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94 invasive species found

Alien Species

1. Acacia mearnsii (tree, shrub) English  français     
Acacia mearnsii is a fast growing leguminous (nitrogen fixing) tree. Native to Australia, it is often used as a commercial source of tannin or a source of fire wood for local communities. It threatens native habitats by competing with indigenous vegetation, replacing grass communities, reducing native biodiversity and increasing water loss from riparian zones.
Common Names: acácia-negra, Australian acacia, Australische akazie, black wattle, swartwattel, uwatela
Synonyms: A. decurrens var. mollis, Acacia mollissima
2. Achatina fulica (mollusc) English  français     
Achatina fulica feeds on a wide variety of crop plants and may present a threat to local flora. Populations of this pest often crash over time (20 to 60 years) and this should not be percieved as effectiveness of the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) as a biocontrol agent. Natural chemicals from the fruit of Thevetia peruviana have activity against A. fulica and the cuttings of the alligator apple (Annona glabra) can be used as repellent hedges against A. fulica.
Common Names: achatine, Afrikanische Riesenschnecke, escargot géant d'Afrique, giant African land snail, giant African snail
Synonyms: Lissachatina fulica (Bowdich 1822)
3. Acridotheres tristis (bird) English  français     
The common myna (Acridotheres tristis), also called the Indian myna, is a highly commensal Passerine that lives in close association with humans. It competes with small mammals and bird for nesting hollows and on some islands, such as Hawaii and Fiji, it preys on other birds' eggs and chicks. It presents a threat to indigenous biota, particularly parrots and other birdlife, in Australia and elsewhere.
Common Names: brun majna, Calcutta myna, common myna, German Indischer mynah, Hirtenmaina, hjarðmænir, house myna, Indian myna, Indian mynah, kabairohakka, maina, mainá común, maina comune, mainato, majna brunatna, majna obecná, manu, manu kaomani, manu kavamani, manu rataro, manu teve, Martin triste, merle des Moluques, mynah, pihamaina, piru, talking myna, treurmaina
Synonyms: Acridotheres tristas (Linnaeus, 1766)
4. Aedes albopictus (insect) English     
The Asian tiger mosquito is spread via the international tire trade (due to the rainwater retained in the tires when stored outside). In order to control its spread such trading routes must be highlighted for the introduction of sterilisation or quarantine measures. The tiger mosquito is associated with the transmission of many human diseases, including the viruses: Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis.
Common Names: Asian tiger mosquito, forest day mosquito, mosquito tigre, moustique tigre, tiger mosquito, tigermücke, zanzare tigre
Synonyms: Culex albopictus Skuse, 1895, Culex albopictus Skuse,1895
5. Agave sisalana (succulent)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Agave sisalana is a member of the Agavaceae family and is native to Mexico. It is known primarily for its fibre production, and is grown commercially worldwide for the fibre industry. It is a large and fast-propagating plant, which can cause problems in areas where it is invasive as it can exclude and outcompete native plant species. A. sisalana is invasive in Australia, Madagascar, South Africa, the United States and on multiple islands in the Pacific.
Common Names: agave, century plant, dali, garingboom, hemp-plant, Maguey de Sisal, malina, mescal, natali, ndali, sisal, sisal agave, sisal hemp, te rob', te robu
Synonyms: Agave rigida var. sisalana (Perrine) Engelm.
6. Ageratum conyzoides (herb) English     
Ageratum conyzoides is a weed distributed in many tropical and subtropical countries and is often difficult to control. It is an established weed in the Himalayas where several invasion research studies have been conducted in the Shiwalik Ranges. It has been found that Ageratum significantly reduces total biomass and species number, that is, biodiversity. It also changes vegetation community structure and modifies the soil regieme.
Common Names: a‘amia, agerato, agerato, ageratum, ageratum, asipukpuk, asipukpuk, azier françois, bahu-bahu, bahug-bahug, bandotan, barba de chivo, baume, baume blanc, baume mauve, belohanua, berokan, billy goat weed, blue Ageratum, blue flowered groundsel, blue top, boko-boko-wiwiri, botebotekoro, botekoro, bouton, bouton blan, bouton ble, budbuda, budbuda, bulak-manok, bulak-manok, camará apeba, camará iapó, camará japê, camará-opela, catinga de barrão, catinga de bode, catinga de bode, celestina, chuva, co cut-heo, efoe momoe, erva de santa maria, erva de santa-lúcia, erva de são joão, erva de são josé, goat weed, gobu, gundhaubon, herbe a femme, herbe a pisser, herbe a sorcier, herbe de bouc, hierba del perro, hierba del zorro, hierbe de chivo, huarmi, huarmi, hwo-hsiang-ji, imiesu, jambo-serila, kakalding, kakalding, kakkoazami, kamabuag, kamabuag, kolokong-kabanyo, kolokong-kabayo, kulong-kogong-babae, lau taioti, Leberbalsam, macela de são joão, macela francesa, mahakaua, maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula, maire vaihi, maria preta, mata mothemothe, matruço, mbotembotekoro, mentrasto, mother brinkly, mumutung, Neela Phulnu, ngmak, olloowaisiip, oochunt, pain doux, petit pain doux, Phulkuri, pica roxo, picão roxo, ruput tahi-ayam, sekose sea, sogovanua, songovanua, tae‘oti, tamasondji bata, te‘ehosi, tekote tea, tropic ageratum, tropical whiteweed, white weed, winter weed, ya-sap-raeng, ya-tabsua, zerisson blanc
Synonyms: Ageratum album Willd. Ex Steud. 1821, Ageratum caeruleum Hort. ex. Poir., Ageratum coeruleum Desf., Ageratum conyzoides var hirtum (Lam.) DC. 1836, Ageratum cordifolium Roxb. 1832, Ageratum hirsutum Lam. 1810, Ageratum hirtum Lam. 1783, Ageratum humile Salisb. 1796, Ageratum latifolium Car., Ageratum maritimum H.B.K., Ageratum mexicanum Sims., Ageratum nanum Hort. Ex Sch. Bip. 1858, Ageratum obtusifolium Lam., Ageratum odoratum Vilm. 1866, Ageratum suffruiticosum Regal 1854, Cacalia mentrasto Vell.
7. Bubulcus ibis (bird) English   
Bubulcus ibis are small stocky herons that associate with grazing species of mammals both domestic and wild. They have strong migratory instincts and disperse thousands of miles in the direction of their choosing. They are, for the most part, self-introduced. They have been observed 'feeding on' native species of birds. They are known to host ticks that could introduce and spread certain tick-borne diseases.
Common Names: Afrikaanse koereiger, buff-backed heron, cattle egret, depulgabuey, elephant bird, garcilla bueyera, garcilla garrapatera, garcita de ganado, garrapatera, garrapatosa, garza de ganado, garza de vaquèra, garza ganadera, héron garde-boeufs, hippopotomus egret, Indian cattle egret, rhinoceros egret
Synonyms: Ardea ibis, Ardeola ibis, Bulbucus ibis
8. Canis lupus (mammal) English  français   
Canis lupus (the dog) is possibly the first animal to have been domesticated by humans. It has been selectively bred into a wide range of different forms. They are found throughout the world in many different habitats, both closely associated with humans and away from habitation. They are active hunters and have significant negative impacts on a wide range of native fauna.
Common Names: domestic dog, feral dog, guri, Haushund, kuri, kurio, pero, peto, uli
Synonyms: Canis dingo Blumenbach, 1780, Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758
9. Carassius auratus (fish) English  français   
Native to Asia, goldfish (Carassius auratus) have been introduced worldwide due to their popularity as pond and aquarium fish. Releases, both intentional and unintentional, have meant that this species has formed wild populations in many new locations. Concerns have been raised about the impacts that goldfish have on the aquatic community, including increasing turbidity, predation upon native fish, and helping to facilitate algal blooms.
Common Names: aranyhal, caras rosu, caras-auriu, carassin doré, carassio dorato, carpa dorada, cheisopsaro, chernyi teleskop, chrysopsaro, chryssopsaro, ciprino dorato, cyprin doré, dorade de Chine, edible goldfish, funa, gibel carp, gold crucian carp, golden carp, Goldfisch, goldfish, goudvis, Goudvis, Guldfisk, guldfisk, gullfisk, I'a'ula'ula, ikan mas, kam tsak, kam ue, kapr zlatý, kaprík zlatý, karas, karas cinsky, karas stríbritý, karas stribrity vychodoasijsky, karas vetší, karas zlatý, karas zlocisty, karas zlocisty a. chinski, karuss, kin-buna, kirmizi balik, kultakala, mahi-e-hoz, native carp, ngan tsak, peixe dourado, peixe encarnado, peixe-dourado, pesce dorato, pesco rosso, peshk i kuq, pez dorado, pez rojo, pimpão, poisson rouge, serebryanyi karas', sølvkaruds, sølvkarusse, tawes, tsak ue, zlatnakarracuda, zolotaja rybka
Synonyms: Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Carassius auratus cantonensis (Tchang, 1933), Carassius carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Carassius chinensis (Gronow, 1854), Carassius encobia (Bonaparte, 1845), Carassius gibelioides (non Cantor, 1842), Cyprinus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Cyprinus langsdorfi (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1842), Cyprinus maillardi (Guichenot, 1863), Cyprinus mauritianus (Bennett, 1832), Cyprinus thoracatus (Valenciennes, 1842), Leuciscus auratus (Mauduyt, 1849-51)
10. Cecropia peltata (tree) English  français     
Cecropia peltata is a fast-growing, short-lived tree that grows in neotropical regions. It is light-demanding and rapidly invades disturbed areas, such as forest canopy gaps, roadsides, lava flows, agricultural sites, urban locations, and other disturbed areas. It naturally occurs in tropical Central and South America, as well as some Caribbean islands and has been introduced to Malaysia, Africa, and Pacific Islands. It may be replacing, or competing with, other native pioneer species in some locations.
Common Names: bois cannon, faux ricin, guarumo, papyrus géant, parasolier, pisse-roux, pop-a-gun, snakewood tree, Trompetenbaum, trumpet tree, trumpet wood, yagrumo hembra
Synonyms: Ambaiba pelata Kuntze, Coilotapalus peltata Britton
11. Cecropia schreberiana (tree, shrub)
Cecropia schreberiana is a neotropical pioneer tree native to the Antilles and northern South America. It is strongly associated with post-hurricane, or other disturbance, colonization. It has been reported introduced in Hawaii, West Africa, Malaysia, Madagascar, and French Polynesia. It is known to establish dense stands in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico and has invasive potential to reduce biodiversity and displace native species.
Common Names: grayumo hembra, llagrumo hembra, pumpwood, trumpet tree, trumpet wood, yagrumo hembra
Synonyms: Cecropia peltata auct. non L.
12. Cervus nippon (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Shansi Sika, Sika, Sika deer
13. Clidemia hirta (shrub) English  français     
The invasive shrub Clidemia hirta is a problem in tropical forest understories in its introduced range, where it invades gaps in the forest, preventing native plant species from regenerating. The spread of Clidemia hirta has been linked to soil disturbances, particularly that caused by the wild pig, another invasive species. It has proven to negatively effect native ecosystems and is difficult to control in the Hawaiian archipelago. It is feared it will have a similar effect in other regions where it has been introduced such as in various Indian Ocean Islands (Seychelles), the Malaysian Peninsula and parts of Micronesia (Palau).
Common Names: clidemia, clidémie hérissée, faux vatouk, Hirten-Schwarzmundgewaechs, kaurasiga, kauresinga, Koster's curse, kúi, mbona na mbulamakau, ndraunisinga, roinisinga, soap bush, tabac-bœuf, vuti
Synonyms: Melastoma hirtum L.
14. Columba livia (bird) English  français   
Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.
Common Names:  pombo-doméstico, agreste, b? câu, bákteduvvá, balandis, bareski-golumbaika, baresko-golumbo, bjargdúfa, bládúgva, bládúva, bydue, calman-creige, calmane creggey, carrier pigeon, colm aille, colom roquer, colom roquer, colom wyls, colomba salvaria, colomen ddôf, colomen y graig, colomp salvadi, columba da chasa, columba selvadia, columbu agreste, columbu aresti, columbu de is arrocas, colu'r aille, common pigeon, didu, div gulab, divlji golub, dobato, domaci golob, domestic dove, domestic pigeon, dubet, dziwi holb, Felsentaube, feral pigeon, feral rock pigeon, golab miejski¦Golab skalny, golab skalny, golub pecinar, golub pecinar, gradski Golub, güvercin, haitz-uso, Haustaube, Strassentaube, holub domácí, holub skalní, homing pigeon, húsdúfa, kaljutuvi, kalliokyyhky, kawarabato, kawara-bato, kesykyyhky, kieminis, klinšu balodis, klippduva, klippedue, kolombo, kolomm an garrek, naminis karvelis, paloma, paloma bravia, paloma casera, paloma común, paloma de castilla, paloma doméstica, pecinar, pëllumbi i egër i shkëmbit, piccione, piccione domestico, piccione selvatico, piccione selvatico semidomestico, piccione terraiolo, piccione torraiolo, pichon, pigeon, pigeon biset, pigeon biset domestique, pigeon de ville, pigeon domestique, pomba brava, pombo da rocha, pombo o pombo-doméstico, pombo-das-rochas, porumbel de stânca, pustynnik, rock dove, rock dove pigeon, rock pigeon, rotsduif, ruve, sizij golub, sizy Golub, sizyj golub', skalen g'l'b, šyzy holub, szirti galamb, tamduva, tidori, tidu, Tkhakapuyt Aghavni, tudun tal-gebel, tzidu, Verwilderte Haustaube, Xixella, yuan ge, ziwy golub
15. Cyperus rotundus (sedge) English     
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge) is a weed in over 90 countries and the world's worst invasive weed based on its distribution and effect on crops. Its complex underground network of tubers, basal bulbs, roots and rhizomes ensure its ability to survive and reproduce during adverse conditions. Further biological features, such as its adaptation to high temperatures, solar radiation and humidity, have turned this weed into a serious problem in subtropical and even arid regions.
Common Names: ‘oniani lau, ‘oniani rau, ‘oniani tita, alho-bravo, almendra de tierra, balisanga, boto-botonis, brown nut sedge, capim-alho, capim-dandá, castanuela, castañuela, cebollín, chaguan humatag, chufa, coco, coco grass, coquillo, coquillo purpura, coquito, cortadera, hamasuge, herbe à oignons, ivako, junça, juncia, juncia real, kili‘o‘opu, kili'o'opu, mala-apulid, malanga, matie ‘oniani, matie'oniani, mau‘u mokae, mau‘u mokae, mauku ‘oniani, mauku'oniani, mot ha, mothe, mumuta, mutha, nut grass, nut sedge, nutgrass, oniani, oniani lau, oniani rau, oniani tita, pakopako, pakopako, pakopako, purple nut sedge, purple nut sedge, purple nutsedge, red nut sedge, Rundes Zypergras, soro ni kabani, soronakambani, souchet à tubercules, souchet d'Asie, souchet en forme d'olive, souchet rond, suo cao, sur-sur, tamanengi, te mumute, tiririca, tiririca-vermelha, tuteoneon, vucesa, vuthesa, xiang fu zi, ya haeo mu, ya khon mu, zigolo infestante
Synonyms: Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla, Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti, Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler, Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler, Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf., Cyperus tuberosus Roxb, Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek
16. Cyprinus carpio (fish) English  français     
The introduction of fish as a source of protein for human consumption into tropical and subtropical lake systems is continuing apace. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been cultured for 2500 years and is also a popular angling and ornamental fish; is the third most frequently introduced species in the world. Its method of feeding churns up the sediments on the bottom of the water and uproots macrophytes, making it an keystone ecosystem engineer that altering habitats for native fish and other native aquatic species.
Common Names: Cá Chép, carp, carpa, carpat, carpe, carpe, carpe commune, carpeau, carpo, cerpyn, ciortan, ciortanica, ciortocrap, ciuciulean, common carp, crapcean, cyprinos, escarpo, Europäischer Karpfen, European carp, fancy carp, feral carp, German carp, grass carp, grivadi, ikan mas, Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli, kapor, kapr obecný, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp dziki a. sazan, karpa, karpar, karpe, Karpe, karpen, karper, karpfen, karpion, karppi, kerpaille, king carp, koi, koi carp, korop, krapi, kyprinos, læderkarpe, lauk mas, leather carp, leekoh, lei ue, mas massan, mirror carp, olocari, Oriental carp, pa nai, pba ni, pla nai, ponty, punjabe gad, rata pethiya, saran, Saran, sarmão, sazan, sazan baligi, scale carp, sharan, skælkarpe, soneri masha, spejlkarpe, sulari, suloi, tikure, trey carp samahn, trey kap, ulucari, weißfische, wild carp, wildkarpfen
Synonyms: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
17. Eichhornia crassipes (aquatic plant) English  français     
Originally from South America, Eichhornia crassipes is one of the worst aquatic weeds in the world. Its beautiful, large purple and violet flowers make it a popular ornamental plant for ponds. It is now found in more than 50 countries on five continents. Water hyacinth is a very fast growing plant, with populations known to double in as little as 12 days. Infestations of this weed block waterways, limiting boat traffic, swimming and fishing. Water hyacinth also prevents sunlight and oxygen from reaching the water column and submerged plants. Its shading and crowding of native aquatic plants dramatically reduces biological diversity in aquatic ecosystems.
Common Names: aguapé, bekabe kairanga, bung el ralm, bung el ralm, floating water hyacinth, jacinthe d'eau, jacinto de agua, jacinto-aquatico, jal khumbe, jal kumbhi, lechuguilla, lila de agua, lirio acuatico, mbekambekairanga, riri vai, wasserhyazinthe, water hyacinth, water orchid, wota haisin
Synonyms: Eichhornia speciosa Kunth, Heteranthera formosa, Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Raf., Piaropus mesomelas, Pontederia crassipes Mart. (basionym)
18. Elaeis guineensis (palm) English  français     
Elaeis guineensis is native to the west African coast from Liberia to Angola. It has been introduced to many islands in the Pacific and to South America at the time of slavery. It is widely cultivated for the oil products obtained from its fruit and seed. However it is now showing potential of being invasive from cultivation in some dry areas of the Pacific and has become very invasive in remnants of Atlantic Forest in Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.
Common Names: African oil palm, apwiraiasi, dendê, nu tamara, palmeira-dendê, palmier à huile d'Afrique
Synonyms: Elaeis melanococca J. Gaertn.
19. Esox lucius (fish)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The northern pike, Esox lucius, is a predatory freshwater fish that is an opportunistic feeder. It is common in lakes, basins and rivers in the United States, Canada, central Asia, Siberia and many places in Europe. It is also present in the Aral, Arctic, Baltic, Barents, Black, Caspian, North and White seas and Atlantic basins. E. lucius exhibits genetic differentiation among its worldwide populations.
Common Names: American pike, bec de canard, brochet, brochet du nord, brouché, brouchet, brouchetta, bunthecht, common pike, Europäischer hecht, grand brochet, grashecht, Great Lakes pike, great northern pike, great nothern pickerel, hauki, hecht, hecht, hechten, heekt, heichit, hengste, höcht, jack, jackfish, lanceron, luccio, lucio, lúcio, northern pike, pickerel, pike, poignard, scheckhecht, schnock, schnöck, schnuck, sifflet, snake, snook, wolf
Synonyms: Esox boreus Agassiz 1850, Esox estor Lesueur 1818, Esox lucioides Agassiz & Girard 1850, Esox lucius atrox Anikin 1902, Esox lucius bergi Kaganowsky 1933, Esox reichertii baicalensis Dybowski 1874, Luccius vorax Rafinesque 1810, Lucius lucius L., Trematina foveolata Trautschold 1884
20. Estrilda astrild (bird)
         Interim profile, incomplete information  See eradication or other absence information
The common waxbill, Estrilda astrild is native to tropical and southern Africa, but has been introduced to many island nations where it has shown mixed success in establishment. It feeds mainly on grass seeds and is commonly found in open long grass plains and close to human habitation. E. astrild shows a high reproductive rate which is attributed to its ability to naturalize easily.
Common Names: avadavat, common waxbill, red-cheeked waxbill, waxbill
21. Euglandina rosea (mollusc) English  français     
The carnivorous rosy wolfsnail Euglandina rosea was introduced to Indian and Pacific Ocean Islands from the 1950s onwards as a biological control agent for the giant African snail (Achatina fulica). E. rosea is not host specific meaning that native molluscs species are at risk of expatriation or even extinction if this mollusc-eating snail is introduced. Partulid tree snails of the French Polynesian Islands were particularly affected; having evolved separately from each other in isolated valleys, many Partulid tree snails have been lost and today almost all the survivors exist only in zoos.
Common Names: cannibal snail, escargot carnivore de Floride, euglandine, Rosige Wolfsschnecke, rosy wolf snail
22. Felis catus (mammal) English  français     
Felis catus was domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean c. 3000 years ago. Considering the extent to which cats are valued as pets, it is not surprising that they have since been translocated by humans to almost all parts of the world. Notable predators, cats threaten native birdlife and other fauna, especially on islands where native species have evolved in relative isolation from predators.
Common Names: cat, domestic cat, feral cat, Hauskatze, house cat, poti, pusiniveikau
23. Gambusia affinis (fish) English  français     
Gambusia affinis is a small fish native to the fresh waters of the eastern and southern United States. It has become a pest in many waterways around the world following initial introductions early last century as a biological control agent for mosquitoes. In general, it is considered to be no more effective than native predators of mosquitoes. The highly predatory mosquito fish eats the eggs of economically desirable fish and preys on and endangers rare indigenous fish and invertebrate species. Mosquito fish are difficult to eliminate once established, so the best way to reduce their effects is to control their further spread. One of the main avenues of spread is continued, intentional release by mosquito-control agencies. G. affinis is closely related to he eastern mosquito fish (G. holbrooki), which was formerly classed as a sub-species. Their appearance, behaviour and impacts are almost identical, and they can therefore be treated the same when it comes to management techniques. Records of G. affinis in Australia actually refer to G. holbrooki.
Common Names: Barkaleci, Dai to ue, Gambusia, Gambusie, Gambusino, Gambuzia, Gambuzia pospolita, Gambuzija, guayacon mosquito, Isdang canal, Kadayashi, Koboldkärpfling, Kounoupopsaro, live-bearing tooth-carp, Mosquito fish, Obyknovennaya gambuziya, pez mosquito, San hang ue, Silberkärpfling, tes, Texaskärpfling, Topminnow, western mosquitofish, Western mosquitofish
Synonyms: Fundulus inurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia gracilis Girard, 1859, Gambusia humilis Günther, 1866, Gambusia patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Haplochilus melanops Cope, 1870, Heterandria affinis Baird & Girard, 1853, Heterandria patruelis Baird & Girard, 1853, Zygonectes brachypterus Cope, 1880, Zygonectes gracilis (Girard, 1859), Zygonectes inurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882, Zygonectes patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853)
24. Gambusia holbrooki (fish) English  français   
Eastern mosquito fish, Gambusia holbrooki is a small, aggressive live-bearing fish that originates from the southern United States. It has been introduced worldwide as a mosquito-control agent. G. holbrooki have been implicated in damage to native fish, amphibian and invertebrate populations.
Common Names: eastern gambusia, gambusia, mosquitofish, plague minnow, topminnow
Synonyms: Gambusia affinis holbrooki
25. Gonipterus scutellatus (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Gonipterus scutellatus, or the eucalyptus snout beetle, is native to Australia. It is specific to Eucalyptus species, and G. scutellatus is considered to be one of the major defoliators of Eucalyptus spp. worldwide. It causes damage to eucalyptus in both larval and adult stages, in particular to the young leaves and repeated defoliation by G. scutellatus can lead to tree death. However, the egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens has been introduced as a successful biological control agent in several countries.
Common Names: eucalyptus snout beetle, eucalyptus weevil, Eukalyptusrüssler, gorgojo del eucalipto, gum tree weevil
26. Hemidactylus frenatus (reptile)
The common house gecko is now established in at least 87 locations around the world outside of its natural range in Asia and the Indo-Pacific. Many of these new locations have been small remote islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Where the common house gecko has been introduced to islands of the Pacific Ocean, researchers have shown that this lizard has been responsible for the competitive displacement of other similar sized or smaller gecko species in urban and suburban environments. It was shown that habitat simplification and clumped food resources around artificial light sources as a result of urbanisation have enabled the common house gecko to gain an indirect competitive advantage over other nocturnal gecko species. The ability of the house gecko to persist outside of its natural range poses a threat to the survival of ecologically similar endemic geckos.
Common Names: Asian house gecko, Asiatischer Hausgecko, bridled house gecko, Chichak, common house gecko, geco-casero bocón, Gewöhnlicher Halbfingergecko
Synonyms: Gecko caracal Tytler 1865, Gecko chaus Tytler 1865, Hemidactylus auritus Poeppig (in Obst) 1977, Hemidactylus bowringii Stejneger 1907: 172, Hemidactylus fraenatus Bleeker 1857, Hemidactylus fragilis Lnaza 1990, Hemidactylus fragilis Calabresi 1915, Hemidactylus frenatus Cogger 2000: 246, Hemidactylus frenatus Cox et al. 1998: 84, Hemidactylus frenatus Glaw & Vences 1994: 277, Hemidactylus frenatus Lanza 1990, Hemidactylus frenatus Liner 1994, Hemidactylus frenatus Boulenger 1885: 120, Hemidactylus frenatus De Rooij 1915: 28, Hemidactylus frenatus Manthey & Grossmann 1997: 235, Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel in Dumeril & Bibron 1836: 366, Hemidactylus hexaspis Cope 1869: 320, Hemidactylus inornatus Hallowell 1861, Hemidactylus javanicus Fitzinger 1826 (nomen nudum), Hemidactylus longiceps Cope 1869: 320, Hemidactylus mabouia Barbour & Loveridge 1929 (partim), Hemidactylus nigriventris De Rooij 1915: 31, Hemidactylus nigriventris Lidth De Jeude 1905, Hemidactylus okinawensis Okada 1936, Hemidactylus papuensis [Macleay] 1877, Hemidactylus pumilus Hallowell 1861: 502, Hemidactylus punctatus Jerdon 1853, Hemidactylus tristis Sauvage 1879, Hemidactylus vandermeermohri Wermuth 1965, Hemidactylus vandermeer-mohri Brongersma 1928, Hemidactylus vittatus Gray 1845, Hemidactylus (Pnoepus) Bojeri Fitzinger 1843, Hemidactylys cf. frenatus Andreone et al. 2003, Pnoepus bojeri Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus caracal Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus fragilis Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus frenatus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus frenatus Wells 2002, Pnoepus inornatus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus papuensis Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus pumilus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus punctatus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus vittatus Wells & Wellington 1985
27. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (fish) English   
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is a carp, native to Asia. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have been introduced around the world for aquaculture purposes and also for controlling excessive growth of phytoplankton in natural waters. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have the potential to reduce native diversity by competing for and depleting zooplankton populations, altering the food web. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have also been found to carry and transmit the disease Salmonella typhimurium.
Common Names: amour argenté, asimokyprinos, ballgjeri i bardhe, belli-gende, belyi tolstolob, belyi tolstolobik, bin ue, byal tolstolob, carpa argentata, carpa plateada, carpa-prateada, carpe argentée, carpe asiatique, carpe chinoise, Chinese schemer, cho ue, crap argintiu, crap-chinezesc-argintiu, fehér busa, fytofag, hakuren, hopeapaksuotsa, kap perak, kasaf, kopur noqreai, lin ue, phytophague, pla leng hea, pla leng heu, pla lin, pla pae long, pla pin hea, pla pin heu, silberkarpfen, silver carp, silverkarp, silwerkarp, sølvkarpe, Sølvkarpe, tolpyga, tolpyga biala, tolstolob, tolstolob biely, tolstolobik, tolstolobik bílý, tolstolobik obecný, tongsan putih, toplyga biala, tovstolob zvychajnyi, zilverkarper
Synonyms: Abramocephalus microlepis Steindachner, 1869 , Cephalus mantschuricus Basilewsky, 1855 , Hypophthalmichthys dabry Guichenot, 1871 , Hypophthalmichthys dybowskii Herzenstein, 1888 , Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Hypothalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Hypothamicthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Leuciscus hypophthalmus Richardson, 1945 , Leuciscus molitrix Valenciennes, 1844 , Onychodon mantschuricus Basilewsky, 1872
28. Kappaphycus spp. (alga)
Kappaphycus spp. are red algae species that have been introduced in various parts of the world for the purpose of harvesting the gelling agent kappa carrageenan, which is used in industrial gums and as a smoothening agent used in ice cream, toothpaste, jellies, medicines and paint. This species can regrow from fragments as small as 0.5cm making it an extremely difficult species to control.
Common Names: agal agal, agal agal besar, agar agar besar, agar agar pulau, agar agar seru laut, agar-agar, algae, algues rouges, brown licorice, chilin-t' sai, cottonii, eucheuma, eucheuman, guso, kirinsai, red alga
29. Lantana camara (shrub) English  français     
Lantana camara is a significant weed of which there are some 650 varieties in over 60 countries. It is established and expanding in many regions of the world, often as a result of clearing of forest for timber or agriculture. It impacts severely on agriculture as well as on natural ecosystems. The plants can grow individually in clumps or as dense thickets, crowding out more desirable species. In disturbed native forests it can become the dominant understorey species, disrupting succession and decreasing biodiversity. At some sites, infestations have been so persistent that they have completely stalled the regeneration of rainforest for three decades. Its allelopathic qualities can reduce vigour of nearby plant species and reduce productivity in orchards. Lantana camara has been the focus of biological control attempts for a century, yet still poses major problems in many regions.
Common Names: ach man, angel lips, ayam, big sage, blacksage, bunga tayi, cambara de espinto, cuasquito, flowered sage, lantana, lantana wildtype, largeleaf lantana, latora moa, pha-ka-krong, prickly lantana, shrub verbean, supirrosa, Wandelroeschen, white sage, wild sage
Synonyms: Camara vulgaris, Lantana scabrida
30. Launaea intybacea (shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bitter lettuce (Launaea intybacea) is a native of Africa and has been introduced to parts of lower Northern America, the West Indies, Central America, South America, temperate and tropical Asia. A cosmopolitan weed it is adapted to dry conditions. It is reported to be spreading rapidly in disturbed areas on Grand Cayman.
Common Names: achicoria azul, bitter lettuce
Synonyms: Lactuca intybacea Jacq., Bracyrhamphus intybaceus (Jacq.) DC., Lactuca intybacea Jacq.
31. Leucaena leucocephala (tree) English  français     
The fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing tree/shrub Leucaena leucocephala, is cultivated as a fodder plant, for green manure, as a windbreak, for reforestation, as a biofuel crop etc. Leucaena has been widely introduced due to its beneficial qualities; it has become an aggressive invader in disturbed areas in many tropical and sub-tropical locations and is listed as one of the ‘100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species’. This thornless tree can form dense monospecific thickets and is difficult to eradicate once established. It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible and threatens native plants.
Common Names: acacia palida, aroma blanca, balori, bo chet, cassis, false koa, faux mimosa, faux-acacia, fua pepe, ganitnityuwan tangantan, graines de lin, guaje, guaslim, guaxin, horse/wild tamarind, huaxin, ipil-ipil, jumbie bean, kan thin, kanthum thect, koa-haole, kra thin, kratin, lamtoro, lead tree, leucaena, leucaena, liliak, lino criollo, lopa samoa, lusina, nito, pepe, rohbohtin, schemu, siale mohemohe, subabul, tamarindo silvestre, tangantangan, tangan-tangan, te kaitetua, telentund, tuhngantuhngan, uaxim, vaivai, vaivai dina, vaivai ni vavalangi, wild mimosa, wild tamarind, zarcilla
Synonyms: Acacia leucocephala (Lamark) Link 1822, Leucaena glabrata Rose 1897, Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. 1842, Mimosa leucocephala Lamark 1783
32. Melaleuca quinquenervia (tree) English  français     
The broad-leaved paperbark tree or melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) can reach heights of 25 meters and hold up to 9 million viable seeds in a massive canopy-held seed bank. This fire-resistant wetland-invader aggressively displaces native sawgrass and pine communities in south Florida, alters soil chemistry and modifies Everglades ecosystem processes. Melaleuca is notoriously difficult to control, however, bio-control (integrated with herbicidal and other methods) holds a promising alternative to traditional control methods.
Common Names: aceite de cayeput, ahambo, balsamo de cayeput, belbowrie, bottle brush tree, broadleaf paperbark tree, broadleaf teatree, broad-leaved paperbark tree, cajeput, capeputi, corcho, five-veined paperbark tree, itahou, Japanese paper wasp, kayu putih, kinindrano, Mao-Holzrose, melaleuca, niaouli, niaouli, numbah, oli, paper bark tree, paperbark teatree, punk tree, white bottlebrush tree
Synonyms: Melaleuca leucadendron ß angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca leucadendron var. albida, Melaleuca leucadendron var. coriacea Poir., Melaleuca leucadendron var. rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca maideni R.T. Baker, Melaleuca rubriflora Vieillard ex Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca smithii R.T. Baker, Melaleuca viridiflora var. angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca viridiflora var. ß rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Metrosideros coriacea Poir., Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav.
33. Micropterus salmoides (fish) English  français     
Micropterus salmoides (bass) has been widely introduced throughout the world due to its appeal as a sport fish and for its tasty flesh. In some places introduced Micropterus salmoides have affected populations of small native fish through predation, sometimes resulting in the their decline or extinction. Its diet includes fish, crayfish, amphibians and insects.
Common Names: achigã, achigan, achigan à grande bouche, American black bass, bas dehanbozorg, bas wielkogeby, bass, bass wielkgebowy, biban cu gura mare, black bass, bolsherotnyi amerikanskii tscherny okun, bol'sherotyi chernyi okun', buraku basu, fekete sügér, forelbaars, forellenbarsch, green bass, green trout, großmäuliger Schwarzbarsch, huro, isobassi, khorshid Mahi Baleh Kuchak, lakseabbor, largemouth bass, largemouth black bass, lobina negra, lobina-truche, northern largemouth bass, okounek pstruhový, okuchibasu, Öringsaborre, Ørredaborre, ostracka, ostracka lososovitá, perca Americana, perche d'Amérique, perche noire, perche truite, persico trota, stormundet black bass, stormundet ørredaborre, tam suy lo ue, zwarte baars
Synonyms: Aplites salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Grystes megastoma Garlick, 1857, Huro nigricans Cuvier, 1828, Huro salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Labrus salmoides Lacepède, 1802, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Perca nigricans (Cuvier, 1828)
34. Monomorium destructor (insect)
Monomorium destructor (the Singapore ant) is described as a tramp ant as it is renowned for transporting itself around the world via human commerce and trade. Monomorium destructor is known to cause extensive economic damage in urban environments by gnawing holes in fabric and rubber goods, removing rubber insulation from electric and phone lines and damaging polyethylene cable.
Common Names: destructive trailing ant , Mizo-hime-ari, Singapore ant
Synonyms: Atta destructor Jerdon, Monomorium basale (Smith)., Monomorium ominosa (Gerstaecker), Myrmica atomaria Gerstaecker, Myrmica basalis Smith, Myrmica gracillima Smith, Myrmica ominosa Gerstaecker, Myrmica vexator Smith
35. Monomorium floricola (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The primarily arboreal flower ant (Monomorium floricola) is one of the world's most broadly distributed tramp ants. Most occurrence records of M. floricola are in tropical and sub-tropical regions from latitudes above 30 degrees; populations in latitudes above 35 degrees are found in heated buildings or inside greenhouses. M. floricola has been identified as a significant arboreal predator of insect eggs; in Guam it is recognised as one of three most important ant species attacking eggs of native butterflies resulting in their reduced populations.
Common Names: bicoloured trailing ant, Braunrote Blutenameise, brownish-red flower ant, floral ant , flower ant, futairo-hime-ari
Synonyms: Monomorium angusticlava Donisthorpe, 1947, Monomorium cinnabari Roger, 1863, Monomorium floreanum Stitz, 1932, Monomorium impressumSmith, 1876, Monomorium poecilum Roger, 1863, Monomorium specularis Mayr, 1866
36. Monomorium pharaonis (insect)
Monomorium pharaonis (the pharaoh ant) is native to Africa and has successfully invaded areas on every continent except Antarctica. It is concentrated in tropical regions but is also commonly found in temperate zones within suitable human infrastructure, especially buildings associated with the distribution or storage of food. Due to Monomorium pharaonis' ability to act as a vector for some bacterial human pathogens, its presence in hospitals is of great concern as it may increase infection rates.
Common Names: fourmi pharaon, pharaoh ant
Synonyms: Atta minuta Jerdon , Diplorhoptrum domesticum (Shuckard) , Formica antiguensis Fabricius , Formica pharaonis Linnaeus , Monomorium domestica (Shuckard) , Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus) , Monomorium vastator (Smith) , Myrmica (Monomorium) contigua Smith , Myrmica (Monomorium) fragilis Smith , Myrmica (Monomorium) vastator Smith , Myrmica (Myrmecina) domestica Shuckard , Myrmica contigua Smith , Myrmica domestica Shuckard , Myrmica fragilis Smith , Myrmica pharaonis (Linnaeus) , Myrmica unifasciata Bostock , Myrmica vastator Smith
37. Musculista senhousia (mollusc) English   
Musculista senhousia is a small, short-lived mytilid mussel native to east Asia which has successfully spread to New Zealand, Australia, the Mediterranean and the Pacific coast of the USA. It can grow rapidly and is capable of marked habitat alteration through the construction of byssal mats on the surface of soft sediments.
Common Names: Asian date mussel, Asian mussel, cuckoo mussel, date mussel, green bagmussel, green mussel, hototogisu, Japanese mussel, senhouse mussel, Senhouse's mussel
Synonyms: Brachidontes (Arcuatula) senhousia Kira, 1959 , Brachidontes (Musculista) senhousia Kira, 1962 , Brachidontes aquarius Grabau and King, 1928 , Modiola (Arcuatula) arcuatula Hanley, 1844 , Modiola bellardiana Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 , Modiola senhausii Reeve, 1857 , Modiola senhousia Benson in Cantor, 1842 , Modiolus senhousei Hanna, 1966 , Musculista senhausia Morton, 1974 , Musculus (Musculista ) senhousia Yammamoto & Habe, 1958 , Volsella senhausi Smith, 1944
38. Oncorhynchus mykiss (fish) English  français     
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) are one of the most widely introduced fish species in the world. Native to western North America, from Alaska to the Baja Peninsula, Oncorhynchus mykiss have been introduced to numerous countries for sport and commercial aquaculture. Oncorhynchus mykiss is highly valued as a sportfish, with regular stocking occurring in many locations where wild populations cannot support the pressure from anglers. Concerns have been raised about the effects of introduced trout in some areas, as they may affect native fish and invertebrates through predation and competition.
Common Names: Alabalik, Alabalik türü, Amerikaniki Pestrofa, Aure, Baiser, Baja California rainbow trout, Brown trout, Coast angel trout, Coast rainbow trout, Coast range trout, Dagova pastarva, Forel rajduzhna, Forelle, Hardhead, Kamchatka steelhead, Kamchatka trout, Kamloops, Kamloops trout, Kirjolohi, K'wsech, Lord-fish, Masu, Nijimasu, Orret, Pastrva, Pestropha, pstrag teczowy, Pstrag teczowy , Pstruh duhový, Pstruh dúhový, rainbow trout, Rainbow trout , Redband, redband trout, Regenbogenforelle, Regenbogenforelle , Regenboogforel, Regnbåge, Regnbågslax, Regnbogasilungur, Regnbueørred, Regnbueørret, Salmon trout, Salmones del Pacífico, Silver trout, Stahlkopfforelle, Stålhovedørred, Steelhead, steelhead trout, Steelhead trout , Summer salmon, Sxew'k'em, Trofta ylberi, Trofte ylberi, Trota, Trota iridea, Trucha, trucha arco iris, Trucha arco iris , Trucha arcoiris, truite arc-en-ciel, Truta , Truta-arco-iris, Urriöi
Synonyms: Fario gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Onchorrhychus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Oncorhynchus kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo gairdneri irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdneri shasta (Jordan, 1894), Salmo gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gilberti (Jordan, 1894), Salmo iridea (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo irideus argentatus (Bajkov, 1927), Salmo irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo kamloops whitehousei (Dymond, 1931), Salmo kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo masoni (Suckley, 1860), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) , Salmo nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Salmo purpuratus (Pallas, 1814), Salmo rivularis kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo rivularis (Ayres, 1855), Salmo stellatus (Girard, 1856), Salmo truncatus (Suckley, 1859)
39. Oreochromis mossambicus (fish) English  français     
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has spread worldwide through introductions for aquaculture. Established populations of Oreochromis mossambicus in the wild are as a result of intentional release or escapes from fish farms. Oreochromis mossambicus is omnivorous and feeds on almost anything, from algae to insects.
Common Names: blou kurper, common tilapia, fai chau chak ue, Java tilapia, kawasuzume, kurper bream, malea, mojarra, mosambik-maulbrüter, Mozambikskaya tilapiya, Mozambique cichlid, Mozambique mouth-breeder, Mozambique mouthbrooder, Mozambique tilapia, mphende, mujair, nkobue, tilapia, tilapia del Mozambique, tilapia du Mozambique, tilapia mossambica, tilapia mozámbica, trey tilapia khmao, weißkehlbarsch, wu-kuo yu
Synonyms: Chromis dumerilii Steindachner, 1864, Chromis natalensis Weber, 1897, Chromis vorax Pfeffer, 1893, Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters, 1852), Tilapia arnoldi Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917, Tilapia mossambica (Peters, 1852)
40. Oxalis latifolia (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Oxalis latifolia is a perennial herb native to North, Central and South America. It mainly reproduces vegetatively, via bulbils and bulbs, and commonly grows in gardens, cultivated areas, orchards, crop fields and nurseries. O. latifolia is now found worldwide and is known to be invasive in the following areas: Australia, Galapagos Islands, Indonesia, Kermadec Islands, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. Despite its native status, it is also considered to be a weed in Guadeloupe, Mexico, Puerto Rico and the United States.
Common Names: acedera, acederilla, azedinha-de-folhas-roxas, broadleaf woodsorrel , broad-leaf wood-sorrel, fishtail oxalis, garden pink-sorrel, oseille, pink shamrock, purple-flowered oxalis, shamrock, trebol, trebol de huerta, trebol de jardin, trebol falso, trèfle
Synonyms: Ionoxalis martiana (Zucc.) Small, Ionoxalis vallicola Rose , Oxalis martiana Zucc., Oxalis vallicola (Rose) R. Knuth
41. Parthenium hysterophorus (herb) English  français     
Parthenium hysterophorus is an annual herb that aggressively colonises disturbed sites. Native to Mexico, Central and South America, Parthenium hysterophorus was accidentally introduced into several countries including Australia, India, Taiwan and Ethiopia. In some areas it has become an extremely serious agricultural and rangeland weed. Parthenium hysterophorus is also known to be allergenic to some people and consumption by livestock can taint meat.
Common Names: camomille balais, camomille z'oiseaux, congress grass, fausse camomille, herbe blanche, Karottenkraut, parthenium weed, ragweed parthenium, Santa Maria feverfew, whitetop weed
Synonyms: Parthenium lobatum Buckl.
42. Pinus spp. (tree) English     
Pinus spp.(pines) are considered to be the most ecologically and economically significant tree genus in the world, distinguished from other conifers in their role as an aggressive post-disturbance coloniser. The natural range for pines is in the northern hemisphere, but they have been cultivated in many parts of the world, forming the foundation of exotic forestry enterprises in many southern hemisphere countries. In many of these areas, pines have invaded the adjacent natural vegetation, and they are now amongst the most widespread and damaging invasive alien trees in the world.
Common Names: Austrian pine (P. nigra ssp. nigra), big cone pine (P. coulteri), bishop pine (P. muricata), contorta (P. contorta), lodgepole pine (P. contorta), maritime pine (P. pinaster), Monterrey pine (P. radiata), Ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), radiata pine (P. radiata), remarkable pine (P. radiata, Scots pine (P. sylvestris), wilding pines
43. Psidium guajava (tree, shrub) English  français     
Psidium guajava is a tropical tree or shrub. It is native to central America from Mexico to northern South America. It has been introduced to most tropical and sub-tropical locations around the world for its edible fruit. In some countries the harvesting, processing and export of the fruit forms the basis of a sizeable industry. Due in part to its ability to grow on a variety of soils and across a range of climates, P. guajava has become invasive . Pastures and fields are overrun and native plants are outcompeted by this species, which has the ability to form dense thickets. This has led to its designation in many areas as a noxious weed to be controlled or eradicated. It is ranked by some authorities amongst the highest invasive categories.
Common Names: abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, farang, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, ku'ava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa momona, kuhfahfah, kuma, kuwawa, lemon guava, ma-kuai, ma-man, ngguava ni India, nguava, oi, pauwa, perala, petokal, quwawa, sapari, si da, te kuava, te kuawa, tokal, trapaek sruk, tuava, tu'ava, tu'avu, tumu tuava, tuvava, xalxocot
Synonyms: Guajava pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava var. pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava (L.) Kuntze, Psidium aromaticum, Psidium cujavillus Burm. f., Psidium guajava var. cujavillum (Burman) Krug and Urb., Psidium guajava var. guajava, Psidium guava Griseb., Psidium guayava Raddi, Psidium igatemyensis Barb. Rodr., Psidium pomiferum L., Psidium pumilum var. guadalupense, Psidium pumilum Vahl, Psidium pyriferum L.
44. Ramphotyphlops braminus (reptile)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The flowerpot snake (Ramphotyphlops braminus) has been introduced around the world in nursery materials through the nursery trade. It is found in garden soils.
Common Names: bootlace snake, Brahmanen-Wurmschlange , Brahminy blind snake, Brahminy blindsnake, flowerpot snake, Serpiente-ciega de Braminy
Synonyms: Argyrophis bramicus [sic] Kelaart 1854: 137, Argyrophis truncatus Gray 1845, Eryx braminus Daudin 1803, Glauconia braueri Sternfeld 1910, Onychocephalus capensis Smith 1846, Ophthalmidium tenue Hallowell 1861, Ramphotyphlops braminus Broadley & Wallach 2009  , Ramphotyphlops braminus Conant & Collings 1991: 144, Ramphotyphlops braminus Cox et al. 1998: 12, Ramphotyphlops braminus D' Cruze et al. 2007, Ramphotyphlops braminus Glaw & Vences 1994: 350, Ramphotyphlops braminus Manthey & Grossmann 1997: 432, Ramphotyphlops braminus Mcdiarmid, Campbell & Toure 1999: 59, Ramphotyphlops braminus Nussbaum 1980, Rhamphotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803), Tortrix russelii Merrem 1820, Typhlina braminus Mcdowell 1974, Typhlopidae [sic] braminus Roux 1911, Typhlops (Typhlops) euproctus Boettger 1882: 479, Typhlops (Typhlops) inconspicuus Jan 1863: 11, Typhlops accedens Jan 1864, Typhlops braminus Dumeril & Bibron 1844: 309, Typhlops braminus Boulenger 1893: 16, Typhlops braminus Boulenger 1920, Typhlops braminus De Rooij 1917: 5, Typhlops braminus Jan 1864, Typhlops braminus Smith 1943, Typhlops braminus Stejneger 1907: 260, Typhlops limbrickii Annandale 1906, Typhlops pseudosaurus Dryden & Taylor 1969, Typhlops russeli Schlegel 1839
45. Ricinus communis (tree, shrub) English  français     
Ricinus communis is a perennial shrub that can assume tree-like status if it establishes in a suitable climate. It is frequently found invading riparian areas where it displaces native vegetation. The seed of this species is toxic to variety of species including humans. Consuming only a few seeds can be fatal.
Common Names: agaliya, agaliya , belenivavalagi, castor, castor bean, castor-oil-plant , gelug, higuerilla, ka'apeha, kamakou, kasterolieboom, koli, la'au 'aila, lama palagi, lama palagi, lama papalagi, lepo , maskerekur, maskerekur, mbele ni vavalagi, pa'aila , pakarana, pakarani, palma-christi, pititu , ricin, rícino, Rizinus, tiairi , tiairi papa'a, tiairi popa'a, tiarili, toto ni vavalagi, toto ni vavalagi, tuitui, tuitui fua ikiiki , tuitui papa'a, uluchula skoki, uluchula skoki , utouto
Synonyms: Ricinus africanus Willd. , Ricinus angulatus Thunb. , Ricinus armatus Haw. , Ricinus badius Rchb. , Ricinus chinensis Thunb. , Ricinus digitatus Noronha , Ricinus europaeus T.Nees , Ricinus glaucus Hoffmanns. , Ricinus hybridus Besser , Ricinus inermis Mill. , Ricinus japonicus Thunb. , Ricinus laevis DC. , Ricinus leucocarpus Bertol. , Ricinus lividus Jacq. , Ricinus macrophyllus Bertol. , Ricinus medicus Forssk. , Ricinus megalospermus Delile , Ricinus minor Mill. , Ricinus nanus Balbis , Ricinus peltatus Noronha , Ricinus purpurascens Bertol. , Ricinus rugosus Mill. , Ricinus sanguineus Groenland , Ricinus scaber Bertol. ex Moris , Ricinus speciosus Burm.f. , Ricinus spectabilis Blume , Ricinus tunisensis Desf. , Ricinus undulatus Besser , Ricinus urens Mill. , Ricinus viridis Willd. , Ricinus vulgaris Mill.
46. Rubus moluccanus (vine, climber, shrub) English  français     
Rubus moluccanus is a member of the raspberry and blackberry family and has a wide distribution throughout South-East Asia and the Pacific. Its berries, fruit and leaves are able to be used for a variety of culinary purposes and medicinal purposes. It can spread via runners that sprout when they touch the ground and its seeds are dispersed by birds. This scrambling shrub or climber reaches 2 to 3m high and threatens native plants through overcrowding and competition and its prickly stems may pose a hazard to humans and livestock.
Synonyms: Rubus capricorni, Rubus hillii, Rubus moluccanus var. dendrocharis
47. Rutilus rutilus (fish)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Rutilus rutilus, commonly known as the roack, is a freshwater fish that is native to many parts of Europe and Asia. It is able to cope with brackish conditions and is an omnivorous species that is able to adapt its diet to what is available. R. rutilus is now widespread throughout Europe and is noted to be invasive in Ireland and Italy. In Ireland, it has been observed to not only alter species composition of fish communities, but to altering lake conditions.
Common Names: almindelig skalle, babuscä, babushka, belice, blanchet, blankvoorn, brunhövd, echatout, furn, gardon, gardon blanc, gråskalle, kolme, mort, pardelha-dos-alpes, plätze, plitka, ploc, plotice obecná, plotva, plotze, plötze, radounek, rhufell, ridde, roach, roche, rotaltel, rotaschel, rotauge, rotte, rutilo, rutilo, rutilo, schmahl, Siberian roach, skalle, taran, tarran, tsironi, zicke
Synonyms: Cyprinus fulvus Vallot 1837, Cyprinus jaculus Jurine 1825, Cyprinus lacustris Pallas 1814, Cyprinus pigus Gronow 1854, Cyprinus rubellio Leske 1774, Cyprinus rutilus L., Cyprinus simus Hermann 1804, Cyprinus xanthopterus Vallot 1737, Gardonus pigulus Bonaparte 1841, Gardonus ruboculus Walecki 1863, Leuciscus decipiens Agassiz 1835, Leuciscus jurinii Dybowski 1862, Leuciscus lividus Heckel 1843, Leuciscus pallens Blanchard 1866, Leuciscus pausingeri Heckel 1843, Leuciscus pigus dojranensis Karaman 1928, Leuciscus prasinus Agassiz 1835, Leuciscus rutiloides Selys-Longchamps 1842, Leuciscus rutilus aurata Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus auratus Yakovlev 1873, Leuciscus rutilus bolmensis Malm 1877, Leuciscus rutilus communis Rossikov 1895, Leuciscus rutilus communis Yakovlev 1873, Leuciscus rutilus crassa Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus elata Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus elongata Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus erytraea Antipa 1909, Leuciscus rutilus fluviatilis Yakovlev 1873, Leuciscus rutilus terekensis Rossikov 1895, Leuciscus rutilus vobla Dikson 1909, Leuciscus rutilus wobla Grimm 1896, Leuciscus rutilus L., Leuciscus selysii Selys-Longchamps 1842, Leucos cenisophius 1841, Leucos cenisophius Bonaparte 1845, Leucos pigulus Bonaparte 1844, Rutilus rutilus aralensis phragmiteti 1932, Rutilus rutilus aralensis Berg 1916, Rutilus rutilus bucharensis Nikolsky 1933, Rutilus rutilus carpathorossicus Vladykov 1930, Rutilus rutilus caspicus geoktshaicus Barach 1941, Rutilus rutilus caspicus knipowitschi Pravdin 1927, Rutilus rutilus caspicus kurensis Berg 1932, Rutilus rutilus caspicus tscharchalensis Berg 1932, Rutilus rutilus frici Misik 1957, Rutilus rutilus goplensis Stangenberg 1938, Rutilus rutilus lacustris menschikowi Kirillov 1962, Rutilus rutilus lacustris Pallas 1814, Rutilus rutilus mariza Drensky 1926, Rutilus rutilus rutilus L., Rutilus rutilus schelkovnikovi Derjavin 1926, Rutilus rutilus sucharensis Stangenberg 1938, Rutilus rutilus uzboicus Berg 1932, Rutilus rutilus vegariticus Stephanidis 1950, Rutilus vegariticus Stephanidis 1950, Leuciscus rutilus daugawensis Dybowski 1862
48. Salmo trutta (fish) English  français     
Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
Common Names: an breac geal, aure, bachforelle, blacktail, breac geal, brook trout, brown trout, denizalabaligi, denizalasi, Europäische Forelle, finnock, forelle, galway sea trout, gillaroo, gwyniedyn, havørred, havsöring, herling, hirling, kumzha, k'wsech, lachförch, lachsforelle, lassföhren, losos taimen, losos' taimen, mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar, meerforelle, meritaimen, morska postrv, morskaya forel', orange fin, öring, orkney sea trout, ørred, ørret, pastrav de mare, peal, pstruh morsky, pstruh obecný, pstruh obecný severomorský, pstruh obycajný, salmo trota, salmon trout, sea trout, sewin, siwin, sjøaure, sjøørret, sjourrioi, taimen, thalasopestrofa, troc, troc wedrowna, trota fario, trout, trucha, trucha común, trucha marina, truita, truite brune, truite brune de mer, truite de mer, truite d'europe, truta marisca, truta-de-lago, truta-fário, truta-marisca, urriði, whiting, whitling, zeeforel
Synonyms: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
49. Salvinia molesta (aquatic plant, herb) English  français     
Salvinia molesta is a floating aquatic fern that thrives in slow-moving, nutrient-rich, warm, freshwater. A rapidly growing competitive plant, it is dispersed long distances within a waterbody (via water currents) and between waterbodies (via animals and contaminated equipment, boats or vehicles). It is cultivated by aquarium and pond owners and it is sometimes released by flooding, or by intentional dumping. S. molesta can form dense vegetation mats that reduce water-flow and lower the light and oxygen levels in the water. This stagnant dark environment negatively affects the biodiversity and abundance of freshwater species, including fish and submerged aquatic plants.Salvinia invasions can alter wetland ecosystems and cause wetland habitat loss. Salvinia invasions also pose a severe threat to socio-economic activities dependent on open, flowing and/or high quality waterbodies, including hydro-electricity generation, fishing and boat transport.
S. molesta in 2013 was elected as the one of the '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species' to replace the Rinderpest virus which was declared eradicated in the wild in 2010
Common Names: African payal , African pyle, aquarium watermoss, fougère d’eau, giant salvinia , giant salvinia , kariba weed , koi kandy, salvinia, water fern , water spangles
Synonyms: Salvinia auriculata Aubl.
50. Scaevola sericea (shrub)
Beach naupaka (Scaevola sericea) is a dominant shrub species present in tropical and subtropical coastal environments, including sand dune, mangrove and seagrape habitats and ruderal land. Native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, it has become an invasive coastal plant in sand dune ecosystems in the Cayman Islands and Florida, USA, where it forms dense monospecific mounds and out-competes and displaces native plants.
Common Names: aupaka, beach naupaka, half-flower, Hawaiian beach cabbage, Hawaiian half-flower, Hawaiian seagrape, huahekili, naupaka kahakai, naupaka kai, naupaka kuahiwi, Scaevola, sea lettuce
Synonyms: Scaevola frutescens (Mill.) Krause, Scaevola frutescens Krause, Scaevola frutescens var. sericea (Vahl) Merr., 1912, Scaevola koenigii Vahl, Scaevola lobelia L., Scaevola lobelia var. sericea (Vahl) Benth., 1852, Scaevola sericea var. sericea Vahl, Scaevola sericea var. taccada (Gaertn.) Thieret & B. Lipscomb, Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb., Scaevola taccada var. bryanii St. John, Scaevola taccada var. fauriei (Levl.) St. John, Scaevola taccada var. sericea (Vahl) St. John
51. Striga asiatica (herb) English     
Striga asiatica is an annual parasitic weed of agricultural crops. It has a gigantic impact on human welfare by affecting subsistence farmers and consequently aggravates hunger and poverty. Striga asiatica robs nutrients and moisture by tapping directly into a host's root system. The host expends energy supporting the growth of Striga asiatica at its own expense. Control can be obtained but at great economic costs.
Common Names: Asiatic witchweed, buri, common mealie witchweed, isona weed, Matabele flower, mealie poison, mealie witchweed, red witchweed, scarlet lobelia, striga, witchweed , yaa mae mot
Synonyms: Buchnera asiatica L. , Stiga hirsuta Benth., Striga coccinea Benth., Striga lutea Lour., Striga parvula Miq., Striga pusilla Hochst., Striga spanogheana Miq., Striga zangebarica Klotzsch.
52. Tapinoma melanocephalum (insect) English  français 
Tapinoma melanocephalum is known as a tramp ant as its spread around the globe has been assisted by human activities. It is highly flexible in the habitats it occupies, providing there is some form of disturbance allowing it to establish ahead of more dominant ant species, and it nests readily outdoors or indoors. Tapinoma melanocephalum is a household pest, as well as disturbing greenhouse environments and can transport pathogenic microbes in hospitals.
Common Names: albaricoque , awate-konuka-ari , black-headed ant, ghost ant, hormiga bottegaria , house infesting ant , tiny yellow house ant, tramp ant
Synonyms: Formica familiaris Smith, F. 1860, Formica melanocephalum Fabricius, 1793, Formica nana Jerdon, Myrmica pellucida Smith, F. 1857, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius): Mayr, 1862, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australe Santschi 1928, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australis Santschi 1928
53. Technomyrmex albipes (insect)
Native to the Indo-Pacific area, Technomyrmex albipes, commonly known as the white-footed ant, has spread to Australia, Africa, North America, Caribbean and Asia. Technomyrmex albipes are often found on cut flowers and other imported plants. It's penchant for invading houses and nesting in wall cavities distresses homeowners. The unusual colony structure of Technomyrmex albipes allows them to reproduce rapidly, especially in warm weather, reaching numbers in the millions in some locations. Management of Technomyrmex albipes is difficult when populations abound, as chemical poisons are not transferred between workers.
Common Names: ashijiro-hirafushi-ari, white-footed ant, white-footed house ant
Synonyms: Formica (Tapinoma) albipes Smith, Formica albipes, Tapinoma albipes (Smith), Tapinoma albitarse Motschoulsky, Tapinoma nigrum Mayr, Technomrmex albipes var. vitiensis Mann., Technomyrmex albipes st. rufescens Santschi, Technomyrmex detorquens Walker
54. Tilapia zillii (fish) English   
In its native, tropical range, Tilapia zillii is important as a food fish as well as for aquaculture. Tilapia zillii provided 70% of Egypt's fish production, however outside its native range, this freshwater fish has the ability to establish itself even in highly salinated waters, only being held back by a low tolerance to cold water. Often introduced for use in aquatic weed control, Tilapia zilli can alter native benthic communities through the elimination of macrophytes and exhibits aggressive behaviour towards other fish species.
Common Names: akpadi sila, akpasila, amnun matzui, a-sannoh, bere, biare, biering, bugu, bulti, cichlid, didee, disiwulen, Engege, Epia, Erihere, falga, garagaza, gargaza, gba gba ferah, gbatchekede, guring, ifunu, isiswe, karfasa, karwa, ka-yainkain, kido, kokine, kpro ibre, kuda, loroto, mango fish, mojarra, mojarrita, mpupa, ngege, ngipie, ngorkei, njabb, obrouyou, pastenague boulee, perege, punavatsatilapia, redbelly tilapia, sato, sili, silla, sohn, striped tilapia, tegr-pere, tha thompo, tihil, tilapia, tome, tsokungi, ukuobu, waas, waas gnoul, wesafun, Zilles Buntbarsch, zilli's cichlid, zill's tilapia
Synonyms: Acerina zilli (Gervais, 1848), Chromis andreae (Gunther, 1864), Chromis coeruleomaculatus (Rochebrune, 1880), Chromis faidherbii (Rochebrune, 1880), Chromis melanopleura (Dumeril, 1861), Chromis menzalensis (Mitchell, 1895), Chromis tristrami (Gunther, 1860), Chromis zillii (Gervais, 1848), Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Coptodus zillii (Gervais, 1848), Glyphisidon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Haligenes tristrami (Gunther, 1860), Sarotherodon zillei (Gervais, 1848), Sarotherodon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Tilapia faidherbi (Rochebrune, 1880), Tilapia melanopleura (Dumeril, 1861), Tilapia menzalensis (Mitchell, 1895), Tilapia multiradiata (Holly, 1928), Tilapia shariensis (Fowler, 1949), Tilapia sparrmani multiradiata (Holly, 1928), Tilapia tristrami (Gunther, 1860)
55. Verbena brasiliensis (herb) English     
Verbena brasiliensis is a herb native to South America. It displaces native vegetation through most of its non-native range and is considered invasive. Management for Verbena brasiliensis includes avoiding its introduction into new areas and using herbicide where necessary.
Common Names: Brazilian vervain, gin case
Synonyms: Verbena bonariensis auct. non L., Verbena litoralis var. brasiliensis Vell., Verbena litoralis var. pycnostachya Schauer, Verbena litoralis var. brevibracteata (Kuntze) N. O'Leary, Verbena quadrangularis Vell.
56. Vibrio cholerae (micro-organism)
Vibrio cholerae is the bacteria that causes cholera; a potentially epidemic and life-threatening secretory diarrhea characterised by numerous, voluminous watery stools, often accompanied by vomiting and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis. It can also cause mild or unapparent infections. Vibrio cholerae occurs in both marine and freshwater habitats in mutualistic associations with aquatic animals. Vibrio cholerae is endemic or epidemic in areas with poor sanitation; it occurs sporadically or as limited outbreaks in developed countries. Cholera is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In coastal regions it may persist in shellfish and plankton. Long-term convalescent carriers are rare.
Common Names: Asiatic cholera, epidemic cholera
57. Viverricula indica (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: small Indian civet
Synonyms: Viverricula indica (Desmarest, 1804)
58. Xylosandrus compactus (insect) English   
Originally from Asia, Xylosandrus compactus has spread to many coffee growing areas throughout the world where it causes damage not only to agricultural crops, but also to native forest trees. Beetles (Coleoptera) in the family Scolytidae, to which Xylosandrus compactus belongs, are among the most damaging insects worldwide. Because most scolytids breed under bark or inside wood, it has long been recognised that scolytids can easily be moved through international trade.
Common Names: ambrosia beetle, black twig borer, Dunkler-Holzbohrer

Biostatus not specified

1. Acanthaster planci (sea star)
Coral gardens from Micronesia and Polynesia provide valuable marine resources for local communities and environments for native marine species such as marine fish. In coral ecosystems already affected by coral bleaching, excess tourism and natural events such as storms and El Nino, the effects of the invasive coral-feeding starfish (Acanthaster planci) on native coral communities contributes to an already dire state of affairs. Acanthaster planci significantly threatens the viability of these fragile coral ecosystems, and damage to coral gardens by the starfish has been quite extensive in some reef systems.
Common Names: coral-eating starfish, coral-feeding starfish, crown-of-thorns-starfish, giant thorny starfish
2. Acanthophora spicifera (alga) English  français 
Acanthophora spicifera is a red algae which is found in most tropical or subtropical seas of the world. Its plastic morphology allows it to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions, and hence it can invade a diverse range of habitats. It is an alien invasive species in Hawaii. It is amongst the most successful alien algal species in this region, where it may modify native communities and compete with native algae.
Common Names: bulung tombong bideng, culot, red alga, spiny alga, spiny seaweed
Synonyms: Acanthophora antillarum Montagne ex Kützing 1865, Acanthophora intermedia Crouan, Acanthophora orientalis J. Agardh 1863, Acanthophora orientalis var. wightii (J. Agardh) Sonder 1879, Acanthophora spicifera f. orientalis (J.Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera f. wightii (J. Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera var. orientalis (J. Agardh) Zaneveld 1956, Acanthophora thierryi f. gracilis P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan 1878, Acanthophora thierryi J.V. Lamouroux 1813, Acanthophora wightii J. Agardh 1863, Chondria acanthophorara C. Agardh 1822, Fucus acanthophorus J.V. Lamouroux 1805, Fucus spicifer M. Vahl 1802
3. Angiopteris evecta (fern)
  See eradication or other absence information
Angiopteris evecta is a fern native to Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Australia, and New Guinea that has established invasive populations in Hawaii, Costa Rica, and Jamaica. It is known to establish dense stands that displace and shade out native plants and reduce biodiversity in ecosystems.
Common Names: bersarm, demarm, dermarm, fa'agase, gase, giant fern, gwaegwae, hulufe vai, kalme, katar, king's fern, la'au fau pale, mong, mongmong, mule's foot, mule's-foot fern, nahe, nase, ne'e, oli oli, oriental vessel fern, paiued, palatao, payuit, ponga, umpai
Synonyms: Polypodium evectum G. Forster
4. Bambusa vulgaris (grass, tree) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bambusa vulgaris is the most widespread member of its genus, and has long been cultivated across the tropics and subtropics. It prefers lowland humid habitats, but tolerates a wide range of climatic conditions and soil types. It commonly naturalises, forming monospecific stands along river banks, roadsides and open ground.
Common Names: agarabà, aur beting, aur gading, bacáu, bakal, balé, bambou, bambu, bambu ampel, bambu blenduk, bambú común, bambu kuning, bambu kuning, bambú patamba, bambúa, bambu-verde, bambu-vulgar, bannada bidiru, baran, basini bans, basinibans, bolinao, bolinau, boo, buloh aur, buloh gading, buloh kuning, buloh minyak, buloh minyak has, buloh pau, buluh aur, buluh minyak, buluh pau, burirau, butong, caña brava, caña India, cañambú, cañaza, chan kham, common bamboo, cupamu, dai-san-chiku, davike, domar, feathery bamboo, gemeiner bambus, golden bamboo, grand bambou, haladi bidiru, haur, i ngol, igbon ikirai, itikna, kabaloan, kaho palangi, kaho papalangi, kalaka, kanale, kasul, kauayan, kauayan-china, kauayan-kiling, kawayan, kawayan-china, kawayang-kiting, kawayang-tsina, kawayan-kiling, ken, kenye, kewe, kiling, kinshi-chiku, ko-tatami, labong, lefyog, limas, linetso, lulasi, lunas, mai-luang, mambu kakar, mambu yang, maribal, marobal, mfele, mlasi, musyombe, ngmalu, nsungwi, otate, patong, patung, phai cheen, phai chin, phai lueang, phai-bongkham, phai-luang, phai-ngachang, pilanda, pito, ponmungil, rai yai, ree sai, ri sai, russèi kaèw, s'a:ng kh'am', saang kham, sacaú, sang kham, seemamula, semi, sen, seni, senye, sii, simine, sinambang, soft bamboo, striped bamboo, sunderkania bansa, taiu-anak, tamalang, tamalang silau, tambalang, tamelang, taring, tatami, tatami-na, teuanak, tewanak, tiling, vyo, wanet, wok, wusle, yellow bamboo
Synonyms: Arundarbor arundinacea (Retz.) Kuntze, Arundarbor bambos Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2, 1891, Arundarbor blancoi (Steudel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera (Miquel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera Rumphius 1743, Arundarbor monogyna (Blanco) Kuntze 1891, Arundo bamboa Miller 1768, Arundo bambos L., Arundo fera Oken 1841, Bambos arundinacea Retz., Bambusa arundinacea var. picta Moon 1824, Bambusa auriculata Kurz ex Cat. Hort. Bot. Calc., 1864, Bambusa balcooa Roxburgh 1832, Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss, Bambusa blancoi Steudel 1854, Bambusa capensis Rupr., Bambusa fera Miquel 1857, Bambusa humilis Reichenbach ex. Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa madagascariensis hort. ex A. & C. Rivière 1878, Bambusa mitis Blanco 1837, Bambusa monogyna Blanco 1837, Bambusa sieberi Grisebach 1864, Bambusa striata Lodd., Bambusa surinamensis Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa thouarsii Kunth 1822, Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Bambusa vasaria Herbier Hamilton, Dendrocalamus balcooa (Roxburgh) Voigt 1845, Leleba vulgaris (Schrader ex Wendland) Nakai 1933, Nastus thouarsii (Kunth) Raspail 1825, Nastus viviparus Raspail 1825, Phyllostachys striata (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Nakai
5. Ceratitis capitata (insect) English  français 
Ceratitis capitata is considered a major tephritid fruit fly pest of economic importance attacking more than 300 different hosts, primarily temperate and subtropical fruits. The medfly as it is commonly called has invaded many countries and caused major economic losses for fruit farmers. C. capitata has the ability to tolerate cooler climates better than most other species of fruit flies. It lays its eggs under the skin of fruit, usually around already broken skin. Due to this reproduction habit, C. capitata thrives in agricultural areas where fruit is left out and becomes damaged. It spreads to new locations via exports and the local sale of fruit that contains eggs.
Common Names: medfly, Mediterranean fruit fly
Synonyms: Ceratitis citriperda MacLeay , Ceratitis hispanica De Brême, Paradalaspis asparagi Bezzi, Tephritis capitata Wiedemann , Trypeta capitata Wiedemann, 1824
6. Gracilaria salicornia (alga) English  français     
The introduction of alien algae in the marine environment is a potential threat to the health and stability of near-shore ecosystems. Gracilaria salicornia threatens coral reefs and native benthic communities in Hawaii and elsewhere. It may reduce marine species diversity and alter marine community structure.
Common Names: canot-canot, red alga
Synonyms: Corallopsis cacalia Agardh, Corallopsis concrescens Reinbold, Corallopsis dichotoma Ruprecht, Corallopsis opuntia Agardh, Corallopsis salicornia Greville, Corallopsis salicornia var. minor Sonder, Gracilaria cacalia Dawson, Sphaerococcus salicornia Agardh
7. Oxycaryum cubense (aquatic plant, sedge) English     
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) is a wetland sedge found throughout the Americas and in parts of Africa. It forms large floating mats on standing water and may be aggressive and invasive in some areas. However, it does not appear to be a species of concern in much of its range and is a good source of food for ducks, as well as important in cycling detritus.
Common Names: alligator weed, burhead sedge, capim-de-capivara, Cuban bulrush
Synonyms: Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Palla forma paraguayense (Maury) Pedersen, Oxycaryum schomburgkianum Nees, Scirpus cubensis (Poepp. & Kunth)
8. Paratrechina longicornis (insect) English  français 
Paratrechina longicornis (the crazy ant) is a tramp ant, which, by definition, is an ant that is widely dispersed through commerce and other human-assisted avenues. It is extremely easy to identify by observing its rapid and erratic movements. Paratrechina longicornis is highly adaptable to various environments and can be a major pest. It occurs in large numbers in homes or outdoors and is capable of displacing other ants and possibly other invertebrates. Paratrechina longicornis forages over long distances away from its nest, making the nest hard to find and the ants difficult to control.
Common Names: crazy ant , hairy ant , higenaga-ameiro-ari , long-horned ant, slender crazy ant
Synonyms: Formica gracilescens Nylander (1856) , Formica longicornis Latreille (1802) , Formica vagans Jerdon (1851) , Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky (1863) , Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (1925), Prenolepis (Nylanderia) longicornis Emery (1910) , Prenolepis longicornis Roger (1863) , Tapinoma gracilescens F. Smith (1858)
9. Pheidole megacephala (insect) English  français     
Pheidole megacephala is one of the world's worst invasive ant species. Believed to be native to southern Africa, it is now found throughout the temperate and tropical zones of the world. It is a serious threat to biodiversity through the displacement of native invertebrate fauna and is a pest of agriculture as it harvests seeds and harbours phytophagous insects that reduce crop productivity. Pheidole megacephala are also known to chew on irrigation and telephone cabling as well as electrical wires.
Common Names: big-headed ant, brown house-ant, coastal brown-ant, Grosskopfameise, lion ant
Synonyms: Atta testacea Smith 1858, Formica edax Forskal 1775, Formica megacephala Fabricius 1793, Myrmica laevigata F. Smith, Myrmica suspiciosa Smith 1859, Myrmica trinodis Losana 1834, Oecophthora perniciosa Gerstacker 1859, Oecophthora pusilla Heer 1852, Pheidole janus F. Smith, Pheidole laevigata Mayr
10. Tubastraea coccinea (coral) English  français 
Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) has been introduced to all continents except Antarctica and is thought to compete with native benthic invertebrates for space and to compromise their communities. The reduction of native sponges and native corals could also have significant flow-on effects for entire ecosystems.
Common Names: colonial-cup coral, orange-cup coral, orange-tube coral, tubastrée orange
Synonyms: Astropsammia pedersenii , Caryophyllia aurantiaca , Coenopsammia affinis , Coenopsammia aurea , Coenopsammia coccinea , Coenopsammia ehrenbergiana, Coenopsammia manni , Coenopsammia radiata, Coenopsammia tenuilamellosa , Coenopsammia urvillii , Coenopsammia willeyi , Dendrophyllia affinis , Dendrophyllia aurantiaca , Dendrophyllia danae , Dendrophyllia ehrenbergiana , Dendrophyllia manni , Dendrophyllia surcularis , Dendrophyllia turbinata , Dendrophyllia willeyi , Lobophyllia aurea , Placopsammia darwini , Tubastraea aurea , Tubastraea pedersenii , Tubastraea tenuilamellosa, Tubastraea willeyi
11. West Nile virus (micro-organism) English   
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus native to Africa, Europe, and Western Asia. WNV is mostly transmitted by Culex mosquitoes in a cycle involving birds as amplifying hosts. However infected mosquitoes can also transmit the virus to other animals and humans. Most animals are “dead-end” hosts and do not contribute to virus spread or evolution in nature, because infection in non-avian species results in low virus levels that is insufficient for infection of mosquitoes.
Since its introduction into the United States in the New York City area in 1999 WNV has continued to expand its range across the United States and into Canada, Mexico and Central and South America. WNV causes severe disease humans, horses and other vertebrates. Most people infected with West Nile virus have only mild illness. However the virus can also cause severe neuroinvasive diseases, often leading to death. No specific medication exists to treat West Nile virus infection, and there is currently no vaccine available for humans. Control measures focus on reducing mosquito breeding habitat: standing water in urban areas, agricultural areas, and wetlands.
Common Names: West Nile virus
12. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri (micro-organism) English   
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri is a bacteria affecting citrus trees that thrives in areas with high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and high winds. In areas with these characteristics, X. axonopodis pv.citri causes citrus canker, which imparts heavy economic losses on citrus industries. It is spread through the inadvertent translocation of infected citrus fruits and seedlings to uninfected areas. Locally, X. axonopodis pv.citri is spread with the help of the Asian citrus leaf miner, which exposes the bacteria for spread by wind and rainfall.
Common Names: citrus canker
13. Yersinia pestis (micro-organism)
Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes plague, a highly contagious and lethal disease and the cause of three disease pandemics throughout human history. It is a zoonotic disease and exists in natural cycles involving transmission between rodent hosts and flea vectors. Humans are usually infected through bites from rodent fleas that carry the disease. Modern antibiotics are effective against Y. pestis, but if treatment is delayed or inadequate then the disease can cause severe illness or death.
Common Names: bubonic plague, chuma, pest, peste, plague
Synonyms: Bacillus pestis, Bacillus pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Migula 1900, Bacterium pestis , Bacterium pestis Lehmann and Neumann 1896, Pasteurella pestis, Pasteurella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Bergey et al. 1923, Pestisella pestis , Pestisella pestis (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Dorofeev 1947

Native Species

1. Abrus precatorius (shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Abrus precatorius a legume, is a nitrogen fixer and where present in large stands can alter soil nutrient status. It is also suspected to have allelopathic effects that could alter native species recruitment.
Common Names: alcaçuz-da-américa, assacumirim, coral bead plant, crab's eye, fuefue laulili‘i, guen léglise, Indian-licorice, jequerity, jequiriti, jequirity-bean, kaikes en iak, kirikiri rangi, kolales halomtano, koviriviri mata-tako, lele, lere ndamu, licorice-vine, love-bean, lucky-bean, mata‘ila, matamoe, matamoho, matamoso, minnie-minnies, moho, ndiri ndamu, nggiri ndamu, ojos de cangrejo, olho-de-cabra-miúdo, olho-de-pombo, peronías, pipi tio, pitipiti‘o, pitipitio, pois rouge, pomea mataila, prayer-beads, precatory, precatory bean, pukiawe, pukiawe lei, pukiawe lenalena, pupukiawe, red-beadvine, rosary pea, rosarypea, tento, tento muido, uiui, weather plant, weather vine
Synonyms: Abrus abrus (L.) W. Wight, Glycine abrus Linnaeus
2. Azolla pinnata (aquatic plant) English     
Azolla pinnata can spread rapidly, and has the ability to survive on moist soil in and around rivers, ditches, and ponds. It forms dense surface mats, which degrade water quality by reducing oxygen levels, and can interfere with boating, fishing and recreational activities.
Common Names: ferny azolla, mosquito fern, water velvet
3. Bacopa monnieri (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bacopa monnieri is a small sprawling herb common in fresh and brackish waters. It is found growing in freshwater wetlands, wet pastures and margins of ponds on Grand Cayman where it is listed as an invasive species.
Common Names: adha-birni, bacopa, brahmi, coastal water hyssop, gundala, herb of grace, Indian pennywort, indravalli, safed chamni
Synonyms: Bramia monnieri (L.) Drake, Gratiola monnieria L., Lysimachia monnieri L.
4. Buddleja madagascariensis (vine, climber, shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Buddleja madagascariensis commonly known as smokebush, is a shrub native to Madagascar; it has been introduced outside its native range as an ornamental plant. Easily dispersed bird or wind-borne seeds and the ability to regenerate from stem fragments has led to the naturalisation of B. madagascariensis in many tropical and sub-tropical areas. As B. madagascariensis forms thick, impenetrable thickets, native vegetation can be smothered and excluded. As well as this, B. madagascariensis can cause throat allergies and coughing, nose swelling and eyelid blisters when dry. The sap of B. madagascariensis is also known to be toxic, potentially causing burning rashes and blisters. The need to exclude livestock from B. madagascariensis has resulted in an economic impact in some areas, especially as it is difficult to control.
Common Names: buddleia bush, butterfly bush, Madagascar buddleia, Madagascar butterfly bush, smoke bush
Synonyms: Adenoplea madagascariensis Lam., Buddleia madagascarienses Lam., Buddleja heterophylla Lindl., Buddleja madagascariensis, Buddleja nicodemia, Buddleya madagascarienses Lam., Nicodemia madagascariensis
5. Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (micro-organism)
Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease is a destructive disease of citrus caused by gram-negative phloem-restricted bacteria belonging to the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. The genus comprises three known species: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, occurring in Asian countries and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil and the USA (Florida), Candidatus Liberibacter africanus, recorded from African countries, and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus present in Brazil and Florida. It is thought that each Liberibacter species evolved in the continent after which it is named. HLB is transmitted between trees by the psyllids Trioza erytreae in Africa and Diaphorina citri in Asia and America. HLB affects all commercial citrus varieties, causing mottling of leaves, stunting of growth and formation of small, deformed fruit which fail to colour properly. HLB can destroy citrus groves within 5 to 8 years. Apart from prevention there are no control measures currently available, causing HLB to often be described as the most destructive and serious disease of citrus.
Common Names: blotchy mottle, citrus greening disease, dieback, Enverdecimiento, greening, huanglongbing (HLB), likubin, mottle leaf, vein phloem degeneration, yellow branch, yellow shoot disease
Synonyms: Liberobacter africanum
6. Caulerpa webbiana (alga)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
7. Charybdis hellerii (crustacean)
Charybdis hellerii is an Indo-Pacific, portunid crab that has invaded several locations in the Mediterranean Sea, by Erythrean invasion through the Suez Canal, and the South Atlantic in the Caribbean and United States via ballast water fouling. Charybdis hellerii is a potential threat to native crab populations and benthic communities and its introduction should be avoided by adhering to ballast water management guidelines.
Common Names: Indo-Pacific swimming crab, Ishigani New Caledonia, New Caledonia-íshigani, spiny hands
Synonyms: Charybdis (Goniosoma) merguiense (Alcock, 1899; Nobili, 1906, Chopra, 1935; Leene, 1973; Shen, 1937), Charybdis amboinensis (Leene, 1938), Charybdis merguiensis (Sakai, 1934; Barnard, 1950; Guinot, 1962), Charybdis vannamei Ward 1941, Goniosoma hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867), Goniosoma merguiense (DeMan, 1888), Goniosoma sexdentatum (De Man, 1879), Goniosoma spiniferum
8. Colubrina asiatica (shrub) English     
In its non-native locations, especially in coastal habitats, Colubrina asiatica aggressively outcompetes native vegetation. It is found, most often at the interface of uplands and submerged lands or between beach dune and maritime hammock. C. asiatica is also frequently found along elevated road shoulders in coastal areas, from where it can spread into adjacent natural areas. Plants grow rapidly in full sun. Its seeds are constantly dispersed at a rapid rate by ocean currents, and seed-eating birds may also ingest them as crop stones, producing a wider dispersal range. C. asiatica exhibits tremendous vegetative regeneration, including adventitious rooting from branches coming in contact with the soil and vigorous resprouting from cut or injured stems.
Common Names: Asian snakewood, hoop with, Indian snakewood, latherleaf, wild coffee
Synonyms: Ceanothus asiaticus L.
9. Commelina benghalensis (herb) English     
Believed to be native only to tropical Asia and Africa, Commelina benghalensis is a widely distributed herbaceous weed that commonly invades agricultural sites and disturbed areas. Though not commonly reported to invade natural areas, this rapidly reproducing plant is considered one of the most troublesome weeds for 25 crops in 29 different countries.
Common Names: alikbangon, Benghal dayflower, bias-bias, blue commelina, comméline, commeline du Bengale, dayflower, gewor, golondrina, hairy honohono, hairy wandering-Jew, herbe aux cochons, Indian dayflower, kanaibashi, kanasiri, kanchara, kanchura, kaningi, kanini, kankaua, kena, konasimalu, krishnaghas, kuhasi, kulkulasi, mankawa, matalí, mau‘u Toga, mau‘u Tonga, musie matala pulu, myet-cho, sabilau, sabilau, trapoeraba, tropical spiderwort, tsuyukusa, tsuyukusa, wandering-jew, yu-je-tsai
Synonyms: Commelina canescens Vahl, Commelina cucullata L., Commelina delicatula Schltdl., Commelina kilimandscharica K. Schum., Commelina mollis Jacq., Commelina nervosa Burm. f., Commelina procurrens Schltdl., Commelina prostrata Regel, Commelina pyrrhoblepharis Hassk. (1867), Commelina turbinata Vahl
10. Cryptostegia grandiflora (vine, climber) English  français     
Cryptostegia grandiflora is a self supporting, many-stemmed vine that is capable of growing over trees up to 15m high, smothering and pulling them down. It occurs in dry and moist forests in disturbed situations where there is temporary or permanent water, such as in rainforest openings and along roadsides. C. grandiflora is poisonous to stock when consumed and it forms impenetrable thickets that may restrict stock access to water. It decreases water catchments due to increased transpiration resulting in a loss of trees and native vines, which in turn leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat.
Common Names: caucho de la India, India rubber vine, liane de gatope, palay rubber vine, purple allamanda, rubber vine
Synonyms: Nerium grandiflorum Roxb. ex R. Br.
11. Cryptostegia madagascariensis (vine, climber)
Cryptostegia madagascariensis a native of Madagascar, is found in tropical climates world-wide where it is has naturalized. It has been dispersed widely largely due to its popularity as an ornamental; and for extraction of its latex content for rubber manufacture. Despite not being as invasive as its drier counterpart, Cryptostegia grandiflora, C. madagascariensis is considered highly invasive in Hawaii, Australia and Brazil. Due to its close similarities to C. grandiflora, many of the management techniques are able to be used on C. madagascariensis.
Common Names: Indian rubber vine, lèt makak, Madagascar rubber vine, palay rubber vine, purple allamanda, rubber vine, zong makak
Synonyms: Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. glaberrima, Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. madagascariensis, Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. septentrionalis
12. Dioscorea bulbifera (herb, vine, climber) English     
Dioscorea bulbifera is a highly invasive plant and presents a management problem in many parts of the world. Despite some medicinal and agricultural uses, D. bulbifera is widely characterized as an organism that outcompetes and smothers native vegetation.
Common Names: ‘oi, aerial yam, air yam, air-potato, ápwereka, belloi, bitter yam, Brotwurzel, cheeky yam, dau fasia, dau kwasi, ellal, hoei-oepas, hoi, hoi, hoi, hoi, igname bulbifère, inhame, kaile, kaile manu, kaile ndranu, magnaheugo, mata, ñame de gunda, palai, papa voladora, pi‘oi, potato yam, pousse en l'air, pureka, puruka, pwer, pwereka, pwerh, rook, sarau, soi, wild yam, yam, Yamswurzel, yoi
Synonyms: Dioscorea hoffa Cordem., Dioscorea tamnifolia Salisb., Dioscorea bulbifera L.  var. vera Prain & Burkill, Dioscorea crispata Roxb., Dioscorea dicranandra Donn.Sm., Dioscorea heterophylla Roxb., Dioscorea pulchella Roxb., Dioscorea tenuiflora Schltdl., Helmia bulbifera (L.) Kunth, Smilax decipiens Spreng.
13. Hedychium flavescens (herb) English  français     
Hedychium flavescens has been spread from its home-range in the Himalayas to occupy many locations around the world. It has caused great concern in countries where it has been introduced; for example in New Zealand, Hawaii and La Réunion, as it can form dense vegetative growths that may cover whole areas of land and prevent the regrowth and regeneration of native plant species. Moist warm climates in particular favour successful establishment of Hedychium flavescens.
Common Names: awapuhi melemele, cream garland lily, cream ginger, cream ginger lily, e mei jiang hua, gingembre jaune, hédychie jaunâtre, kopi rengarenga, kopi rengarenga, longose jaune vanille, longoze, opuhi rea rea, re'a rengarenga, teuila, wild ginger, yellow ginger, yellow ginger-lily
Synonyms: Hedychium emeiense Z.Y. Zhu, Hedychium panzhuum Z.Y. Zhu
14. Landoltia punctata (aquatic plant) English     
Native to Southeastern Asia and Australia and arguably to the United States, Landoltia punctata (dotted duckweed) has been introduced to several states in the U.S.A. and many European and Asian countries. It thrives in nutrient rich waters and prefers slow moving or stagnant ponds to enhabitat. Consequences of its introduction are unknown, but its capability to reproduce quickly, disperse rapidly and grow in low oxygen areas make it a potential threat to freshwater systems.
Common Names: dotted duckmeat, dotted duckweed, giant duckweed
Synonyms: Lemna melanorrhiza F. Muell. ex Kurz in J. Bot. 5 (1867), Lemna oligorhiza Kurz in J. Linn. Soc. London 9 (1866), Lemna pleiorrhiza F. Muell. ex Kurz in J. Bot. 5 (1867), Lemna punctata G. Mey., Prim. fl. Esseq. (1818), Spirodela javanica (Bauer) Hegelm. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21 (1895), Spirodela melanorrhiza (Kurz) Hegelm. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21 (1895), Spirodela oligorrhiza (Kurz) Hegelm., Lemnaceen (1868), Spirodela pleiorrhiza Hegelm. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21 (1895), Spirodela punctata (G. Mey.) Thompson in Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 9 (1897), Spirodela pusilla Hegelm. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21 (1895)
15. Lutjanus kasmira (fish) English  français   
Lutjanus kasmira is a commercially important reef-associated tropical fish that has been introduced into Hawaii for fisheries. In introduced areas of Hawaii it has become abundant, forming dense schools. It may outcompete native fish for space, crowding them out of important refuge areas.
Common Names: blouband snapper, blue-banded hussar, bluebanded snapper, blueline snapper, blue-lined sea perch, bluelined snapper, blue-lined snapper fish, bluestripe seaperch, bluestripe snapper, bluestriped snapper, common bluestripe snapper, common blue-stripe snapper, common bluestriped snapper, gorara tikus, hamra, hobara, ikan nonya, irri ranna, janja, kelea, kuning-kuning, kunyit, kunyit-kunyit, madras, mbawaa, merah, naisarah, nga-wet-panni, nisar, pargo de raios azuis, pargo de rayas, pargo de rayas azules, perche à raies bleues, pla ka pong deng thab nam ngern, pla kapong, savane, taape, tanda-tanda, tembo-uzi, vali ranna, verikeechan, vivaneau à raies bleues, yellow and blue seaperch, yosuji-fuedai
16. Panicum repens (grass) English     
Panicum repens is a perennial grass that frequently forms dense colonies and has long, creeping rhizomes. It grows in moist, often sandy soils and its rhizomes often extend several feet out into the water. Panicum repens frequently forms dense floating mats that impede water flow in ditches and canals and restrict recreational use of shoreline areas of lakes and ponds. Management of Panicum repens involves the repeated application of herbicides. There is very little physical management that can be used to control Panicum repens, as disturbance encourages its growth.
Common Names: canota, couch panicum , creeping panic , kriechende Hirse, millet rampant , panic rampant , torpedo grass , torpedograss , Victoria grass , wainaku grass
Synonyms: Panicum airoides R. Br. , Panicum aquaticum A. Rich. , Panicum arenarium Brotero , Panicum chromatostigma Pilg. , Panicum convolutum P.Beauv. ex Spreng. , Panicum gouinii (Fourn.), Panicum hycrocharis Steud. , Panicum ischaemoides Retz. , Panicum kinshassense Vanderyst , Panicum leiogonum Delile , Panicum littorale C.Mohr ex Vasey , Panicum nyanzense K.Schum. , Panicum roxburghianum Schult. , Panicum sieberi Link , Panicum tuberosum Llanos , Panicum uliginosum Roxb. ex Roem. & Schult.
17. Perna perna (mollusc) English   
Perna perna, commonly known as the brown mussel, is a bivalve mussel that has recently invaded North America, around the Gulf of Mexico. It is quickly becoming a nuisance of water-cooling systems for power stations and can alter the physical structure of a habitat. Perna perna is an edible species and has been known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) outbreaks to those that consume contaminated mussels.
Common Names: brown mussel, Mexilhao mussel
Synonyms: Chloromya perna, Mya perna, Mytilus afe (Gmelin 1791), Mytilus africanus (Chemnitz 1785), Mytilus elongatus (Lamarck 1817), Mytilus perna, Mytilus pictus (Born 1780), Mytilus venezolanus (Andreu 1965), Perna indicata Kuriakose and Nair., Perna picta (Born)
18. Pittosporum viridiflorum (tree, shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Pittosporum viridiflorum is a shrub/tree that has become naturalised in Hawai'i and Saint Helena. Originally cultivated in Europe as early as the 17th Century, the Dutch took the species to Saint Helena where it has now naturalised as an early coloniser in the currently regenerating shrubland. In Hawaii, P. viridiflorum is typically found at altitudes less than 1000m at forest edges and abandoned pasture.
Common Names: cape cheesewood, cape pittosporum, spoor
19. Porphyrio porphyrio (bird)
The ecological similarity of the purple swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) to the Florida native common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica) have prompted efforts to eliminate this member of the rail family from Florida. It is not clear what negative consequences could result from these non-native birds but in other parts of the world they are noted for their aggressive behaviour and their habit of eating other bird's eggs.
Common Names: bláhæna, caimão, calamón común, Modrzyk, pollo sultano, pukeko, purperkoet, purpurhöna, Purpurhuhn, seikei, slípka modrá, sultanhøne, sultanhøne, sultánka modrá, sulttaanikana, talève sultane
20. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (grass) English  français     
Rottboellia cochinchinensis is an erect annual grass that reaches heights of 4 metres. It is a weed of warm-season crops around the world, preferring tropical and subtropical climates. It grows along roadsides and in other open, well-drained sites. R. cochinchinensis is an aggressive weed, considered to be one of the 12 worst weeds that infest sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the world. It is also a very competitive weed with maize crops. R. cochinchinensis has irritating hairs on its stem which makes it difficult to control it manually in small-scale farms. It is tolerant to most herbicides that are applied in cotton and maize fields. Management and removal of R. cochinchinensis requires the use of many man hours and the application of several techniques to ensure control.
Common Names: anguigay, annarai, bandjangan, barsali, bukal, bura, caminadora, capim-camalote, cebada fina, corn grass, dholu, doekoet kikisian, fataque duvet, gaho, girum nagei, graminea corredora, guinea-fowl grass , herbe à poils, herbe de riz, herbe fataque-duvet, herbe queue-de-rat, itch grass, itchgrass , jointed grass, Kelly grass , kokoma grass , konda panookoo, lisofya, paja peluda, prickle grass, Raoul grass, rice grass, sagisi, sancarana, shamva grass, sugarcane weed, swooate, tsunoaiashi
Synonyms: Aegilops exaltata L., Manisuris exaltata (L. f.) Kuntze , Ophiurus appendiculatus Steud., Rottboellia arundinacea Hochst. ex A. Rich , Rottboellia denudata Steud., Rottboellia exaltata L. f., nom. illeg, Rottboellia setosa J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl , Stegosia cochinchinensis Lour, Stegosia exaltata Nash
21. Rubus pinnatus (shrub) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Rubus pinnatus is reported as being exceedingly common on the island of St Helena everywhere above an elevation of 1500 feet.
Common Names: blackberry, bramble
Synonyms: Rubus kingaensis Engl., Rubus madagascarius fo. umbrosus Gust., Rubus madagascarius Gust., Rubus pappei Eckl. & Zeyh., Rubus pinnatus subsp. afrotropicus Engl., Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus Gust., Rubus pinnatus var. defensus Gust., Rubus pinnatus var. mutatus Gust., Rubus pinnatus var. subglandulosus R. A. Grah., Rubus roridus Lindl., Rubus rosifolius Sm.
22. Tenrec ecaudatus (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Common Tenrec, tailess tenrec, Tail-less Tenrec
23. Terminalia catappa (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Terminalia catappa is a native plant of Asia that has escaped from cultivation. Due to its ability to cope with sandy, well draining soil, and salt spray it is often found on coastal regions. It is considered invasive in Florida, United States, and several Carribean Islands, including Montserrat, Puerto Rico and the Cayman Islands. Its seeds are highly bouyant which allows it disperse vast distances however they are highly edible so are eaten by bats, crabs and humans. However despite its potential as being an invasive species it is being considered for multiple applications. Due to its extensive and deep-rooting structure it is considered a possible species to use as a dune retention species against proposed climate change and sea-level rise, and in Brazil it is also being considered a potential cultivar to use in bio-fuel creation.
Common Names: alconorque, alite, almendra, almendrillo, almendro, almendro de la india, almendro del pais, almendron, alumpit, amandelboom, amandier de Cayenne, amandier des indies, amandier des tropiques, amendoeira, amendoeira, amendoeira-da-india, badam, badam, badamier, badamier, barbados almond, bastard almond, beach almond, bengal almond, castafiola, castanhola, castania, chapeu-de-sol, country almond, demarara almond, false kamani, fijian almond, guarda-sol, india almond, Indischer Mandelbaum, kamani ‘ula, kamani-haole, Katappenbaum, kauariki, kaukauariki, ketapang, koa‘i‘i, kotamba, koua‘i‘i, ma‘i‘i, malabar-almond, malay almond, natapoa, parasol, saori, sea-almond, singapore almond, story tree, ta‘ie, talie, talisai, talise, taraire, tavola, tavola nut, telie, tipapop, tipop, tivi, tropical almond, west indian almond, white bombway, wilde amandel, zanmande
Synonyms: Badamia comersoni Gaertn., Buceras catappa Hitchc., Juglans catappa Lour., Phytolacca javanica Osbeck, Terminalia badamia Tul., Terminalia dichotoma Miq., Terminalia latifolia Blanco, Terminalia mauritana Blanco, Terminalia moluccana Lam., Terminalia ovatifolia Nor.

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland