategy. This species establishes under closed canopy forest conditions and persists indefinitely until it is released by a disturbance that creates conditions optimal for rapid growth. It invades forested land but has also been known to persist on coasts and may possibly disrupt dune formations. C. orbiculatus can overtop and girdle native trees and shrubs along roads, in clearings and in forest gaps. Identifying and eradicating populations before it they are released by an opening in the canopy is the easiest method of control.
Common Names: Asian bittersweet, Asiatic bittersweet, climbing spindleberry, Japanese bittersweet, oriental bittersweet, Rundblättriger Baumwürger, tsuru-ume-mo-doki
Synonyms: Celastrus articulatus Thunb., Celastrus orbiculata Thunb.
17. Centaurea biebersteinii (herb) English     
Centaurea biebersteinii is a biennial or short-lived perennial composite and a very aggressive invader. It has been reported to grow on a wide variety of habitats, especially industrial land, including gravel pits, stockpiles, power lines, grain elevators, railroad, equipment yards, pasture, range, and timbered range. It is often associated with irrigation, preferring areas of high available moisture. It appears best adapted to well-drained, light- to coarse-textured soils that receive summer rainfall. Seeds may germinate over a wide range of soil depths, soil moisture content and temperatures. Dispersal is generally passive as seeds are shaken from drying capitula. Movement over greater distances requires transport by rodents, livestock, vehicles, or hay or commercial seed.
Common Names: gefleckte Flockenblume, gewöhnliche Rispen-Flockenblume, spotted knapweed
Synonyms: Acosta maculosa auct. non Holub, Centaurea maculosa auct. non Lam.
18. Cirsium arvense (herb) English  français     
Cirsium arvense is an herbaceous perennial in the Aster family. It occurs in nearly every upland herbaceous community within its range, and is a particular threat in grassland communities and riparian habitats. C. arvense is shade intolerant and can tolerate soils with up to 2% salt content. It grows on all but waterlogged, poorly aerated soils, including clay, clay loam, silt loam, sandy loam, sandy clay, sand dunes, gravel, limestone, and chalk, but not peat. It spreads primarily by vegetative means, and secondarily by seed. The seeds spread as a contaminant in agricultural seeds in hay and in cattle and horse droppings and on farm machinery. It produces an abundance of bristly-plumed seeds that are easily dispersed by the wind and they may also be transported by water.
Common Names: Californian thistle, Canada thistle, Canadian thistle, creeping thistle, field thistle, perennial thistle
Synonyms: Carduus arvensis (L.) Robson, Cirsium arvense var. argenteum (Vest) Fiori, Cirsium arvense var. horridum Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium arvense var. integrifolium Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium arvense var. mite Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium arvense var. vestitum Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium incanum (Gmel.) Fisch., Cirsium setosum (Willd.) Bess. ex Bieb., Serratula arvensis L.
19. Clematis vitalba (vine, climber) English     
Clematis vitalba is a perennial vine with climbing, woody stems that can grow 20 to 30 metres long. In the native ranges C. vitalba is associated with chalk and limestone areas, but outside of its native range, this species is found in forestlands and in the margins and openings of forested lands. It is also found in riparian areas established with willows, in waste areas, and in coastal and lowland areas. This species physically smothers and collapses indigenous forest and causes a loss of indigenous plant species. When this loss occurs there is an influx of exotic plants into gaps or grazing damage by livestock. Control using a combination of mechanical and chemical methods can be effective but is very expensive. Much research is being conducted in the hopes of discovering biological means to control this species.
Common Names: evergreen clematis, Gewoehnliche Waldrebe, old man's beard, powojnik pnacy, traveler's-joy
20. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (alga) English     
Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides is an alga that has been introduced around the globe through shellfish aquaculture, recreational boating, and transport on ship hulls. The species fouls shellfish beds and causes a myriad of impacts on shellfish communities. This species also causes a nuisance to humans when it accumulates on beaches and rots producing a foul odor. C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides has been documented altering benthic communities and habitats causing serious environmental implications.
Common Names: dead man's fingers, green fleece, green sea fingers, oyster thief, Sputnik weed
Synonyms: Codium mucronatum var. tomentosoides van Goor
21. Columba livia (bird) English  français   
Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.
Common Names:  pombo-doméstico, agreste, b? câu, bákteduvvá, balandis, bareski-golumbaika, baresko-golumbo, bjargdúfa, bládúgva, bládúva, bydue, calman-creige, calmane creggey, carrier pigeon, colm aille, colom roquer, colom roquer, colom wyls, colomba salvaria, colomen ddôf, colomen y graig, colomp salvadi, columba da chasa, columba selvadia, columbu agreste, columbu aresti, columbu de is arrocas, colu'r aille, common pigeon, didu, div gulab, divlji golub, dobato, domaci golob, domestic dove, domestic pigeon, dubet, dziwi holb, Felsentaube, feral pigeon, feral rock pigeon, golab miejski¦Golab skalny, golab skalny, golub pecinar, golub pecinar, gradski Golub, güvercin, haitz-uso, Haustaube, Strassentaube, holub domácí, holub skalní, homing pigeon, húsdúfa, kaljutuvi, kalliokyyhky, kawarabato, kawara-bato, kesykyyhky, kieminis, klinšu balodis, klippduva, klippedue, kolombo, kolomm an garrek, naminis karvelis, paloma, paloma bravia, paloma casera, paloma común, paloma de castilla, paloma doméstica, pecinar, pëllumbi i egër i shkëmbit, piccione, piccione domestico, piccione selvatico, piccione selvatico semidomestico, piccione terraiolo, piccione torraiolo, pichon, pigeon, pigeon biset, pigeon biset domestique, pigeon de ville, pigeon domestique, pomba brava, pombo da rocha, pombo o pombo-doméstico, pombo-das-rochas, porumbel de stânca, pustynnik, rock dove, rock dove pigeon, rock pigeon, rotsduif, ruve, sizij golub, sizy Golub, sizyj golub', skalen g'l'b, šyzy holub, szirti galamb, tamduva, tidori, tidu, Tkhakapuyt Aghavni, tudun tal-gebel, tzidu, Verwilderte Haustaube, Xixella, yuan ge, ziwy golub
22. Coronilla varia (herb) English     
Coronilla varia is a perennial herb with creeping stems that may reach 0.6 - 2 metres. It is tolerant of drought, heavy precipitation, and cold temperatures, but it is intolerant of shade. C. varia is adapted to all coarse and medium textured soils, but it does not grow well in fine textured, saline, and alkaline soils. It reproduces prolifically and spreads rapidly via creeping rhizomes. In the United States C. varia has been extensively planted for erosion control along many roads and other disturbed areas. It has also been widely planted for ground cover on steep banks, mine reclamation, and as a cover crop on cropland.
Common Names: arvejilla morada, axseed, bunte Kronwicke, coronilla morada, coronille bigarrée, coronille variée, crown-vetch, ruda inglesa, trailing crown-vetch
Synonyms: Securigera varia (L.) Lassen subsp. orientalis Jahn
23. Cronartium ribicola (fungus)
White pine blister rust, a widely known tree disease in North America, is caused by the introduced fungus Cronartium ribicola. C. ribicola is a heteroecious (requires two hosts to complete its lifecycle) and macrocyclic rust fungus . The two host groups of this fungus are five-needle Pinus spp. and plants of the currant / gooseberry genus (Ribes spp.). Spores on infected pines are carried by wind to infect Ribes spp. during spring and spores on infected Ribes spp. are also disseminated by wind to infect five needle pines during autumn. Large-scale weather events that bring moist conditions to a region increase opportunities for infection and spore travel distance. Infection is also influenced by topographic features combined with microclimate, such as in saddles or on mountaintops frequented by late summer fog.
Common Names: white pine blister rust
24. Cryphonectria parasitica (fungus) English     
Cryphonectria parasitica is a fungus that attacks primarily Castanea spp. but also has been known to cause damage to various Quercus spp. along with other species of hardwood trees. American chestnut, C. dentata, was a dominant overstorey species in United States forests, but now they have been completely replaced within the ecosystem. C. dentata still exists in the forests but only within the understorey as sprout shoots from the root system of chestnuts killed by the blight years ago. A virus that attacks this fungus appears to be the best hope for the future of Castanea spp., and current research is focused primarily on this virus and variants of it for biological control. Chestnut blight only infects the above-ground parts of trees, causing cankers that enlarge, girdle and kill branches and trunks.
Common Names: chestnut blight, Edelkastanienkrebs
Synonyms: Endothia parasitica
25. Cryptococcus fagisuga
The beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga), along with Neonectria ascomycete fungi form the disease-complex responsible for beech bark disease (BBD) of American and European beech. Beech scale infests mainly larger sized beech trees, feeding on host tissues and causing small fissures on the bark. This initial damage to the tree allows Neonectria to enter the tree, which kills host tissue and eventually girdles the tree causing it to die. In North America the main fungi involved are N. faginata and N. ditissima, whereas in Europe N. ditissima and N. coccinea are responsible for the disease. BBD can dramatically alter forest stand composition and structure, through loss of large trees and proliferation of smaller trees that originate from root sprouting. Reduction of beech nut production and loss of large trees in infected stands may affect mammals and birds that use beech nuts as important food source and old trees as habitat. Around 1% of American beech is estimated to be resistant to BBD. Research is currently focused on modes of inheritance and propagation methods.
Common Names: beech scale, beech scale insect, felted beech coccus, felted beech scale, woolly beech scale, woolly beech scale insect
Synonyms: Cryptococcus fagi Baer.
26. Cygnus olor (bird) English   
Cygnus olor (mute swans) are a large swan species that can utilise a variety of aquatic habitats. They consume submerged aquatic vegetation to the point of overgrazing, which in turn reduces the carrying capacity of natural habitats for native waterfowl. They will occasionally overgraze to such an extent that certain vegetation is eliminated from the ecosystem. Cygnus olor is also very territorial and will drive off native waterfowl species and has been known to attack and kill native species while defending territory. Mute swans have also been known to attack and injure humans and can be especially dangerous to small children.
Common Names: cygne tuburculé, fysyldayan gu gushu, lebed-shipun, mute swan
Synonyms: Anas olor Gmelin
27. Cynoglossum officinale (herb) English     
Cynoglossum officinale otherwise known as hound's tongue in common vernacular is a biennial herbaceous plant that invades disturbed areas and waste places. It occurs widespread throughout North America, in the U.S. and Canada. The leaves of the plant, in particular the rosette leaves, are high in toxic alkaloids that can poison livestock. Hound's tongue also has a thick, deep taproot that makes it successful at competing with native vegetation for soil resources. The seeds of hound's tongue are burred so they easily attach to the fur of animals or on the clothing and shoes of humans allowing them to spread to new uninfested areas.
Common Names: beggar's lice, common bur, common houndstongue, Cynoglosse officinal, dog bur, dog's tongue, ebnyelvufu, Echte Hundezunge, Echte Hundszunge, Gebräuchliche Hundszunge, Gemeine Hundszunge, Gewone hondstong, glovewort, gypsy flower, Harilik rass, hondstong, hound's tongue, houndstongue, Hundetunge, Hundetunge, Hundtunga, Közönséges ebnyelvufu, Læge-Hundetunge, Langue-de-chien, Lengua de perro, Lingua-di-cane vellutina, Orvosi ebnyelvufu, Ostrzen pospolity, rats and mice, Rohtokoirankielet, sheep lice, Užanka lékarská, woolmat
Synonyms: Cynoglossum officinale f. bicolor
28. Cyprinus carpio (fish) English  français     
The introduction of fish as a source of protein for human consumption into tropical and subtropical lake systems is continuing apace. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been cultured for 2500 years and is also a popular angling and ornamental fish; is the third most frequently introduced species in the world. Its method of feeding churns up the sediments on the bottom of the water and uproots macrophytes, making it an keystone ecosystem engineer that altering habitats for native fish and other native aquatic species.
Common Names: Cá Chép, carp, carpa, carpat, carpe, carpe, carpe commune, carpeau, carpo, cerpyn, ciortan, ciortanica, ciortocrap, ciuciulean, common carp, crapcean, cyprinos, escarpo, Europäischer Karpfen, European carp, fancy carp, feral carp, German carp, grass carp, grivadi, ikan mas, Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli, kapor, kapr obecný, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp dziki a. sazan, karpa, karpar, karpe, Karpe, karpen, karper, karpfen, karpion, karppi, kerpaille, king carp, koi, koi carp, korop, krapi, kyprinos, læderkarpe, lauk mas, leather carp, leekoh, lei ue, mas massan, mirror carp, olocari, Oriental carp, pa nai, pba ni, pla nai, ponty, punjabe gad, rata pethiya, saran, Saran, sarmão, sazan, sazan baligi, scale carp, sharan, skælkarpe, soneri masha, spejlkarpe, sulari, suloi, tikure, trey carp samahn, trey kap, ulucari, weißfische, wild carp, wildkarpfen
Synonyms: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
29. Cytisus scoparius (shrub) English     
The densely growing Cytisus scoparius is a shrub indigenous to Europe and northern Asia that favours temperate climates and is found in abundance on sandy pastures and heaths. It is sparingly naturalized in sandy soil in North America. It grows best in dry, sandy soils in full sunlight and can also do well on soils high in boron. Where introduced, it colonizes pastures and cultivated fields, dry scrubland and "wasteland", and native grasslands. Most rapid spread of the plant has occurred along waterways where the seed is distributed by water. It is also spread rapidly along roads, where the seed is distributed by passing vehicles. Wind, birds, and other animals may also transport seeds. Seed re-introduction may occur from the sheep droppings during grazing.
Common Names: Besenginster, broomtops, common broom, European broom, genêt à balais, giesta, Irish broom, Scotch broom
Synonyms: Genista scoparius (Lam.)., Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Wimmer ex Koch, Spartium scoparium (Linn.).
30. Elaeagnus angustifolia (tree, shrub) English     
Native to southern Europe and western Asia, Elaeagnus angustifolia is commonly found growing along floodplains, riverbanks, stream courses, marshes, and irrigation ditches Seedlings are tolerant of shade and the plant thrives in a variety of soil and moisture conditions, including bare mineral substrates.E. angustifolia can withstand competition from other shrubs and trees and can spread vegetatively by sprouting from the root crown and sending up root suckers. The fruits float and are probably dispersed via water transport. Also, the seeds ingested with the fruit by birds and small mammals are dispersed in their droppings.
Common Names: árbol del paraíso, árvore-do-paraíso, chalef, oleaster, olivier de Bohême, olivo de Bohemia, panjino, Russian-olive, trebizond-date
Synonyms: Elaeagnus angustifolia var. orientalis (L.) Kuntze, Elaeagnus hortensis M. Bieb, Elaeagnus moorcroftii Wall. ex Schltdl., Elaeagnus orientalis L.
31. Elaeagnus umbellata (tree, shrub) English     
Elaeagnus umbellata is valued as an ornamental because of its silvery foliage and flowers and its hardiness under dry conditions. It invades grasslands and disturbed areas adjacent to the plantings, and encroachment can be rapid because of its high seed production and germination rate. It grows well on a variety of soils, including sandy, loamy, and somewhat clayey textures. It does very well on infertile soils because its roots can fix nitrogen, which has also fostered its use as a nurse plant in walnut orchards. E. umbellata seeds are ingested with fruit and dispersed by birds and mammals. Seeds are also used in some places for wildlife plantings.E. umbellata has the potential of becoming one of the most troublesome adventive shrubs in the central and eastern United States.
Common Names: aki-gumi, autumn elaeagnus, autumn-olive, silverberry
Synonyms: Elaeagnus argyi H.Lev., Elaeagnus crispa Thunb. var. coreana (H.Lev.) Nakai, Elaeagnus crispa Thunb. var. typica Nakai, Elaeagnus parvifolia Royle, Elaeagnus salicifolia D. Don ex Loudon, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. subsp. euumbellata Servettaz, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. subsp. parvifolia (Royle )Servett., Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. coreana (H.Lev.) H.Lev., Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) C.K.Schneid., Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. var. typica C.K. Schneid.
32. Erodium cicutarium (herb) English     
Erodium cicutarium is an annual, winter annual or biennial that is a pioneer on disturbed and arid sites. It can cause yield reductions of crops and the seed is very difficult to clean out of small seeded crops. Erodium cicutarium is considered a noxious weed as it crowds out or outcompetes crops and native plant species. Erodium cicutarium provides forage for rodents, desert tortoise, big game animals, livestock and also upland game birds and songbirds. Prevention may be the best method for controlling Erodium cicutarium, however, it may be impossible to actually prevent this species from colonising, or to eradicate it, once present. There are few known chemical control methods for Erodium cicutarium besides, general herbicide controls.
Common Names: alfilaree, alfilaria, alfilerillo, California filaree, cutleaf filaree, filaree, heronsbill, loiquilahuen, pin-grass, pin-weed, redstem, redstem filaree, redstem stork's bill, relojito, stork's bill, tachuela
33. Euphorbia esula (herb) English     
Native to Europe and temperate Asia, Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) is found throughout the world, with the exception of Australia. This aggressive invader is one of the first plants to emerge in the spring and displaces native vegetation by shading and out-competing them for available water and nutrients. Leafy spurge contains a highly irritating substance called ingenol that, when consumed by livestock, is an irritant, emetic and purgative.
Common Names: Esels-Wolfsmilch, euphorbe feuillue, euphorbia, euphorbia esule, faitours-grass , Heksenmelk, Hungarian spurge, leafy spurge, Scharfe Wolfsmilch, spurge, vargtoerel, wolf's milk
Synonyms: Euphorbia gmelinii (Steudel), Euphorbia intercedens, Euphorbia pseudovirgata, Euphorbia virgata (Waldst. & Kit.), Euphorbia zhiguliensis (Schur), Galarhoeus esula, Tithymalus esula
34. Frangula alnus (shrub) English     
Frangula alnus, commonly known as glossy buckthorn, is a shrub that can grow to seven metres and is sometimes considered a tree. Frangula alnus typically inhabits wet, shaded and acidic soils. It can grow in soils of any texture. In North America, wetlands are invaded by Frangula alnus. Frangula alnus is also a typical woody pioneer during the succession of drained mires and conveyed wet meadows, being overgrown and substituted by forest vegetation. The invasion of Frangula alnus into forests and riparian areas in the North American region has alarmed foresters and conservationists. Frangula alnus attains high cover in the understorey and tree seedling density and diversity is known to be inversely related to buckthorn basal area. Frangula alnus can also out-compete and exclude native woody species.
Common Names: alder buckthorn, aulne noir, black buckthorn, European alder buckthorn, frangula, glossy buckthorn, nerprun bourdaine
Synonyms: Rhamnus frangula L., Rhamnus frangula subsp. columnaris hort. , Rhamnus frangula var. angustifolia Loud.
35. Harmonia axyridis (insect)
Harmonia axyridis (Harlequin ladybird), is native to Asia and has been used extensively around the world for biological control of various aphid species. While it is a popular control agent, it has also brought with it several negative effects. Its establishment appears to decrease the diversity of native Coccinellidae. Harmonia axyridis can also quickly become a human nuisance when it seeks shelter during the winter months and takes up residency in the walls and insulation of houses and other structures. Surprisingly, Harmonia axyridis has also attained status as a pest of fruit production; particularly in the vineyards of the Midwestern USA.
Common Names: Asian lady beetle, Asiatischer Marienkafer, Halloween lady beetle, Harlequin lady beetle, Harlequin ladybird, Japanese lady beetle, la coccinelle asiatique, multicolored Asian lady beetle, multivariate lady beetle, pumpkin lady beetle, southern lady beetle, veelkeurig aziatisch lieveheersbeestje
36. Heracleum mantegazzianum (herb) English     
Heracleum mantegazzianum is native to Asia and has been introduced into Europe and North America. It is characterised by its size and may grow to 4.5 to 6 metres in height. It is most common along roadsides, vacant lots, streams and rivers, and can be considered an invasive freshwater weed. It forms a dense canopy, out-competing native riparian species and results in an increase in soil erosion along the stream banks where it occurs. Heracleum mantegazzianum germinates from early spring throughout the growing season, after exposure to winter temperatures. H. mantegazzianum exudes a clear watery sap that sensitises the skin to ultraviolet radiation which can result in severe burns. Populations in urban and suburban areas represent an increasing public health hazard. Glyphosate is considered the most effective herbicide.
Common Names: barszcz mantegazyjski, barszcz mantegazziego, berce de caucase, berce de Mantegazzi, berce du caucase, bjarnarkló, cartwheel flower, giant cow parsnip, giant cow persicum, giant hogweed, Herkulesstaude, hiid-karuputk, jättebjörnloka, jättefloka, kæmpe-bjørneklo, kæmpe-bjørneklo, kaukasianjattiputki, Kaukasischer Barenklau, kaukasisk jattefloka, kaukasisk jättefloka, kjempebjonnkjeks, mantegaci latvanis, mantegaco barštis, Riesenbarenklau, tröllahvönn, wild rhubarb
Synonyms: Heracleum asperum M. Bieb., Heracleum giganteum Fischer ex Hornem., Heracleum lehmannianum Bunge, Heracleum persicum Desf. Ex Fischer, Heracleum sibricum Sphalm , Heracleum stevenii Manden, Heracleum villosum Fischer ex Sprengel
37. Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (aquatic plant) English     
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae is a free-floating herbaceous annual aquatic that can reach 20cm in length. It does well in calm open waters, and can be found in marshes, ditches and swamps. H. morsus-ranae produces dense floating mat of vegetation which restrict available light, dissolved gases, and nutrients. This species displaces native flora and is perhaps impacting the fauna. There is currently no management information available but there is currently a study that started in 2003 and will go through 2005 that is looking into and researching methods of controlling H. morsus-ranae on the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River.
Common Names: common frogbit, European frog's-bit
38. Hypericum perforatum (herb) English     
Hypericum perforatum, more commonly known as St. John's wort, is a native flowering perennial plant of Eurasia. It has been widely introduced, mainly by human vectors, to North and South America, parts of Africa, Australia and New Zealand. St. John's wort can survive in a wide range of environments and has the ability to store reserves in its root crown and compensate during harsh times, which makes this plant difficult for management control. In recent years Hypericum perforatum has gained media attention for its use in alternative medicine, mainly for treating depression.
Common Names: äkta johannesört, äkta mannablod, amber, bassant, binbirdelikotu, Blutkraut, casse-diable, castellas, common St Johnswort, common St. John's wort, corazoncillo, eala bhuidhe, Echtes Johanniskraut, gammock, Gemeines Johanniskraut, goatsbeard, goatweed, Hartheu, herb john, herbe De Saint-Jean, herbe de St. Jean, hierba de San Juan, hipérico, iperico, johannesblöda, Johanneskruid, johannesört, Johanniskraut, klamathweed, läpikuisma, lule gjaku, lulebasan, lulemaji, mäkikuisma, mansblod, millepertuis, millepertuis perfore, penny john, perforate St. John's wort, racecourse weed, randpirk, rosin rose, St. John's grass, St. John's wort, tipton weed, todabuena, touch and heal, Tüpfel-Hartheu, Tüpfel-Johanniskraut, Unserer Frauen Bettstroh, Y fendigedig
Synonyms: Hypericum officinale (Gater), Hypericum perforatum var. perforatum, Hypericum perforatum var. angustifolium, Hypericum perforatum var. microphyllum, Hypericum perforatum var. veronense, Hypericum veronense, Hypericum vulgare (Bauhin)
39. Impatiens glandulifera (herb) English     
Impatiens glandulifera, or Himalayan balsam, is a problematic invasive which has spread throughout Europe, parts of North America and New Zealand following introductions as an ornamental. It is an annual herb which thrives in riparian zones and disturbed areas. Its high reproductive rate, early germintation, propensity for establishing thick stands, rich nectar production, hardiness, and habitat tolerance and plasticity have allowed it to spread rapidly, dominate landscapes, and compete with and displace native plant species. Eradication has proven very difficult once established and preventative measures are recommended.
Common Names: balsamie de l'himmalaya, bitine sprige, Drüsiges Springkraut, Himalayan balsam, Indian balsam, Indisches Springkraut, jättebalsamin, jättipalsami, Kæmpe-Balsamin, kjempespringfrø, Niecierpek gruczolowaty, Niecierpek himalajski, ornamental jewelweed, policeman's helmet, puku sprigane, risalísa, verev lemmalts, Washington orchid
Synonyms: Impatiens glanduligera Lindley, Impatiens roylei Walpers.
40. Iris pseudacorus (herb) English     
Iris pseudacorus is a perennial monocot forb that forms dense stands of robust plants. It thrives in temperate climates and can grow in water up to 25cm deep. It is a fast-growing and fast-spreading invasive plant that can out-compete other wetland plants, forming almost impenetrable thickets. Iris pseudacorus is poisonous to grazing animals and caution should be used if pulling out this plant as it causes skin irritations. It has typically been introduced as an ornamental, but has also been used in erosion control and for making dyes and fibre.
Common Names: fleur-de-lis, iris jaune, pale-yellow iris, water flag, yellow flag, yellow iris, yellow water iris, yellow-flag iris
Synonyms: Iris acoriformis Boreau , Iris acoroides Spach , Iris bastardii Boreau , Iris curtopetala F. Delaroche , Iris flava Tornab. , Iris lutea Lam. , Iris paludosa Pers. , Iris pseudacorus L. var. parviflora Bastard , Iris sativa Mill.
41. Ligustrum vulgare (shrub) English     
Native to Europe and northern Africa, Ligustrum vulgare is a shrub that grows in sandy, loamy and clay soils. Ligustrum vulgare is a perennial shrub that has a maximum height of 4.5 metres and has many branches that flower. Ligustrum vulgare displaces native vegetation by forming dense thickets. Herbicides have been used to control Ligustrum vulgare when the plants are large but the most effective control method is to dig the plants out when they are small.
Common Names: aitalikusteri, common privet, European privet, gewone liguster, golden privet, wild privet
Synonyms: Ligustrum italicum Mill, Olea humilis Salisb.
42. Linyphia triangularis (arachnid)
Linyphia triangularis, the European hammock spider or sheet-web spider, named so for its sheet-like web has been introduced to Maine (United States). Its large size, competitive ability, and aggressive nature may have contributed to its success in Maine where it is established in 15 of 16 counties. It can reach very high densities; causing native linyphiid spiders to become scarce or virtually absent in areas it invades.
Common Names: European hammock spider, sheet-web spider
43. Littorina littorea (mollusc) English   
Littorina littorea is a mollusc which is often distributed on rocky coasts, from the upper shore into the sub-littoral. It is also tolerant of brackish water. Littorina littorea feeds on diatoms, Enteromorpha, Ulva and Porphyra. Littorina littorea are oviparous and reproduce annually. Egg capsules are shed directly into the sea. It has been suggested that Littorina littorea can serve as a highly suitable bio-indicator species for contamination of marine environments.
Common Names: common periwinkle
44. Lonicera japonica (vine, climber) English  français     
Lonicera japonica is an extremely vigorous vine which grows up through the canopy, smothering and ultimately killing the host tree. It competes with native plants for light and nutrients and prevents the understorey and small trees from developing, causing a reduction in forest diversity. Lonicera japonica is shade and drought tolerant, though it needs full to partial sunlight to grow successfully. It spreads rapidly via above-ground runners that root at nodes and its seeds may be eaten by birds and then dispersed. It is planted in gardens and along roadsides for landscaping purposes and can also be spread by the dumping of garden waste.
Common Names: chèvrefeuille, chèvrefeuille du Japon, Chinese honeysuckle, Hall's honeysuckle, Japanese honeysuckle, Japanisches Geissblatt, madreselva, madressilva
Synonyms: Caprifolium hallianum Hort., Lonicera brachypoda DC., Lonicera flexuosa Thun., Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, Lonicera japonica var. chinensis (P.W. Wats.) Baker, Nintooa japonica , Nintooa japonica (Thunb.) Sweet
45. Lotus corniculatus (herb) English     
Lotus corniculatus (bird's foot trefoil) is a low growing perennial legume that has long been valued as an agricultural crop. Lotus corniculatus is native to much of Europe, Asia and parts of Africa, but now has a near global distribution. Over most of its range, Lotus corniculatus is not considered invasive, although in a few areas it has out-competed native vegetation.
Common Names: birdfoot deervetch, birdsfoot trefoil, bird's-foot trefoil, bloomfell, buinuzlu Gurdotu, cat's clover, common lotus, cornette, cornichão, crowtoes, cube, cuernecillo, cuernecillo del campo, devil's fingers, devil's-claw, Dutchman's clogs, ebert khoshoontzor, ekhdzherarvuit, gafgaz gurdotu, garden birdsfoot trefoil, garden bird's-foot-trefoil, Gemeiner Hornklee, ghizdei marunt, ginestrina, granny's toenails, ground honeysuckle, harilik noiahammas, hen-and-chickens, hop 'o my thumb, Hornklee, karingtand, keltamaite, komonica zwycrajna, kurdglisprchkhila, kurdlis prukhila, lady's fingers, lady's slippers, lotier corniculé, loto corniculado, lyadvenetz baltiiski, lyadvenetz kavkazski, lyadvenetz komarova, lyadvenetz krymski, lyadvenetz olgi, lyadvenetz polevoi, lyadvenetz rogatyi, lyadvenetz ruprekhta, lyadvenetz somnitelnyi, lyadvenetz zhigulevski, palyavaya akatzyya, paprastasis garzdenis, pied-de-poule, ragaine vanagnadzini, rutvitza ragataya, sheep-foot, tryzaouka, upright trefoil, yellow treefoil, zayachchy bratki
Synonyms: Lotus ambiguus Besser ex Spreng., Lotus ambiguus Spreng, Lotus arvensis Pers., Lotus balticus Miniaev, Lotus carpetanus Lacaita, Lotus caucasicus Kuprian, Lotus caucasicus Kuprian., Lotus ciliatus sensu Schur, Lotus corniculatus L. var. crassifolia Fr., Lotus corniculatus L. var. kochii Chrtkova, Lotus corniculatus L. var. maritimus Rupr., Lotus corniculatus subsp. major (Scop.) Gams, Lotus corniculatus var. arvensis (Pers.) Ser., Lotus corniculatus var. glaber Opiz, Lotus corniculatus var. major (Scop.) Brand, Lotus corniculatus var.arvensis (Schkuhr) Ser. ex DC., Lotus filicaulis Durieu, Lotus frondosus (Freyn) Kuprian, Lotus japonicus (Regel) K.larson, Lotus komarovii Miniaev, Lotus major Scop., Lotus olgae Klokov, Lotus peczoricus Miniaev and Ulle, Lotus ruprechtii Miniaev , Lotus tauricus Juz., Lotus ucrainicus Klokov, Lotus zhegulensis Klokov
46. Lymantria dispar (insect) English     
Lymantria dispar commonly known as the Asian gypsy moth, is one of the most destructive pests of shade, fruit and ornamental trees throughout the Northern hemisphere. It is also a major pest of hardwood forests. Asian gypsy moth caterpillars cause extensive defoliation, leading to reduced growth or even mortality of the host tree. Their presence can destroy the aesthetic beauty of an area by defoliating and killing the trees and covering the area with their waste products and silk. Scenic areas that were once beautiful have become spotted with dead standing trees where the Asian gypsy moth has invaded. Also, urticacious hairs on larvae and egg masses cause allergies in some people.
Common Names: Asian gypsy moth, erdei gyapjaslepke, gubar, gypsy moth, lagarta peluda, limantria, løVstraesnonne, maimai-ga, mniska vel’kohlava, neparnyy shelkopryad, Schwammspinner, spongieuse
Synonyms: Porthetria dispar
47. Lythrum salicaria (aquatic plant, herb) English  français     
Lythrum salicaria is an erect perennial herb with a woody stem and whirled leaves. It has the ability to reproduce prolifically by both seed dispersal and vegetative propagation. Any sunny or partly shaded wetland is vulnerable to L. salicaria invasion, but disturbed areas with exposed soil accelerate the process by providing ideal conditions for seed germination.
Common Names: Blutweiderich, purple loosestrife, rainbow weed, salicaire pourpre, spiked loosestrife
Synonyms: Lythrum salicaria var. gracilior Turcz., Lythrum salicaria var. tomentosum (P. Mill.) DC., Lythrum salicaria var. vulgare DC.
48. Molothrus bonariensis (bird) English  français   
Molothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird) is a brood parasite, relying on a host to incubate its eggs and rear its chicks. It is not host-specific, laying eggs in the nests of other species of birds, some of which will accept and rear the chicks. Molothrus bonariensis has expanded its range in its native South America and West Indies, reaching the North American continent and negatively affecting some threatened bird species that are already at risk due to habitat loss.
Common Names: shiny cowbird, tordo lustroso, tordo renegrido, tordo vaquero, vacher luisant
Synonyms: Molothrus bonariensis subspecies maxillaris Lafresnaye
49. Morone americana (fish) English   
Morone americana is a semi-anadromous fish native the Atlantic Coast, that has made its way into the Great Lakes through the Erie and Welland canals. Dense Morone americana populations compete for food and feed on the eggs of native species. Hybridisation with other perch species is another threat that may cause dilution to local species gene pools.
Common Names: Amerikanbassi , Amerikansk bars , bar blanc d'Amerique, baret can, bars, cernier atlantique, havabbor, hvit havabbor, morona, narrow-mouthed bass, perche blanche, robalo do norte, robalo-do-norte, rokiel srebrzysty, sea perch , seebarsch, silver perch, spigola americana, vitabborre, White perch , wreckfish
Synonyms: Morone americanus (Gmelin, 1789) , Morone pallida Mitchill, 1814 , Morone rufa Mitchill, 1814, Perca americana Gmelin, 1789 , Perca immaculata Walbaum, 1792 , Roccus americanus (Gmelin, 1789)
50. Myriophyllum aquaticum (aquatic plant) English  français     
Myriophyllum aquaticum is a bright or glaucous green perennial freshwater herb. It exhibits two different leaf forms depending on whether it is growing as a submerged plant or as an emergent. It is found in freshwater lakes, ponds, streams and canals, and appears to be adapted to high nutrient environments. Myriophyllum aquaticum does well in good light and a slightly alkaline environment. Almost all Myriophyllum aquaticum plants are female, and male plants are unknown outside of South America. Rhizomes function as a support structure for adventitious roots and provide buoyancy for emergent growth during the summer. Myriophyllum aquaticum has been introduced for use in indoor and outdoor aquaria. It is also a popular aquatic garden plant. It has escaped cultivation and spread via plant fragments and intentional plantings. Whilst there is some belief that Myriophyllum aquaticum is susceptible to herbicides, there is very little information available regarding successful management.
Common Names: brazilian watermilfoil, myriophylle du Brésil, parrot feather, parrot feather watermilfoil, parrotfeather, parrot's-feather, pinheirinho-d'água, thread-of-life, waterduisendblaar, water-feather
Synonyms: Enydria aquatica (Vell.), Myriophyllum brasiliense (Camb.), Myriophyllum proserpinacoides (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.)
51. Myriophyllum heterophyllum (aquatic plant)
The aggressive growth of non-native aquatic plants is a major concern for lake managers because of high costs involved in managing their spread. Unlike Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) where studies on control with herbicides, insects, microbes and other means are abundant, few studies are available on the control of variable watermilfoil (M. heterophylla). Myriophyllum species are notoriously difficult to identify using vegetative morphology alone - which commonly is all that is available for these highly clonal plants.
Common Names: broadleaf watermilfoil, broad-leaved watermilfoil, changeleaf parrotfeather, red foxtail, two-leaf watermilfoil, two-leaved watermilfoil, variable-leaf water milfoil
52. Myrmica rubra (insect)
Myrmica rubra, commonly known as the European fire ant, is an aggressive ant species which has been introduced from its native Eurasia to eastern North America, where it appears able to reach sizeable densities. It has a painful sting, and also impacts on native ants and other invertebrates, and reptiles.
Common Names: European fire ant, European imported fire ant, Kiiro-kushike-ari
Synonyms: Atta rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmecia) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmica) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica rubra (Linnaeus), Manica rubra (Linnaeus), Myrmica laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica laevinodis var. bruesi (Weber), Myrmica levinodis (Dalla Torre), Myrmica longiscapus (Curtis), Myrmica rubra laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica rubra r. champlaini (Forel), Myrmica rubra st. laevinodis (Nylander)
53. Najas minor (aquatic plant)
Najas minor is a submerged aquatic herb native to Europe and Asia that has established in eastern United States and Ontario. Initially recorded in the 1930s, it has established populations in 26 states in the US. It creates dense, monospecific stands that may displace native aquatic plants and reduce the recreational and aesthetic value of lakes, ponds, and rivers.
Common Names: brittle naiad, brittle waternymph, European naiad, minor naiad , slender naiad , slender-leaved naiad, spiny-leaf naiad
Synonyms: Caulinia minor (All) Coss. & Germ.
54. Neonectria faginata (fungus)
Ascomycete Neonectria fungi along with beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga) form the disease-complex responsible for beech bark disease (BBD) of American and European beech. In North America N. faginata and N. ditissima are responsible for the disease on American beech, whereas in Europe N. ditissima and N. coccinea affect European beech. N. faginata has only been recorded to infect American beech and has not been recorded outside North America, although genetic analysis suggests N. faginata is native to Europe. Beech scale infests mainly larger sized beech trees, feeding on host tissues and causing small fissures on the bark. This initial damage to the tree allows Neonectria to enter the tree, which kills host tissue and eventually girdles the tree causing it to die. BBD can dramatically alter forest stand composition and structure, through loss of large trees and proliferation of smaller trees that originate from root sprouting. Reduction of beech nut production and loss of large trees in infected stands may affect mammals and birds that use beech nuts as important food source and old trees as habitat. Around 1% of American beech is estimated to be resistant to BBD. Research is currently focused on modes of inheritance and propagation methods.
Common Names: Neonectria canker, BBD, beech bark canker, beech bark disease
Synonyms: Nectria coccinea var. faginata M.L. Lohman, A.M.J. Watson & Ayers 1943
55. Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (insect)
Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus is a mosquito native to Japan, Korea and eastern China. It has the potential to be an enzootic or epizootic vector of at least three kinds of encephalitis and may serve as a bridge vector for West Nile Virus. It breeds natural rockpools and a range of artificial containers, and is thought to have been introduced to the United States in infested automobile tyres. It is rapidly expanding its range and is now present in at least 32 states including Hawaii and two Canadian provinces.
Common Names: Asian bush mosquito, Asian rock pool mosquito
Synonyms: Aedes japonicus (Reinert, 2000)
56. Oncorhynchus mykiss (fish) English  français     
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) are one of the most widely introduced fish species in the world. Native to western North America, from Alaska to the Baja Peninsula, Oncorhynchus mykiss have been introduced to numerous countries for sport and commercial aquaculture. Oncorhynchus mykiss is highly valued as a sportfish, with regular stocking occurring in many locations where wild populations cannot support the pressure from anglers. Concerns have been raised about the effects of introduced trout in some areas, as they may affect native fish and invertebrates through predation and competition.
Common Names: Alabalik, Alabalik türü, Amerikaniki Pestrofa, Aure, Baiser, Baja California rainbow trout, Brown trout, Coast angel trout, Coast rainbow trout, Coast range trout, Dagova pastarva, Forel rajduzhna, Forelle, Hardhead, Kamchatka steelhead, Kamchatka trout, Kamloops, Kamloops trout, Kirjolohi, K'wsech, Lord-fish, Masu, Nijimasu, Orret, Pastrva, Pestropha, pstrag teczowy, Pstrag teczowy , Pstruh duhový, Pstruh dúhový, rainbow trout, Rainbow trout , Redband, redband trout, Regenbogenforelle, Regenbogenforelle , Regenboogforel, Regnbåge, Regnbågslax, Regnbogasilungur, Regnbueørred, Regnbueørret, Salmon trout, Salmones del Pacífico, Silver trout, Stahlkopfforelle, Stålhovedørred, Steelhead, steelhead trout, Steelhead trout , Summer salmon, Sxew'k'em, Trofta ylberi, Trofte ylberi, Trota, Trota iridea, Trucha, trucha arco iris, Trucha arco iris , Trucha arcoiris, truite arc-en-ciel, Truta , Truta-arco-iris, Urriöi
Synonyms: Fario gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Onchorrhychus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Oncorhynchus kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo gairdneri irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdneri shasta (Jordan, 1894), Salmo gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gilberti (Jordan, 1894), Salmo iridea (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo irideus argentatus (Bajkov, 1927), Salmo irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo kamloops whitehousei (Dymond, 1931), Salmo kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo masoni (Suckley, 1860), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) , Salmo nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Salmo purpuratus (Pallas, 1814), Salmo rivularis kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo rivularis (Ayres, 1855), Salmo stellatus (Girard, 1856), Salmo truncatus (Suckley, 1859)
57. Orconectes rusticus (crustacean) English   
Orconectes rusticus, the rusty crayfish, is an aquatic invasive spread by anglers who use them as bait. It is native to the portions of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky and has spread to surrounding areas as well as northeastern United States. O. rusticus is an aggressive and rapidly spreading crayfish that displaces cogeners, reduces macrophyte and invertebrate abundance, preys on native snails, and reduces sport fish populations.
Common Names: rusty crayfish
58. Orconectes virilis (crustacean) English   
Orconectes virilis is a crayfish native to the Missouri, Mississippi, Ohio, and Great Lakes drainages of the United States. It has become introduced to locations throughout the United States through live pet and bait trade and has also established in a few locations in Europe. Its important impacts to introduced systems include competition with and displacement of native fish and crayfish and the reduction of snail, macroinvertebrate, and macrophyte abundance and biodiversity.
Common Names: northern crayfish, virile crayfish
59. Ostrea edulis (mollusc) English   
Ostrea edulis (the European flat oyster) is native to Europe and the Mediterranean. It has been introduced to the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for aquaculture. Usually found in muddy areas, O. edulis has long been harvested for food. Over-harvesting in its native range, however, has caused it to be reintroduced to Europe. While in Atlantic waters, O. edulis became infected with the disease bonamiasis (Bonamia ostrae). This disease has caused widespread mortality in the vast majority of O. edulis.
Common Names: common oyster, edible oyster, eetbare oester, Essbare euster, European flat oyster, European oyster, huître comestible, huître plate Européenne, istiride, native oyster, oester, ostra Europa, platte oester, stridia, stridie, ustritsa
Synonyms: Ostrea adriatica Lam-Middendorff 1848, Ostrea taurica Krynicki 1837
60. Passer domesticus (bird) English  français   
Passer domesticus (the house sparrow) is a small bird, native to Eurasia and northern Africa, that was intentionally introduced to the Americas. Passer domesticus are non-migratory birds that are often closely associated with human populations and are found in highest abundance in agricultural, suburban and urban areas. They tend to avoid woodlands, forests, grasslands and deserts. Particularly high densities of Passer domesticus were found where urban settlements meet agricultural areas. They may evict native birds from their nests and out-compete them for trophic resources. Early in its invasion of North America, Passer domesticus began attacking ripening grains on farmland and was considered a serious agricultural pest. Recent surveys indicate populations are declining.
Common Names: English sparrow, Europese huismuis, gorrion casero, Gorrion domestico, house sparrow, house sparrow, moineau domestique, town sparrow
61. Phragmites australis (grass) English     
Phragmites australis grows on level ground in tidal and non-tidal marshes, lakes, swales and backwater areas of rivers and streams. It is found on sites that are seasonally flooded with not more than 50cm of water. It grows on most soil textures from fine clay to sandy loams and is somewhat tolerant of saline or alkaline conditions. Phragmites australis is especially common along railroad tracks, roadside ditches and piles of dredge spoil, wherever slight depressions will hold water. Throughout most of its range, it typically forms closed mono-dominant stands in both disturbed and pristine areas. It is capable of vigorous vegetative reproduction and its seeds, which are normally dispersed by wind, may be transported by birds that nest among the reeds. The seeds are also dispersed by water. Newly opened sites may be colonised by seed or by rhizome fragments carried to the area in soils and on machinery or naturally in floodwaters. Invasion and continued spread is aided by disturbances or stresses such as pollution, alteration of the natural hydrologic regime, dredging and increased sedimentation. In coastal marshes, spread of Phragmites australis is also facilitated by natural disturbance caused by tidal movements of dead vegetation.
Common Names: cane, caniço, carrizo común, common reed, ditch reed, giant reed, giant reedgrass, phragmites, reed grass, roseau, roseau cane, roseau commun, Schilf, schilfrohr, yellow cane
Synonyms: Arundo aggerum Kittel, Arundo altissima Benth., Arundo australis Cav., Arundo barbata Burchell, Arundo graeca Link, Arundo isiaca Delile, Arundo karka Retz., Arundo maxima Forssk., Arundo palustris Salisb., Arundo phragmites L., Arundo phragmites L. var. humilis (DeNot.) Asch. & Graebn., Arundo phragmites L. var. isiaca Griseb., Arundo vallatoria Gray, Arundo vulgaris Lam., Calamagrostis nigricans Merat, Cynodon phragmites (L.) Raspail, Czernya arundinacea C.Presl, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. subsp. altissimus (Benth.) Clayton, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) C.F.Reed, Phragmites berlandieri E.Fourn., Phragmites communis Trin., Phragmites communis Trin. forma flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. forma isiacus (Griseb.) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. forma nigricans (Merat) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) A.Löve & D.Löve, Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. isiacus (Griseb.) Oppenh. & Evenari, Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. maximus (Forssk.) Clayton, Phragmites communis Trin. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) Fernald, Phragmites communis Trin. var. flavescens Custor ex Gaudin, Phragmites communis Trin. var. humilis (DeNot.) Parl., Phragmites communis Trin. var. isiacus (Griseb.) Coss., Phragmites communis Trin. var. vulgaris Boenn., Phragmites flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Hegetschw. & Heer, Phragmites humilis DeNot., Phragmites isiacus Kunth, Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Phragmites maximus (Forssk.) Chiov., Phragmites maximus (Forssk.) Chiov. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) Moldenke, Phragmites nakaiana Honda, Phragmites phragmites (L.) H.Karst., Phragmites vulgaris Crep., Phragmites vulgaris Crep. subsp. maximus (Forssk.) Chiov., Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Brand, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. humilis (DeNot.) Brand, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. isiacus (Griseb.) T.Durand & Schinz, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. typicus Beck, Phragmites vulnerans Asch., Reimaria diffusa Spreng., Trichoon karka (Retz.) Roth, Trichoon phragmites (L.) Rendle, Xenochloa arundinacea Lichtenstein ex Roem. & Schult.
62. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.) (herb, shrub) English  français     
Polygonum cuspidatum is an herbaceous perennial native to Japan. It has been introduced to Europe and North America as an ornamental and is also used to stabilise soil, especially in coastal areas. It requires full sun and is found primarily in moist habitats but also grows in waste places, along roadways and other disturbed areas. Once established, P. cuspidatum forms dense stands that shade and crowd out all other vegetation, displacing native flora and fauna, and the overwintering canes and leaves are slow to decompose.
Common Names: crimson beauty, donkey rhubarb, German sausage, huzhang , itadori , Japanese bamboo, Japanese fleece flower, Japanese knotweed, Japanese polygonum, kontiki bamboo, Mexican-bamboo , peashooter plant, renouée du Japon, reynoutria fleece flower, sally rhubarb
Synonyms: Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Dcne., Pleuropterus cuspidatus (Sieb. & Zucc.) Moldenke, Pleuropterus zuccarinii (Small) Small, Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc., Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. var. compactum (Hook f.) Bailey, Polygonum zuccarinii Small, Reynoutria japonica Houtt.
63. Populus alba (tree) English     
Populus alba is a member of the willow family (Salicaceae) that is native to Eurasia. It is a dioecious species and female mature trees can produce large seed crops. Populus alba spreads to new locations when mature trees release thousands of wind-dispersed seeds that may be carried long distances. It is an especially strong competitor as it can grow in a variety of soils and resprout easily in response to damage. Local spread of male and female trees occurs vegetatively via root suckers.
Common Names: alamo blanco, gattice, gin-doro, hakuyo, peuplier blanc, pioppo bianco, silber-pappel, silver-leaf poplar, urajiro-hako-yanagi, white poplar, xin bai yang
Synonyms: Populus alba L. var. bolleana (Lauche), Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis (Bunge)
64. Pueraria montana var. lobata (vine, climber) English  français     
Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) roots can eventually comprise over 50% of the plant’s biomass, serving as an organ for carbohydrate storage for recovery after disturbance and making it difficult to control with herbicides. Only in the eastern United States is kudzu considered a serious pest, although it is also established in Oregon in the northwestern USA, in Italy and Switzerland, and one infestation on the northern shore of Lake Erie in Canada. Kudzu is considered naturalized in the Ukraine, Caucasus, central Asia, southern Africa, Hawai, Hispaniola, and Panama. Impacts of kudzu in the southeastern USA include loss of productivity of forestry plantations (estimated at about 120 USD per hectare per year), smothering and killing of native plants and denying access to lands for hunting, hiking, and bird watching.
Common Names: acha, aka, aka, aka, aka fala, akataha, fen ge, fen ke, foot-a-night vine, gan ge, gan ge teng, Japanese arrowroot, Ko-hemp, Kopoubohne, kudzu, kudzu común, kudzu vine, Kudzu-Kletterwein, kuzu, nepalem, shan ge teng, vigne japonaise, vine-that-ate-the-South, wa yaka, wa yaka
Synonyms: Dolichos hirsutus Thunberg, Dolichos lobatus Willd., Pachyrrhizus thunbergianus Siebold & Zuccarini, Pueraria hirsuta (Thunb.) C. Schneider, Pueraria lobata var. thomsonii (Benth.) Maesen, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.), Pueraria thunbergiana (Sieb. & Zucc.) Benth.
65. Rhamnus cathartica (tree) English     
Rhamnus cathartica commonly known as common or European buckthorn is a deciduous small tree that prefers lightly shaded conditions. It is tolerant of many soil types and can be found in open oak woods, deadfall openings in woodlands and edges of woodlands. It may also be found in prairies and open fields. It tends to form dense, often even-aged thickets, crowding and shading out native shrubs and herbs. In fire-adapted ecosystems the lack of vegetation under buckthorn prohibits fires. R. cathartica is also an alternate host of the crown rust of oats. Fire is very effective in controlling R. cathartica and is a preferred method when the population is young. In wetlands water tables have been artificially lowered in order to attempt to control this species.
Common Names: buckthorn, Carolina buckthorn, cervispina, common buckthorn , épine noire, espinheiro-cerval, European buckthorn , European waythorn , Hart's thorn , Kreuzdorn, nerprun cathartique, nerprun purgatif, tamuje
66. Robinia pseudoacacia (tree) English  français     
Robinia pseudoacacia is a leguminous deciduous tree native to the southeastern United States that has been widely introduced to other parts of North America. It is commonly found in disturbed areas such as old fields, degraded woods, forest edges, and roadsides, but it poses the greatest threat to dry and sand prairies and oak savannas. R. pseudoacacia has been planted on reclaimed land to control erosion and has been used for ornamental purposes. It reproduces vigorously by root suckering and stump sprouting to form groves of trees interconnected by a common root system.
Common Names: acacia blanc, black locust, false acacia, Post locust, robinia akacjowa, robinier, robinier faux acacia, robinier faux-acacia, yellow locust
Synonyms: Robinia pseudoacacia var. rectissima (L.) Raber
67. Rosa multiflora (shrub) English     
Rosa multiflora is a perennial shrub that forms dense, impenetrable thickets of vegetation . It colonises roadsides, old fields, pastures, prairies, savannas, open woodlands and forest edges and may also invade dense forests where disturbance provides canopy gaps. It reproduces by seed and by forming new plants that root from the tips of arching canes that contact the ground. Rosa multiflora is tolerant of a wide range of soil and environmental conditions and is thought to be limited by intolerance to extreme cold temperatures. Many species of birds and mammals feed on the hips of Rosa multiflora; dispersing the seeds widely. R. multiflora can colonise gaps in late-successional forests, even though these forests are thought to be relatively resistant to invasion by non-native species. It invades pasture areas, degrades forage quality, reduces grazing area and agricultural productivity and can cause severe eye and skin irritation in cattle. There are many strategies available to manage and control R. multiflora involving physical, chemical and biological means.
Common Names: baby rose, Japanese rose, multiflora rose, seven-sisters rose
Synonyms: Rosa cathayensis (Rehd. & Wilson) Bailey
68. Sagina procumbens (herb) English     
Sagina procumbens is a herb native to Eurasia and North Africa. It has become naturalised in temperate regions and is invasive in some sub-Antarctic islands. It forms dense mats, threatening the integrity of terrestrial ecosystems. Once it becomes established it can be difficult to eradicate due to its persistence in the seed bank.
Common Names: beads, birdeye pearlwort, birdseye, birdseye pearlwort, mossy pearlwort, pearlwort, procumbent pearlwort, spreading pearlwort
69. Salix cinerea (tree, shrub) English     
Salix cinerea can be classified as a shrub or small tree. It has become particularly invasive in the Australasian-Pacific region where it is extremely hardy and tolerant of a wide range of soils and habitats, including areas that were previously uninhabited. Salix cinerea will obstruct and divert streams, invading shallow water by the layering of branches and toppling of over-mature, live stems. Displacement of native vegetation occurs with a loss of biodiversity, and reduction in the quantity and quality. The root system can modify banks and streams, eliminating niches for a variety of organisms.
Common Names: asch Weide , graa pil , Grau Weide , gray sallow, gray willow, pussy willow, salice cerognolo , saule cendré , wierzba szara
Synonyms: Salix acuminata Mill., Salix aquatica Sm., Salix cinerea f. tricolor Dippel
70. Salmo salar (fish) English  français   
Salmo salar ranks among the most popularly cultivated fish in the world. Commercial stocks have inflicted significant impacts of wild populations of wild salmon and other fish by way of competition, hybridization, and spread of disease. Great care should be taken to protect these wild fish populations while cultivating S. salar.
Common Names: alabalik atlantik, Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos', Atlanterhavslaks, Atlantic salmon , Atlantic salmon, Atlantischer salmon, Atlantisk laks, black salmon, bradan, braddan, breeder, caplin-scull salmon, common atlantic salmon, echter lachs, fiddler, grayling, grilse, grilt, gullspångslax, hengst, hoplax, Ijle zalm, Jacobzalm, kapisalirksoak, kapisilik, kavisilik, kebleriksorsoak, kelt, kumaliq, kutenut lohi, k'wit'thet, k'wolexw, lachs, laks, laks, laks atlantisk, landlocked salmon, las, lax, lax, lax, lohi, losos, losos, losos, losos atlantsky, losos obecný, losos szlachetny a. atlantycki, N. Atlantic salmon, nedfaldslaks, ouananiche, ouinanish, outside salmon, parr, saama, saamakutaak, saamarug, sake masu-rui, salmao, salmão, salmâo-do-atlântico, sãlmao-do-atlântico, salmling, salmo, salmó, salmon, salmón, salmón del atlántico, salmon peel, salmone, salmone atlantico, salmone del reno, sâma, saumon atlantique , saumon d'eau douce, schaanexw, sea salmon, sebago salmon, semga, shamet skelex, shmexwalsh, silver salmon, sináech, skællaks, sk'wel'eng's schaanexw, slhop' schaanexw, slink, smolt, solomos, solomós, somon de atlantic, spak'ws schaanexw, spring fish, spring salmon, st'thkway', tacon atlantique, unaniche, vraklax, winnish, zalm
Synonyms: Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795, Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784, Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865, Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829, Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866, Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772, Salmo nobilis Pallas, 1814, Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832, Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803, Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803, Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912, Salmo salar brevipes relictus Berg, 1932, Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971, Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962, Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792, Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863, Trutta salar (Linnaeus, 1758)
71. Salmo trutta (fish) English  français     
Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
Common Names: an breac geal, aure, bachforelle, blacktail, breac geal, brook trout, brown trout, denizalabaligi, denizalasi, Europäische Forelle, finnock, forelle, galway sea trout, gillaroo, gwyniedyn, havørred, havsöring, herling, hirling, kumzha, k'wsech, lachförch, lachsforelle, lassföhren, losos taimen, losos' taimen, mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar, meerforelle, meritaimen, morska postrv, morskaya forel', orange fin, öring, orkney sea trout, ørred, ørret, pastrav de mare, peal, pstruh morsky, pstruh obecný, pstruh obecný severomorský, pstruh obycajný, salmo trota, salmon trout, sea trout, sewin, siwin, sjøaure, sjøørret, sjourrioi, taimen, thalasopestrofa, troc, troc wedrowna, trota fario, trout, trucha, trucha común, trucha marina, truita, truite brune, truite brune de mer, truite de mer, truite d'europe, truta marisca, truta-de-lago, truta-fário, truta-marisca, urriði, whiting, whitling, zeeforel
Synonyms: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
72. Salsola tragus (shrub) English     
Salsola tragus is an annual weed that begins life as a typical multiple branched bush but then takes on a spherical form. Once the spherical form is achieved the plant breaks at the soil line and becomes a tumbleweed which is blown by the wind, spreading thousands of seeds. It is abundant in semi-desert regions and is a typical plant of salty soils, where rainfall is not abundant. It infests range and semi-arid pasture lands as well as cropland, railroad, and highway rights of way, as well as vacant agricultural, residential and industrial areas. Salsola tragus is a road hazard, as tumbling plants can surprise drivers and cause traffic accidents. It is also responsible for allergic sensitisation in Europe and North America. It should be noted that nitrates and soluble oxalates accumulate in the plants photosynthetic parts at levels poisonous to sheep.
Common Names: ci sha peng, hari-hijikii, Russian tumbleweed, Russian-cactus, Russian-thistle, soude épineuse, soude roulante, spineless saltwort, tumbleweed, Ukraine Salzkraut
Synonyms: Salsola australis R. Br., Salsola iberica auct., Salsola kali auct. w. N. Amer., Salsola kali subsp. iberica (Sennen & Pau) Rilke, Salsola kali subsp. ruthenica (Iljin) Soó, Salsola kali subsp. tragus (L.) Nyman, Salsola kali var. tenuifolia Tausch, Salsola pestifer A. Nelson, Salsola ruthenica Iljin, Salsola tragus subsp. iberica Sennen & Pau
73. Setaria verticillata (grass) English     
Setaria verticillata is a native European grass, invading agricultural, urban, and other disturbed areas throughout North America, Central America, South America Africa, Asia, and the North and South Pacific. A problematic crop weed S. verticillata, has inflicted considerable environmental and economic costs, is known to adapt to local conditions rapidly, and has developed resistance to atrazine and other C 1/5 herbicides.
Common Names: almorejo, almorejo verticilado, alorejo, amor de hortelano, bristly foxtail, bur bristle grass, bur grass, capim-grama, carreig, cola de zorro, dukhain, fieno stellino, foxtail, hooked bristlegrass, kamala, khishin, kirpi dari, Kletten Borstenhirse, kolvhirs, Kransnaaldaar, lagartera, lossaig, mau‘ pilipili , milha-verticilada, oehoe, panico maggiore, panissola, pata de gallina, pega-pega, pega-saias, quam el-far, Quirl Bortenhirse, rabo de zorro, rough bristle grass, setaire verticillée, setaria spondyloti, whorled pigeon grass, Wirtel Borstenhirse, yah hang chnig-chok, zacate pegarropa, zaratsukienokorogusa
Synonyms: Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) (Scribn.), Ixophorus verticillatus (L.) (Nash, 1859), Panicum adhaerens (Forssk., 1775), Panicum aparine (Steud., 1854) , Panicum asperum (Lamk., 1778), Panicum respiciens (A. Rich., 1854), Panicum rottleri (Nees, 1841) , Panicum verticillatum (L., 1762), Panicum verticillatum L., Pennisetum respiciens (A. Rich., 1851) , Pennisetum verticillatum (L.) (Nash, 1817), Pennisetum verticillatum R. Br., Setaria adhaerens (Forssk., 1919), Setaria ambigua (Guss.), Setaria aparine (Stued. 1912), Setaria carnei (A.S. Hitchc.), Setaria nubica (Link), Setaria respiciens (A. Rich, 1852), Setaria verticillformis (Dumort.), Setaria virdis (Terracc., 1894)
74. Sonchus asper  English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Sonchus asper is a perennial or annual herb native to Eurasia and Africa. It has been introduced to a wide range of countries around the world, including some sub-Antarctic islands such as Gough Island, Auckland Islands and Campbell Island. It is considered a weed in agricultural systems mainly due to its role in harbouring diseases and pests. It produces large numbers of seeds that are dispersed by wind.
Common Names: chaudronnet, laiteron âpre, laiteron épineux, laiteron piquant, laiteron rude, lastron piquant, perennial sowthistle, prickly sow thistle, prickly sowthistle , prickly sow-thistle, rough sow thistle, serralha áspera, serralha espinhosa, serralha preta, spiny annual sow thistle, spiny sowthistle, spiny-leaf sow-thistle
Synonyms: Sonchus asper (L.) Hill ssp. asper, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill ssp. glaucescens (Jord.) J. Ball, Sonchus asper Linn., Sonchus nymanii Tineo & Guss.
75. Sonchus oleraceus  English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Sonchus oleraceus is an annual herb native to Eurasia and northern Africa. It has been introduced to a wide range of countries around the world. It is a common weed in disturbed areas and is a major problem in agricultural systems mainly due to its role in harbouring diseases and pests. It produces large numbers of seeds that are dispersed by wind.
Common Names: annual sowthistle, colewort, common Milk Sow-thistle, common sowthistle, common sow-thistle, hare's colewort, hare's lettuce, laiteron commun, laiteron maraîcher, laiteron potager, lastron, leita ruga, milk thistle, milky tassel, pualele, serralha branca, serralha macia, smooth sow thistle, soft thistle, sow thistle, sow-thistle, swinies, thalaak
76. Spiraea japonica (shrub) English     
Spiraea japonica is a deciduous, perennial shrub native to Asia that has been introduced to the United States as an ornamental. It aggressively invades disturbed areas and forms dense stands that outcompete native species. Spiraea japonica is found growing along streams, rivers, forest edges, roadsides and fields. It often spreads locally when its hardy seeds are transported along watercourses and in fill dirt.
Common Names: Japanese meadowsweet, Japanese spiraea
Synonyms: Spiraea bumalda Burv., Spiraea japonica var. alpina Maxim.
77. Styela clava (tunicate)
Styela clava is a fouling organism native to the Pacific Coast of Asia. Because of its hardy nature and ability to withstand salinity and temperature fluctuations, Styela clava easily establishes wherever it is introduced. It can reach extreme densities and out-compete native organisms for food in the water column. Styela clava also predate on the larvae of native species causing population declines. It is a nuisance to mussel and oyster farmers.
Common Names: Asian tunicate , club tunicate, leathery sea squirt, rough sea squirt
Synonyms: Bostryorchis clava Redikorzev, 1916, Styela barnharti Ritter and Forsyth, 1917, Styela clava clava Nishikawa, 1991, Styela clava Herdman, 1881, Styela mammiculata Carlisle 1954
78. Tapinoma melanocephalum (insect) English  français 
Tapinoma melanocephalum is known as a tramp ant as its spread around the globe has been assisted by human activities. It is highly flexible in the habitats it occupies, providing there is some form of disturbance allowing it to establish ahead of more dominant ant species, and it nests readily outdoors or indoors. Tapinoma melanocephalum is a household pest, as well as disturbing greenhouse environments and can transport pathogenic microbes in hospitals.
Common Names: albaricoque , awate-konuka-ari , black-headed ant, ghost ant, hormiga bottegaria , house infesting ant , tiny yellow house ant, tramp ant
Synonyms: Formica familiaris Smith, F. 1860, Formica melanocephalum Fabricius, 1793, Formica nana Jerdon, Myrmica pellucida Smith, F. 1857, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius): Mayr, 1862, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australe Santschi 1928, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australis Santschi 1928
79. Tussilago farfara (herb) English     
Tussilago farfara is a perennial herb which spreads mainly through underground rhizomes. During the summer, food is stored in the rhizomes for the following year's early spring growth. Tussilago farfara thrives on gravelly soil and along roadsides. There are management strategies available to combat Tussilago farfara, but if left unchecked it can take over an entire field. It is best to stop Tussilago farfara before it spreads as controlling it once it has become established is difficult. It is believed that Tussilago farfara has some medical benefits.
Common Names: assfoot, British tobacco, bull's-foot, clayweed, cleats, colt-herb, coltsfoot, coughwort, dove-dock, dummyweed, Foalfoot, ginger, gingerroot, gowan, hoofs, horsefoot, horsehoof, kuan dong, pas- d'âne, sowfoot, tussilage , tussilage pas-d'âne
80. Verbascum thapsus (herb) English     
Verbascum thapsus is an erect herb in the family Scrophulariaceae. It is found in neglected meadows and pasture lands, along fencerows and roadsides. It can produce 100,000-180,000 seeds per individual plant and seeds may remain viable for over 100 years. Verbascum thapsus threatens natural meadows and forest openings, where it adapts easily to a wide variety of site conditions and an established population can be extremely difficult to eradicate. Verbascum thapsus was once used as a herbal remedy for bronchitis, colds and congestion.
Common Names: Aaron's-rod , barbasco, big taper , bouillon blanc, common mullein , flannel mullein , flannel plant , flannelleaf , gordolobo comun, great mullein , guardalobo, hag taper , molène, mullein , torches , velvet dock , velvet plant , verbasco, woolly mullein
81. Vulpes vulpes (mammal) English     
The European red fox is probably responsible for declines of some small canids and ground-nesting birds in North America, and numerous small- and medium-sized rodents and marsupials in Australia. A programme to reduce predation pressure on native fauna within the critical weight range of 35 g to 5.5 kg in Western Australia has involved the use of 1080 fox baits.
Common Names: fuchs, lape, lis, raposa, red fox, renard, rev, Rotfuchs, silver, black or cross fox, volpe, vos, zorro
Synonyms: Canis vulpes (Linnaeus 1758)

Biostatus not specified

1. Avian Influenza Virus (micro-organism)
Asian Influenza is a highly contagious disease caused by type A influenza virus. Waterfowl are natural hosts of the disease and are usually asymptomatic. There are two forms of AI: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), which causes rapid mortality particularly in domestic poultry, and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI), which is a milder form. AI can be transmitted through the respiratory secretions or faeces of infected birds and also through contact with contaminated materials or items such as clothing, equipement and vehicles (Horimoto and Kawaoka, 2001).
Common Names: bird flu, fowl plague, HPAI, LPAI
2. Carpodacus mexicanus (bird) English   
Carpodacus mexicanus (house finch) is native to the western United States and Mexico. In 1940, wild birds illegally sold as "Hollywood Finches" in New York were released by dealers anxious to avoid prosecution, and populations now exist throughout eastern North America. In many areas, house finches are not considered a nuisance and are appreciated for their musical song and bright colours. However, they are highly adaptable to urban and suburban environments as they peck and feed on practically all deciduous fruits, berries, grains and seed. Consequently, large populations have become a nuisance, even in their native range, where they have caused economic losses in agricultural areas.
Common Names: house finch, pinzon mexicano
3. Lachnellula willkommii (fungus)
Lachnellula willkommii is a tree disease identified first in Europe and has since made its way to North America. It spreads easily from branch to branch infecting each tree (Larix decidua). Lachnellula willkommii is found in areas that have a high moisture content, in which it thrives.
Common Names: European larch canker
Synonyms: Dasyscypha willkommii, Trichoscyphella willkommii
4. Molothrus ater (bird) English   
Molothrus ater is a small blackbird that can be found in almost every habitat, open woodlands, fields and marginal habitats in between. It is commonly associated with agriculture (cattle pastures, feed lots) and is migratory, spending time year-round in the southern United States, but occurring only during the breeding season in the northern and mountainous regions of the United States. Molothrus ater has undergone a rapid range expansion with habitat alterations, due to forest clearing, domestic cattle grazing, urbanisation and conversion of forested habitats to agricultural land.
Common Names: brown-headed cowbird, buffalo bird, cowbird
5. Myrmica rubra (insect)
Myrmica rubra, commonly known as the European fire ant, is an aggressive ant species which has been introduced from its native Eurasia to eastern North America, where it appears able to reach sizeable densities. It has a painful sting, and also impacts on native ants and other invertebrates, and reptiles.
Common Names: European fire ant, European imported fire ant, Kiiro-kushike-ari
Synonyms: Atta rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmecia) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmica) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica rubra (Linnaeus), Manica rubra (Linnaeus), Myrmica laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica laevinodis var. bruesi (Weber), Myrmica levinodis (Dalla Torre), Myrmica longiscapus (Curtis), Myrmica rubra laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica rubra r. champlaini (Forel), Myrmica rubra st. laevinodis (Nylander)
6. Ostrea edulis (mollusc) English   
Ostrea edulis (the European flat oyster) is native to Europe and the Mediterranean. It has been introduced to the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for aquaculture. Usually found in muddy areas, O. edulis has long been harvested for food. Over-harvesting in its native range, however, has caused it to be reintroduced to Europe. While in Atlantic waters, O. edulis became infected with the disease bonamiasis (Bonamia ostrae). This disease has caused widespread mortality in the vast majority of O. edulis.
Common Names: common oyster, edible oyster, eetbare oester, Essbare euster, European flat oyster, European oyster, huître comestible, huître plate Européenne, istiride, native oyster, oester, ostra Europa, platte oester, stridia, stridie, ustritsa
Synonyms: Ostrea adriatica Lam-Middendorff 1848, Ostrea taurica Krynicki 1837
7. Phalaris arundinacea (grass) English     
Phalaris arundinacea is a cool-season perennial grass that grows successfully in northern latitudes and can be invasive in wet habitats. Since it is tolerant of freezing temperatures and begins to grow very early in the spring, it can outcompete many other species. Any moist, fertile habitat provides good conditions for P. arundinacea. It is considered a serious threat in wet meadows, wetlands, marshes, fens, old fields, floodplains, wet prairies, roadsides and ditchbanks. The invasion is promoted by disturbances, such as ditching of wetlands, stream channels, deforestation of swamp forests, sedimentation, overgrazing and intentional planting. P. arundinacea tolerates frequent and prolonged flooding as well as submergence. It is moderately tolerant of drought and saline or alkaline soils. P. arundinacea spreads within sites by creeping rhizomes and forms dense and impenetrable mats of vegetation. New sites are colonised by seeds. P. arundinacea tolerates a small amount of shade, such as forest edges but not closed forest interiors.
Common Names: alpiste roseau, caniço-malhado, gardener's-garters, hierba cinta, kusa-yoshi, pasto cinto, reed Canary grass, ribbon grass, Rohrglanzgras, variegated grass
Synonyms: Phalaris arundinacea f. variegata (Parn.) Druce, Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L., Phalaris japonica Steud., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Raeusch., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Raeusch. var. picta (L.) Tzvelev

Native Species

1. Alosa pseudoharengus (fish) English   
Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife) is a small, fish species indigenous to the east coast of North America that causes several major effects in aquatic environments. Alewife migrate from the ocean to spawn in fresh water. It can occupy all strata of a land-locked body of water throughout the course of the year. A. pseudoharengus alters the zooplankton community as it is an extremely efficient feeder on zooplankton, competing with other fish species for food. Alewife feed on the eggs and larvae of other fish and thereby can cause other fish species to decline. It is often stocked as a forage fish.
Common Names: alewife, bigeye herring, branch herring, freshwater herring, gaspareau, gray herring, grayback, kyack, mooneye, sawbelly, white herring
Synonyms: Pomolobus pseudoharengus
2. Anopheles quadrimaculatus (insect) English     
Anopheles quadrimaculatus a mosquito is the chief vector of malaria in North America. This species prefers habitats with well-developed beds of submergent, floating leaf or emergent aquatic vegetation. Larvae are typically found in sites with abundant rooted aquatic vegetation, such as rice fields and adjacent irrigation ditches, freshwater marshes and the vegetated margins of lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
Common Names: common malaria mosquito, Gabelmücke
Synonyms: Anopheles annulimanus Wulp, 1867
3. Branta canadensis (bird)
Branta canadensis, Canada geese are very adaptable. They can live in a broad range of habitats, which includes cohabitation with humans. In addition, Canada geese are highly fecund and lacking in amount of predators. Population growth of this species over the past years has caused problems in many different areas including environmental, aesthetic, and human health. Canada geese can either be migratory or resident, which enables them to occupy a large geographical range. This species has created issues not only in areas where it has been introduced, but also in its native locations due to the population explosion of the species. Although this species has created problems, it also has been of economic use as well as being, at times, an enjoyable aspect of wildlife.
Common Names: bernache du Canada, branta kanadarra, Canada goose, ganso Canadiense, ganso do Canadá, oca del Canadá
Synonyms: Anas canadensis Linnaeus, 1758, Branta canadensis interior Todd, 1938, Branta canadensis maxima Delacour, 1951, Branta canadensis moffitti Aldrich, 1946 , Branta canadensis parvipes Cassin, 1852
4. Crepidula fornicata (mollusc) English   
Crepidula fornicata is a protandrous hermaphrodite mollusc, which means that the animals start their lives as males and then subsequently may change sex and develop into females. This species can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Populations are particularly well developed in wave-protected areas such as bays, estuaries or sheltered sides of wave-exposed islands. C. fornicata competes with other filter-feeding invertebrates for food and space, and often occur in enormous numbers. Few management options are available to combat this species. Dredging operations to clear slipper limpets from oyster beds have been attempted in some areas, but it was concluded that further spread of the species could not be prevented.
Common Names: American limpet, common Atlantic slippersnail, crépidule, oyster-pest, Pantoffelsnecke, slipper limpet, Toffelsneg
Synonyms: Crepidula densata Conrad, Crepidula maculata Rigacci, Crepidula mexicana Rigacci, Crepidula nautiloides auct. non Lesson, Crepidula roseae Petuch, Crepidula violacea Rigacci, Crepidula virginica Conrad, Crypta nautarum Mörch, Patella fornicata Linné
5. Gemma gemma (mollusc) English   
Gemma gemma, commonly known as the gem clam or amethyst gem clam, is a small benthic organism found in marine, brackish and freshwater environments along the Atlantic coast. The gem clam has been introduced to the California and Washington coasts of the United States. It is not competively aggressive against native populations and has minimal impact, but is oppurtunistic. An extraneous factor, such as increased predation on native fauna, will allow it to competively increase its population.
Common Names: Amethyst gem clam, gem clam
Synonyms: Cyrena purpurea (Lea, 1842), Gemma fretensis (Rehder, 1939), Gemma totteni (Simpson, 1860), Parastarte concentica (Dall, 1889), Totteniana gemma (Totten, 1834), Venus gemma (Totten, 1834), Venus manhattensis (Jay, 1852)
6. Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana) (amphibian) English     
The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana)) is native to North America. It has been introduced all over the world to over 40 countries and four continents. Many introductions have been intentional with the purpose of establishing new food sources for human consumption. Other populations have been established from unintentional escapes from bullfrog farms. Consequences of the introduction of non-native amphibians to native herpetofauna can be severe. The American bullfrog has been held responsible for outbreaks of the chytrid fungus found to be responsible for declining amphibian populations in Central America and elsewhere. They are also important predators and competitors of endangered native amphibians and fish. The control of this invasive in Europe partly relies upon increasing awareness, monitoring and education about the dangers of releasing pets into the wild. Strict laws are also in place to prevent further introductions. Eradication is achieved largely by physical means including shooting, spears/gigs, bow and arrow, nets and traps.
Common Names: bullfrog, grenouille taureau, North American bullfrog, Ochsenfrosch, rana toro, Stierkikker
Synonyms: Rana catesbiana Shaw, 1802
7. Nymphaea odorata (aquatic plant) English     
Nymphaea odorata is an aquatic plant with floating leaves that can thrive in a variety of aquatic habitats and tolerates variable environmental conditions. It forms dense floating mats of vegetation that prevent light from penetrating through the surface. Distributions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic insects and fish populations are altered. Nymphaea odorata can also restrict waterfront access and eliminate swimming opportunities.
Common Names: American waterlily, American white waterlily, fragrant waterlily, white waterlily
Synonyms: Castalia lekophylla Small, Castalia minor (Sims) Nyar, Castalia minor (Sims) DC. ex Small , Castalia odorata (Ait.) Wood, Castalia odorata (Aiton) Woodv. & Wood forma rosea (Pursh) Britton , Castalia odorata (Aiton) Woodv. & Wood var. gigantea (Tricker) Fernald , Castalia odorata (Aiton) Woodv. & Wood var. minor (Sims) G.Lawson , Castalia pudica Salisb. , Castalia reniformis (Walter) Trel. ex Branner & Coville , Castalia reniformis DC., Cyamus reniformis (Walter) Pursh , Leuconymphaea odorata (Aiton) MacMill. , Leuconymphaea parkeriana (Lehm.) Kuntze , Leuconymphaea reniformis (Walter) Kuntze , Nelumbo reniformis (Walter) Willd. , Nuphar lekophylla (Small) Cory , Nymphaea alba L. var. canadensis Graham , Nymphaea lekophylla (Small) Cory , Nymphaea maculata Raf. , Nymphaea minor (Sims) DC., Nymphaea odorata Aiton forma rubra (Guillon) Conard , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. chlorhiza Raf. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. glabra Casp. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. parviflora Raf. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. rubella Raf. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. rubra Guillon , Nymphaea odorata var. gigantea Tricker, Nymphaea odorata var. godfreyi Ward, Nymphaea odorata var. minor Sims, Nymphaea odorata var. rosea Pursh, Nymphaea odorata var. stenopetala Fern., Nymphaea odorata var. villosa Caspary, Nymphaea parkeriana Lehm. , Nymphaea reniformis Walter , Nymphaea rosea Raf. , Nymphaea spiralis Raf.
8. Phragmites australis (grass) English     
Phragmites australis grows on level ground in tidal and non-tidal marshes, lakes, swales and backwater areas of rivers and streams. It is found on sites that are seasonally flooded with not more than 50cm of water. It grows on most soil textures from fine clay to sandy loams and is somewhat tolerant of saline or alkaline conditions. Phragmites australis is especially common along railroad tracks, roadside ditches and piles of dredge spoil, wherever slight depressions will hold water. Throughout most of its range, it typically forms closed mono-dominant stands in both disturbed and pristine areas. It is capable of vigorous vegetative reproduction and its seeds, which are normally dispersed by wind, may be transported by birds that nest among the reeds. The seeds are also dispersed by water. Newly opened sites may be colonised by seed or by rhizome fragments carried to the area in soils and on machinery or naturally in floodwaters. Invasion and continued spread is aided by disturbances or stresses such as pollution, alteration of the natural hydrologic regime, dredging and increased sedimentation. In coastal marshes, spread of Phragmites australis is also facilitated by natural disturbance caused by tidal movements of dead vegetation.
Common Names: cane, caniço, carrizo común, common reed, ditch reed, giant reed, giant reedgrass, phragmites, reed grass, roseau, roseau cane, roseau commun, Schilf, schilfrohr, yellow cane
Synonyms: Arundo aggerum Kittel, Arundo altissima Benth., Arundo australis Cav., Arundo barbata Burchell, Arundo graeca Link, Arundo isiaca Delile, Arundo karka Retz., Arundo maxima Forssk., Arundo palustris Salisb., Arundo phragmites L., Arundo phragmites L. var. humilis (DeNot.) Asch. & Graebn., Arundo phragmites L. var. isiaca Griseb., Arundo vallatoria Gray, Arundo vulgaris Lam., Calamagrostis nigricans Merat, Cynodon phragmites (L.) Raspail, Czernya arundinacea C.Presl, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. subsp. altissimus (Benth.) Clayton, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) C.F.Reed, Phragmites berlandieri E.Fourn., Phragmites communis Trin., Phragmites communis Trin. forma flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. forma isiacus (Griseb.) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. forma nigricans (Merat) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) A.Löve & D.Löve, Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. isiacus (Griseb.) Oppenh. & Evenari, Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. maximus (Forssk.) Clayton, Phragmites communis Trin. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) Fernald, Phragmites communis Trin. var. flavescens Custor ex Gaudin, Phragmites communis Trin. var. humilis (DeNot.) Parl., Phragmites communis Trin. var. isiacus (Griseb.) Coss., Phragmites communis Trin. var. vulgaris Boenn., Phragmites flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Hegetschw. & Heer, Phragmites humilis DeNot., Phragmites isiacus Kunth, Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Phragmites maximus (Forssk.) Chiov., Phragmites maximus (Forssk.) Chiov. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) Moldenke, Phragmites nakaiana Honda, Phragmites phragmites (L.) H.Karst., Phragmites vulgaris Crep., Phragmites vulgaris Crep. subsp. maximus (Forssk.) Chiov., Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Brand, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. humilis (DeNot.) Brand, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. isiacus (Griseb.) T.Durand & Schinz, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. typicus Beck, Phragmites vulnerans Asch., Reimaria diffusa Spreng., Trichoon karka (Retz.) Roth, Trichoon phragmites (L.) Rendle, Xenochloa arundinacea Lichtenstein ex Roem. & Schult.
9. Salmo salar (fish) English  français   
Salmo salar ranks among the most popularly cultivated fish in the world. Commercial stocks have inflicted significant impacts of wild populations of wild salmon and other fish by way of competition, hybridization, and spread of disease. Great care should be taken to protect these wild fish populations while cultivating S. salar.
Common Names: alabalik atlantik, Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos', Atlanterhavslaks, Atlantic salmon , Atlantic salmon, Atlantischer salmon, Atlantisk laks, black salmon, bradan, braddan, breeder, caplin-scull salmon, common atlantic salmon, echter lachs, fiddler, grayling, grilse, grilt, gullspångslax, hengst, hoplax, Ijle zalm, Jacobzalm, kapisalirksoak, kapisilik, kavisilik, kebleriksorsoak, kelt, kumaliq, kutenut lohi, k'wit'thet, k'wolexw, lachs, laks, laks, laks atlantisk, landlocked salmon, las, lax, lax, lax, lohi, losos, losos, losos, losos atlantsky, losos obecný, losos szlachetny a. atlantycki, N. Atlantic salmon, nedfaldslaks, ouananiche, ouinanish, outside salmon, parr, saama, saamakutaak, saamarug, sake masu-rui, salmao, salmão, salmâo-do-atlântico, sãlmao-do-atlântico, salmling, salmo, salmó, salmon, salmón, salmón del atlántico, salmon peel, salmone, salmone atlantico, salmone del reno, sâma, saumon atlantique , saumon d'eau douce, schaanexw, sea salmon, sebago salmon, semga, shamet skelex, shmexwalsh, silver salmon, sináech, skællaks, sk'wel'eng's schaanexw, slhop' schaanexw, slink, smolt, solomos, solomós, somon de atlantic, spak'ws schaanexw, spring fish, spring salmon, st'thkway', tacon atlantique, unaniche, vraklax, winnish, zalm
Synonyms: Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795, Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784, Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865, Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829, Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866, Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772, Salmo nobilis Pallas, 1814, Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832, Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803, Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803, Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912, Salmo salar brevipes relictus Berg, 1932, Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971, Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962, Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792, Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863, Trutta salar (Linnaeus, 1758)
10. Salvelinus namaycush (fish) English   
Salvelinus namaycush is a freshwater fish of the trout family, found primarily in lakes and large rivers worldwide. The distribution is broad due to the sport fishing industry and the demand for Salvelinus namaycush. In many of the introduced locations Salvelinus namaycush is an invasive species and reduces native biodiversity through competition and predation of endemic species. There have been some successful attempts to control Salvelinus namaycush using gillnetting and trapping.
Common Names: akalukpik, Amerikanische Seeforelle, Amerikanischer seesaibling, Amerikansk søørred, Canadarødding, Canadaröding, Canadarøding, Canadaröye, Canadarøye, Col-lic-puk, cristivomer, Great Lakes char, Great Lakes trout, grey trout, harmaanieriä, hupin, iclook, idlorak, ihok, iiuuraq, ikalukpik, ikhiloktok, ikhloark, ilortoq, iqluq, ishioraliktâq, islorak, isok, isuuq, isuuqiaq, isuuqiq, isuuraaryuk, isuuraq, ivitaruk, kanadarødding, kanadaröding, kanadarøding, keyteeleek, k'wit'thet, k'wsech, lake charr, lake trout, laker, landlocked salmon, Mackinaw trout, Masamacush, milaqkkâyoq, mountain trout, murta, naaqtuuq, näluarryuk, namaycush, namekus, nauktoq, nemakos, nemeks, némèkus, omble d'Amérique, omble du Canada, salmon trout, salvelino-lacustre, severoamerikanskiy kristivomer, shamet skelex, shmexwalsh, sigguayaq, siscowet, siscowet, siuktuuk, siuyuktuuq, siven obrovký, sivon velký, sk'wel'eng's schaanexw, slhop' schaanexw, spak'ws schaanexw, taque, togue, touladi, trota di lago americana, trucha lacustre, truite de lac d'Amérique, truite grise, truta-do-lago
Synonyms: Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum, 1792), Cristovomer namayacush (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo amethystinus (Mitchill, 1818, Salmo amethystus (Mitchill, 1818, Salmo confinis (DeKay, 1842), Salmo ferox (Perley, 1852), Salmo namaycush (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo pallidus (Rafinesque, 1817), Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1792)
11. Spartina alterniflora (grass) English     
Spartina alterniflora commonly known as smooth cord grass is a species that inhabits marsh habitat in its native range, where introduced It is known to establish itself in wave-protected mud and sand flats and grow very quickly into dense impenetrable stands. When introduced this species can have a negative effect on native species including some endangered. It can also hybridize with native non-invasive species of Spartina and offspring are known to have increased vigor and growth rates than either parent.
Common Names: Atlantic cordgrass , saltmarsh cordgrass , salt-water cordgrass, smooth cordgrass
Synonyms: Spartina alterniflora var. glabra (Muhl. ex Bigelow) Fern., Spartina alterniflora var. pilosa (Merr.) Fern.

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland