100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species
Welcome to "One Hundred of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species", funded by La Fondation TOTAL, and part of the Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive species have been recognised globally as a major threat to biodiversity (the collected wealth of the world's species of plants, animals and other organisms) as well as to agriculture and other human interests.
It is very difficult to identify 100 invasive species from around the world that really are "worse" than any others. Species and their interactions with ecosystems are very complex. Some species may have invaded only a restricted region, but have a high probability of expanding and causing further great damage (e.g. see Boiga irregularis: the brown tree snake). Other species may already be globally widespread, and causing cumulative but less visible damage. Many biological families or genera contain large numbers of invasive species, often with similar impacts.
Species were selected for the list according to two criteria: their serious impact on biological diversity and/or human activities, and their illustration of important issues surrounding biological invasion. To ensure the inclusion of a wide variety of examples, only one species from each genus was selected. Absence from the list does not imply that a species poses a lesser threat. For any queries to do with this database, please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Rinderpest virus a species of morbillivirus causing cattle plague, a highly fatal viral disease of domestic cattle, buffaloes and yaks was listed as one of the '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species'. Rinderpest virus was declared eradicated in the wild in 2010.
A global survey was conducted in 2013 to nominate a replacement for the Rinderpest virus on the '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species' list. Over 650 invasion biologists participated in the survey. The floating aquatic fern Salvinia molesta gained the most votes and was selected to replace the Rinderpest virus. The results are published in Nature- see Alien species: Monster fern makes IUCN invader list*.
Salvinia molesta thrives in slow-moving, nutrient-rich warm freshwater. A rapidly growing competitive plant, it is dispersed long distances within a waterbody (via water currents) and between waterbodies (via animals and contaminated equipment, boats or vehicles). S. molesta can form dense vegetation mats that reduce water-flow and lower light and oxygen levels in the water. This stagnant dark environment negatively affects, the biodiversity and abundance of freshwater species, including fish and submerged aquatic plants. S. molesta can alter wetland ecosystems and cause wetland habitat loss. Salvinia invasion also poses a severe threat to socio-economic activities that are dependent on open, flowing and/or high quality waterbodies, including hydro-electricity generation, fishing and boat transport.
*Luque GM, Bellard C, Bertelsmeier C, Bonnaud E, Genovesi P, Simberloff D, Courchamp, F (2013) Alien species: Monster fern makes IUCN invader list. Nature, 498, 37
100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species
- 1. Acacia mearnsii (shrub)
- Acacia mearnsii is a fast growing leguminous (nitrogen fixing) tree. Native to Australia, it is often used as a commercial source of tannin or a source of fire wood for local communities. It threatens native habitats by competing with indigenous vegetation, replacing grass communities, reducing native biodiversity and increasing water loss from riparian zones.
- Common Names: acácia-negra, Australian acacia, Australische akazie, black wattle, swartwattel, uwatela
- 2. Achatina fulica (mollusc)
- Achatina fulica feeds on a wide variety of crop plants and may present a threat to local flora. Populations of this pest often crash over time (20 to 60 years) and this should not be percieved as effectiveness of the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) as a biocontrol agent. Natural chemicals from the fruit of Thevetia peruviana have activity against A. fulica and the cuttings of the alligator apple (Annona glabra) can be used as repellent hedges against A. fulica.
- Common Names: achatine, Afrikanische Riesenschnecke, escargot géant d'Afrique, giant African land snail, giant African snail
- 3. Acridotheres tristis (bird)
- The common myna (Acridotheres tristis), also called the Indian myna, is a highly commensal Passerine
that lives in close association with humans. It competes with small mammals and bird for nesting hollows and on some islands, such as Hawaii and Fiji, it preys on other birds' eggs and chicks. It presents a threat to indigenous biota, particularly parrots and other birdlife, in Australia and elsewhere.
- Common Names: brun majna, Calcutta myna, common myna, German Indischer mynah, Hirtenmaina, hjarðmænir, house myna, Indian myna, Indian mynah, kabairohakka, maina, mainá común, maina comune, mainato, majna brunatna, majna obecná, manu, manu kaomani, manu kavamani, manu rataro, manu teve, Martin triste, merle des Moluques, mynah, pihamaina, piru, talking myna, treurmaina
- 4. Aedes albopictus (insect)
- The Asian tiger mosquito is spread via the international tire trade (due to the rainwater retained in the tires when stored outside). In order to control its spread such trading routes must be highlighted for the introduction of sterilisation or quarantine measures. The tiger mosquito is associated with the transmission of many human diseases, including the viruses: Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis.
- Common Names: Asian tiger mosquito, forest day mosquito, mosquito tigre, moustique tigre, tiger mosquito, tigermücke, zanzare tigre
- 5. Anopheles quadrimaculatus (insect)
- Anopheles quadrimaculatus a mosquito is the chief vector of malaria in North America. This species prefers habitats with well-developed beds of submergent, floating leaf or emergent aquatic vegetation. Larvae are typically found in sites with abundant rooted aquatic vegetation, such as rice fields and adjacent irrigation ditches, freshwater marshes and the vegetated margins of lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
- Common Names: common malaria mosquito, Gabelmücke
- 6. Anoplolepis gracilipes (insect)
- Anoplolepis gracilipes (so called because of their frenetic movements) have invaded native ecosystems and caused environmental damage from Hawaii to the Seychelles and Zanzibar. On Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, they have formed multi-queen supercolonies. They are also decimating the red land crab (Gecarcoidea natalis) populations. Crazy ants also prey on, or interfere in, the reproduction of a variety of arthropods, reptiles, birds and mammals on the forest floor and canopy. Their ability to farm and protect sap-sucking scale insects, which damage the forest canopy on Christmas Island, is one of their more surprising attributes. Although less than 5% of the rainforest on Christmas Island has been invaded so far, scientists are concerned that endangered birds such as the Abbott’s booby (Sula abbotti), which nests nowhere else in the world, could eventually be driven to extinction through habitat alteration and direct attack by the ants.
- Common Names: ashinaga-ki-ari, crazy ant, Gelbe Spinnerameise, gramang ant, long-legged ant, Maldive ant, yellow crazy ant
- 7. Anoplophora glabripennis (insect)
- The Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis is a large wood-boring beetle that is native to countries in Asia, such as Japan, Korea and China. The beetle spends most of its life within the inner wood of a variety of hardwood trees as larvae which tunnel and feed on the cambium layer, eventually killing the tree. It was first detected in New York 1996, although it is thought to have arrived in the 1980s in solid wood packing material from China. It has since been detected in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Illinois, California, Ontario (Canada) and parts of Europe. The Asian longhorn beetle threatens 30-35% of the trees in urban areas of eastern USA. The economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts on the United States would be devastating if the beetle continues to spread. Potential losses have been estimated in the tens to hundreds of billions of US dollars. Current control measures focus on rapidly delimiting new infestations, imposing quarantine and cutting down and burning of infected trees.
- Common Names: ALB, Asian longhorn beetle, Asian longhorned beetle, Asiatischer Laubholzkäfer, longicorne Asiatique, starry sky beetle
- 8. Aphanomyces astaci (oomycete)
- Aphanomyces astaci commonly referred to as crayfish plague is an oomycete or water mould that infects only crayfish species. It is endemic of North America and is carried by North American crayfish species; signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii and Orconectes limosus. A. astaci was introduced into Europe through imports of North American species of crayfish. Native European crayfish populations are not resistant to this oomycete. It has since devastated native crayfish stocks throughout the continent.
- Common Names: crayfish plague, Wasserschimmel
- 9. Ardisia elliptica (tree)
- Ardisia elliptica is a shade tolerant evergreen tree whose fast growth and attractive fruit made it a popular ornamental plant in the past. It has escaped from private and public gardens to invade natural areas. Due to high reproductive output and high shade-tolerance, carpets of seedlings can form underneath adult trees. High seed viability (99%) and seed consumption by both avian and mammalian frugivores can lead to rapid spread across a landscape.
- Common Names: ardisie elliptique, ati popa'a, shoebutton ardisia
- 10. Arundo donax (grass)
- Giant reed (Arundo donax) invades riparian areas, altering the hydrology, nutrient cycling and fire regime and displacing native species. Long ‘lag times’ between introduction and development of negative impacts are documented in some invasive species; the development of giant reed as a serious problem in California may have taken more than 400 years. The opportunity to control this weed before it becomes a problem should be taken as once established it becomes difficult to control.
- Common Names: arundo grass, bamboo reed, caña, caña común, caña de Castilla, caña de la reina, caña de techar, cana- do-reino, cana-do-brejo, cane, canne de Provence, canno-do-reino, capim-plumoso, carrizo, carrizo grande, cow cane, donax cane, E-grass, fiso palagi, giant cane, giant reed, grand roseau, kaho, kaho folalahi, la canne de Provence, narkhat, ngasau ni vavalangi, Pfahlrohr, reed grass, river cane, Spaanse-riet, Spanisches Rohr, Spanish cane, Spanish reed, wild cane
- 11. Asterias amurensis (sea star)
- Originally found in far north Pacific waters and areas surrounding Japan, Russia, North China, and Korea, the northern Pacific seastar (Asterias amurensis) has successfully invaded the southern coasts of Australia and has the potential to move as far north as Sydney. The seastar will eat a wide range of prey and has the potential for ecological and economic harm in its introduced range. Because the seastar is well established and abundantly widespread, eradication is almost impossible. However, prevention and control measures are being implemented to stop the species from establishing in new waters.
- Common Names: flatbottom seastar, Japanese seastar, Japanese starfish, Nordpazifischer Seestern, North Pacific seastar, northern Pacific seastar, purple-orange seastar
- 12. Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) (micro-organism)
- Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a deadly pathogen which affects many areas of the world-wide banana industry. Infected banana plants produce increasingly smaller leaves on shorter petioles giving the plants a bunched appearance. Fruits may be distorted and plants become sterile before the whole mat (rhizome) eventually dies. The international spread of BBTV is primarily through infected planting materials.
- Common Names: abaca bunchy top virus, banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), BBTV, bunchy top, bunchy top virus, laufeti’iti’i
- 13. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (fungus)
- Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a non-hyphal parasitic chytrid fungus that has been associated with population declines in endemic amphibian species in upland montane rain forests in Australia and Panama. It causes cutaneous mycosis (fungal infection of the skin), or more specifically chytridiomycosis, in wild and captive amphibians. First described in 1998, the fungus is the only chytrid known to parasitise vertebrates. B. dendrobatidis can remain viable in the environment (especially aquatic environments) for weeks on its own, and may persist in latent infections.
- Common Names: chytrid frog fungi, chytridiomycosis, Chytrid-Pilz, frog chytrid fungus
- 14. Bemisia tabaci (insect)
- Bemisia tabaci has been reported from all continents except Antarctica. Over 900 host plants have been recorded for B. tabaci and it reportedly transmits 111 virus species. It is believed that B. tabaci has been spread throughout the world through the transport of plant products that were infested with whiteflies. Once established, B. tabaci quickly spreads and through its feeding habits and the transmission of diseases, it causes destruction to crops around the world. B. tabaci is believed to be a species complex, with a number of recognised biotypes and two described extant cryptic species.
- Common Names: cotton whitefly, mosca blanca, sweet potato whitefly, Weisse Fliege
- 15. Boiga irregularis (reptile)
- Native island species are predisposed and vulnerable to local extinction by invaders. When the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) was accidentally introduced to Guam it caused the local extinction of most of the island’s native bird and lizard species. It also caused "cascading" ecological effects by removing native pollinators, causing the subsequent decline of native plant species. The ecosystem fragility of other Pacific islands to which cargo flows from Guam has made the potential spread of the brown tree snake from Guam a major concern.
- Common Names: Braune Nachtbaumnatter, brown catsnake, brown tree snake, culepla, kulebla
- 16. Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (amphibian)
- Cane toads were introduced to many countries as biological control agents for various insect pests of sugarcane and other crops. The cane toads have proved to be pests themselves. They will feed on almost any terrestrial animal and compete with native amphibians for food and breeding habitats. Their toxic secretions are known to cause illness and death in domestic animals that come into contact with them, such as dogs and cats, and wildlife, such as snakes and lizards. Human fatalities have been recorded following ingestion of the eggs or adults.
- Common Names: Aga-Kröte, bufo toad, bullfrog, cane toad, crapaud, giant American toad, giant toad, kwapp, macao, maco pempen, Maco toro, marine Toad, Suriname toad
- 17. Capra hircus (mammal)
- The goat (Capra hircus) was domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. These herbivores have a highly varied diet and are able to ultilise a larger number of plant species than other livestock. Goats alter plant communities and forest structure and threaten vulnerable plant species. The reduction of vegetation reduces shelter options for native animals and overgrazing in native communitties leads to ecosystem degradation. Feral goats spread disease to native animals. Native fauna on islands are particularly susceptible.
- Common Names: goat, Hausziege
- 18. Carcinus maenas (crustacean)
- Carcinus maenas is native to Europe and northern Africa and has been introduced to the North America, Australia, parts of South America and South Africa. It is a voracious food generalist and in some locations of its introduced range it has caused the decline of other crab and bivalve species. Its success with invasion has also caused numerous other problems that require management.
- Common Names: European green crab, European shore crab, green crab, le crabe enragé, le crabe vert, le crabe vert Europeén, shore crab, Strandkrabbe
- 19. Caulerpa taxifolia (alga)
- Caulerpa taxifolia is an invasive marine alga that is widely used as a decorative plant in aquaria. A cold-tolerant strain was inadvertently introduced into the Mediterranean Sea in wastewater from the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco, where it has now spread over more than 13,000 hectares of seabed. Caulerpa taxifolia forms dense monocultures that prevent the establishment of native seaweeds and excludes almost all marine life, affecting the livelihoods of local fishermen.
- Common Names: caulerpa, killer alga, lukay-lukay, Schlauchalge, sea weed
- 20. Cecropia peltata (tree)
- Cecropia peltata is a fast-growing, short-lived tree that grows in neotropical regions. It is light-demanding and rapidly invades disturbed areas, such as forest canopy gaps, roadsides, lava flows, agricultural sites, urban locations, and other disturbed areas. It naturally occurs in tropical Central and South America, as well as some Caribbean islands and has been introduced to Malaysia, Africa, and Pacific Islands. It may be replacing, or competing with, other native pioneer species in some locations.
- Common Names: bois cannon, faux ricin, guarumo, papyrus géant, parasolier, pisse-roux, pop-a-gun, snakewood tree, Trompetenbaum, trumpet tree, trumpet wood, yagrumo hembra
- 21. Cercopagis pengoi (crustacean)
- Cercopagis pengoi is a water flea native to the Ponto-Aralo-Caspian basin in South Eastern Europe, at the meeting point of the Middle East, Europe and Asia. It has spread from its native range and become invasive in some waterways of Eastern Europe and in the Baltic Sea. It has been introduced to the Great Lakes of North America, quickly becoming established and is now increasing its range and abundance. Cercopagis pengoi is a voracious predator and may compete with other planktivores. Through this competition, C. pengoi has the potential to affect the abundance and condition of zooplanktivorous fish and fish larvae. It also interferes with fisheries by clogging nets and fishing gear.
- Common Names: cercopag, fishhook waterflea, Kaspischer Wasserfloh, petovesikirppu, röövtoiduline vesikirp, rovvattenloppa, tserkopag
- 22. Cervus elaphus (mammal)
- Red deer (Cervus elaphus) were introduced to several countries, including North and South America, New Zealand and Australia. In Argentina they have invaded several National parks, influencing native flora and fauna and possibly disrupting ecological processes. Of particular concern is possible competition with an endangered deer endemic to the southern parts of Chile and Argentina. They also compete with livestock.
- Common Names: cerf elaphe, Ciervo colorado, deer, Edelhirsch, elk, European red deer, red deer, Rothirsch, Rotwild, Rothirsch, wapiti
- 23. Chromolaena odorata (herb)
- Chromolaena odorata is a fast-growing perennial shrub, native to South America and Central America. It has been introduced into the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific, where it is an invasive weed. Also known as Siam weed, it forms dense stands that prevent the establishment of other plant species. It is an aggressive competitor and may have allelopathic effects. It is also a nuisance weed in agricultural land and commercial plantations.
- Common Names: agonoi, bitter bush, chromolaena, hagonoy, herbe du Laos, huluhagonoi, jack in the bush, kesengesil, mahsrihsrihk, masigsig, ngesngesil, otuot, rumput belalang, rumput golkar, rumput putih, Siam weed, Siam-Kraut, triffid weed, wisolmatenrehwei
- 24. Cinara cupressi (insect)
- Cinara cupressi is a brownish soft-bodied insect classified as an aphid. It has been discovered around the world feeding on various trees from the following genus': Cupressus, Juniperus, Thuja, Callitris, Widdringtonia, Chamaecyparis, Austrocedrus, and the hybrid Cupressocyparis. C. cupressi sucks the sap from twigs causing yellowing to browning of the foliage on the affected twig. The overall effect on the tree ranges from partial damage to eventual death of the entire tree. This aphid has seriously damaged commercial and ornamental plantings of trees around the globe.
- Common Names: cypress aphid, cypress aphid, Zypressen Blattlaus
- 25. Cinchona pubescens (tree)
- Cinchona pubescens is a widely cultivated tropical forest tree which invades a variety of forest and non-forest habitats. It spreads by wind-dispersed seeds and vegetatively via multiple suckers up to several metres away from original tree once it is established. C. pubescens replaces and outshades native vegetation.
- Common Names: arbre à quinine, cascarilla, chinarindenbaum, hoja ahumada, hoja de zambo, quinine, quinoa, quinquina, red cinchona, roja, rosada, Roter Chinarindenbaum
- 26. Clarias batrachus (fish)
- Clarias batrachus is native to southeastern Asia and has been introduced into many places for fish farming. Walking catfish, as it is commonly known (named for their ability to move over land), is an opportunistic feeder and can go for months without food. During a drought large numbers of walking catfish may congregate in isolated pools and consume other species. They are known to have invaded aquaculture farms, entering ponds where they prey on fish stocks. C. batrachus has been described as a benthic, nocturnal, tactile omnivore that consumes detritus and opportunistically forages on large aquatic insects, tadpoles, and fish.
- Common Names: alimudan, cá trê tráng, cá trèn trang, clarias catfish, climbing perch, freshwater catfish, Froschwels, hito, htong batukan, ikan keling, ikan lele, Ito, kawatsi, keli, klarievyi som, koi, konnamonni, kug-ga, leleh, magur, mah-gur, mangri, marpoo, masarai, mungri, nga-khoo, pa douk, paltat, pantat, pla duk, pla duk dam, pla duk dan, pla duk nam jued, pla duk nam juend, Thai hito, Thailand catfish, trey andaing roueng, trey andeng, walking catfish, wanderwels, Yerivahlay
- 27. Clidemia hirta (shrub)
- The invasive shrub Clidemia hirta is a problem in tropical forest understories in its introduced range, where it invades gaps in the forest, preventing native plant species from regenerating. The spread of Clidemia hirta has been linked to soil disturbances, particularly that caused by the wild pig, another invasive species. It has proven to negatively effect native ecosystems and is difficult to control in the Hawaiian archipelago. It is feared it will have a similar effect in other regions where it has been introduced such as in various Indian Ocean Islands (Seychelles), the Malaysian Peninsula and parts of Micronesia (Palau).
- Common Names: clidemia, clidémie hérissée, faux vatouk, Hirten-Schwarzmundgewaechs, kaurasiga, kauresinga, Koster's curse, kúi, mbona na mbulamakau, ndraunisinga, roinisinga, soap bush, tabac-bœuf, vuti
- 28. Coptotermes formosanus (insect)
- Coptotermes formosanus is a subterranean termite with an affinity for damp places. Wherever there is wood (cellulose) and moisture there is the possibility that this species can inhabit that location.
- Common Names: Formosa termite, Formosan subterranean termite
- 29. Cryphonectria parasitica (fungus)
- Cryphonectria parasitica is a fungus that attacks primarily Castanea spp. but also has been known to cause damage to various Quercus spp. along with other species of hardwood trees. American chestnut, C. dentata, was a dominant overstorey species in United States forests, but now they have been completely replaced within the ecosystem. C. dentata still exists in the forests but only within the understorey as sprout shoots from the root system of chestnuts killed by the blight years ago. A virus that attacks this fungus appears to be the best hope for the future of Castanea spp., and current research is focused primarily on this virus and variants of it for biological control. Chestnut blight only infects the above-ground parts of trees, causing cankers that enlarge, girdle and kill branches and trunks.
- Common Names: chestnut blight, Edelkastanienkrebs
- 30. Cyprinus carpio (fish)
- The introduction of fish as a source of protein for human consumption into tropical and subtropical lake systems is continuing apace. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been cultured for 2500 years and is also a popular angling and ornamental fish; is the third most frequently introduced species in the world. Its method of feeding churns up the sediments on the bottom of the water and uproots macrophytes, making it an keystone ecosystem engineer that altering habitats for native fish and other native aquatic species.
- Common Names: Cá Chép, carp, carpa, carpat, carpe, carpe, carpe commune, carpeau, carpo, cerpyn, ciortan, ciortanica, ciortocrap, ciuciulean, common carp, crapcean, cyprinos, escarpo, Europäischer Karpfen, European carp, fancy carp, feral carp, German carp, grass carp, grivadi, ikan mas, Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli, kapor, kapr obecný, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp dziki a. sazan, karpa, karpar, karpe, Karpe, karpen, karper, karpfen, karpion, karppi, kerpaille, king carp, koi, koi carp, korop, krapi, kyprinos, læderkarpe, lauk mas, leather carp, leekoh, lei ue, mas massan, mirror carp, olocari, Oriental carp, pa nai, pba ni, pla nai, ponty, punjabe gad, rata pethiya, saran, Saran, sarmão, sazan, sazan baligi, scale carp, sharan, skælkarpe, soneri masha, spejlkarpe, sulari, suloi, tikure, trey carp samahn, trey kap, ulucari, weißfische, wild carp, wildkarpfen
- 31. Dreissena polymorpha (mollusc)
- Common Names: Dreiecksmuschel, Dreikantmuschel, dreisena, Eurasian zebra mussel, moule zebra, racicznica zmienna, Schafklaumuschel, svitraina gliemene, tavaline ehk muutlik rändkarp, vaeltajasimpukka, vandremusling, vandringsmussla, wandering mussel, Wandermuschel, zebra mussel, zebra mussel, Zebramuschel, Zebra-Muschel
- 32. Eichhornia crassipes (aquatic plant)
- Originally from South America, Eichhornia crassipes is one of the worst aquatic weeds in the world. Its beautiful, large purple and violet flowers make it a popular ornamental plant for ponds. It is now found in more than 50 countries on five continents. Water hyacinth is a very fast growing plant, with populations known to double in as little as 12 days. Infestations of this weed block waterways, limiting boat traffic, swimming and fishing. Water hyacinth also prevents sunlight and oxygen from reaching the water column and submerged plants. Its shading and crowding of native aquatic plants dramatically reduces biological diversity in aquatic ecosystems.
- Common Names: aguapé, bekabe kairanga, bung el ralm, bung el ralm, floating water hyacinth, jacinthe d'eau, jacinto de agua, jacinto-aquatico, jal khumbe, jal kumbhi, lechuguilla, lila de agua, lirio acuatico, mbekambekairanga, riri vai, wasserhyazinthe, water hyacinth, water orchid, wota haisin
- 33. Eleutherodactylus coqui (amphibian)
- Eleutherodactylus coqui is a relatively small tree frog native to Puerto Rico. The frogs are quite adaptable to different ecological zones and elevations. Their loud call is the main reason they are considered a pest. E. coqui's mating call is its namesake, a high-pitched, two-note "co-qui" (ko-kee') which attains nearly 100 decibels at 0.5 metres. E. coqui have a voracious appetite and there is concern in Hawai‘i, where it has been introduced, that E. coqui may put Hawai‘i’s endemic insect and spider species at risk and compete with endemic birds and other native fauna which rely on insects for food.
- Common Names: Caribbean tree frog, common coqui, coqui, Puerto Rican treefrog
- 34. Eriocheir sinensis (crustacean)
- Eriocheir sinensis (the Chinese mitten crab) is a migrating crab which has invaded Europe and North America from its native region of Asia. During its mass migrations it contributes to the temporary local extinction of native invertebrates. It modifies habitats by causing erosion due to its intensive burrowing activity and costs fisheries and aquaculture several hundreds of thousands of dollars per year by consuming bait and trapped fish as well as by damaging gear.
- Common Names: Chineesche Wolhandkrab, Chinese freshwater edible crab, Chinese mitten crab, Chinese river crab, Chinesische Wollhandkrabbe, crabe Chinois, hiina villkäpp-krabi, Kinas cimdinkrabis, Kinesisk ullhandskrabba, Kinesisk ullhåndskrabbe, Kinijos krabas, Kitajskij mokhnatorukij krab, krab welnistoszczypcy, Shanghai crab, villasaksirapu
- 35. Euglandina rosea (mollusc)
- The carnivorous rosy wolfsnail Euglandina rosea was introduced to Indian and Pacific Ocean Islands from the 1950s onwards as a biological control agent for the giant African snail (Achatina fulica). E. rosea is not host specific meaning that native molluscs species are at risk of expatriation or even extinction if this mollusc-eating snail is introduced. Partulid tree snails of the French Polynesian Islands were particularly affected; having evolved separately from each other in isolated valleys, many Partulid tree snails have been lost and today almost all the survivors exist only in zoos.
- Common Names: cannibal snail, escargot carnivore de Floride, euglandine, Rosige Wolfsschnecke, rosy wolf snail
- 36. Euphorbia esula (herb)
- Native to Europe and temperate Asia, Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) is found throughout the world, with the exception of Australia. This aggressive invader is one of the first plants to emerge in the spring and displaces native vegetation by shading and out-competing them for available water and nutrients. Leafy spurge contains a highly irritating substance called ingenol that, when consumed by livestock, is an irritant, emetic and purgative.
- Common Names: Esels-Wolfsmilch, euphorbe feuillue, euphorbia, euphorbia esule, faitours-grass , Heksenmelk, Hungarian spurge, leafy spurge, Scharfe Wolfsmilch, spurge, vargtoerel, wolf's milk
- 37. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.) (shrub)
- Polygonum cuspidatum is an herbaceous perennial native to Japan. It has been introduced to Europe and North America as an ornamental and is also used to stabilise soil, especially in coastal areas. It requires full sun and is found primarily in moist habitats but also grows in waste places, along roadways and other disturbed areas. Once established, P. cuspidatum forms dense stands that shade and crowd out all other vegetation, displacing native flora and fauna, and the overwintering canes and leaves are slow to decompose.
- Common Names: crimson beauty, donkey rhubarb, German sausage, huzhang , itadori , Japanese bamboo, Japanese fleece flower, Japanese knotweed, Japanese polygonum, kontiki bamboo, Mexican-bamboo , peashooter plant, renouée du Japon, reynoutria fleece flower, sally rhubarb
- 38. Felis catus (mammal)
- Felis catus was domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean c. 3000 years ago. Considering the extent to which cats are valued as pets, it is not surprising that they have since been translocated by humans to almost all parts of the world. Notable predators, cats threaten native birdlife and other fauna, especially on islands where native species have evolved in relative isolation from predators.
- Common Names: cat, domestic cat, feral cat, Hauskatze, house cat, poti, pusiniveikau
- 39. Gambusia affinis (fish)
- Gambusia affinis is a small fish native to the fresh waters of the eastern and southern United States. It has become a pest in many waterways around the world following initial introductions early last century as a biological control agent for mosquitoes. In general, it is considered to be no more effective than native predators of mosquitoes. The highly predatory mosquito fish eats the eggs of economically desirable fish and preys on and endangers rare indigenous fish and invertebrate species. Mosquito fish are difficult to eliminate once established, so the best way to reduce their effects is to control their further spread. One of the main avenues of spread is continued, intentional release by mosquito-control agencies. G. affinis is closely related to he eastern mosquito fish (G. holbrooki), which was formerly classed as a sub-species. Their appearance, behaviour and impacts are almost identical, and they can therefore be treated the same when it comes to management techniques. Records of G. affinis in Australia actually refer to G. holbrooki.
- Common Names: Barkaleci, Dai to ue, Gambusia, Gambusie, Gambusino, Gambuzia, Gambuzia pospolita, Gambuzija, guayacon mosquito, Isdang canal, Kadayashi, Koboldkärpfling, Kounoupopsaro, live-bearing tooth-carp, Mosquito fish, Obyknovennaya gambuziya, pez mosquito, San hang ue, Silberkärpfling, tes, Texaskärpfling, Topminnow, western mosquitofish, Western mosquitofish
- 40. Hedychium gardnerianum (herb)
- Hedychium gardnerianum is a showy ornamental which grows over a metre tall in wet climates and grows from sea level to an altitude of 1700 metres. It displaces native plants, forms vast, dense colonies and chokes the understorey vegetation. It can also block stream edges, altering water flow. It is dispersed by birds over short distances and by man over long distances (in garden waste or via the horticultural industry). Even small root fragments will re-sprout, making it difficult to control.
- Common Names: awapuhi kahili, cevuga dromodromo, conteira, Girlandenblume, Jin jiang hua, kahila garland-lily, kahili, kahili ginger, kopi, longose, sinter weitahta, sunkevara, wild ginger
- 41. Herpestes auropunctatus (mammal)
- The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) has been introduced to many islands worldwide for control of rats and snakes, mainly in tropical areas, but also to islands in the Adriatic Sea. Moreover, it has been introduced successfully in two continental areas: the northeast coast of South America and a Croatian peninsula. Mongooses are diurnal generalist carnivores that thrive in human-altered habitats. Predation by mongoose has had severe impacts on native biodiversity leading to the decline and extirpation of native mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. At least seven species of native vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, have almost disappeared on Amami-oshima Island since the introduction of the mongoose in 1979. In addition, mongoose carries human and animal diseases, including rabies and human Leptospira bacterium.
- Common Names: beji, Kleiner Mungo, mangouste, mangus, mweyba, newla, small Indian mongoose
- 42. Hiptage benghalensis (shrub)
- Hiptage benghalensis is a native of India, Southeast Asia and the Philippines. The genus name, Hiptage, is derived from the Greek "hiptamai" which means "to fly" and refers to its unique three-winged fruit known as "samara". Due to the beautiful unique form of its flowers, it is often cultivated as a tropical ornamental in gardens. It has been recorded as being a weed in Australian rainforests and is extremely invasive on Mauritius and Réunion, where it thrives in dry lowland forests, forming impenetrable thickets and smothering native vegetation.
- Common Names: adimurtte, adirganti, atimukta, benghalen-Liane, chandravalli, haldavel, hiptage, kampti, kamuka, liana papillon, liane cythère, liane de cerf, liane du Bengale, liane fleur d'orange, madhalata, madhavi, Madhavi, madhumalati, madmalati, ragotpiti, vasantduti
- 43. Imperata cylindrica (grass)
- Native to Asia, cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) is common in the humid tropics and has spread to the warmer temperate zones worldwide. Cogon grass is considered to be one of the top ten worst weeds in the world. Its extensive rhizome system, adaptation to poor soils, drought tolerance, genetic plasticity and fire adaptability make it a formidable invasive grass. Increases in cogon grass concern ecologists and conservationists because of the fact that this species displaces native plant and animal species and alters fire regimes.
- Common Names: alang-alang, blady grass, Blutgras, carrizo, cogon grass, gi, impérata cylindrique, japgrass, kunai, lalang, ngi, paille de dys, paillotte, satintail, speargrass
- 44. Lantana camara (shrub)
- Lantana camara is a significant weed of which there are some 650 varieties in over 60 countries. It is established and expanding in many regions of the world, often as a result of clearing of forest for timber or agriculture. It impacts severely on agriculture as well as on natural ecosystems. The plants can grow individually in clumps or as dense thickets, crowding out more desirable species. In disturbed native forests it can become the dominant understorey species, disrupting succession and decreasing biodiversity. At some sites, infestations have been so persistent that they have completely stalled the regeneration of rainforest for three decades. Its allelopathic qualities can reduce vigour of nearby plant species and reduce productivity in orchards. Lantana camara has been the focus of biological control attempts for a century, yet still poses major problems in many regions.
- Common Names: ach man, angel lips, ayam, big sage, blacksage, bunga tayi, cambara de espinto, cuasquito, flowered sage, lantana, lantana wildtype, largeleaf lantana, latora moa, pha-ka-krong, prickly lantana, shrub verbean, supirrosa, Wandelroeschen, white sage, wild sage
- 45. Lates niloticus (fish)
- The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a large freshwater fish. Also known as capitaine, mputa or sangara, it can grow up to 200kg and two metres in length. It was introduced to Lake Victoria in 1954 where it has contributed to the extinction of more than 200 endemic fish species through predation and competition for food.
- Common Names: chengu, mbuta, nijlbaars, nilabborre, Nilbarsch, nile perch, perca di nilo, perche du nil, persico del nilo, sangara, Victoria perch, victoriabaars, victoriabarsch
- 46. Leucaena leucocephala (tree)
- The fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing tree/shrub Leucaena leucocephala, is cultivated as a fodder plant, for green manure, as a windbreak, for reforestation, as a biofuel crop etc. Leucaena has been widely introduced due to its beneficial qualities; it has become an aggressive invader in disturbed areas in many tropical and sub-tropical locations and is listed as one of the ‘100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species’. This thornless tree can form dense monospecific thickets and is difficult to eradicate once established. It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible and threatens native plants.
- Common Names: acacia palida, aroma blanca, balori, bo chet, cassis, false koa, faux mimosa, faux-acacia, fua pepe, ganitnityuwan tangantan, graines de lin, guaje, guaslim, guaxin, horse/wild tamarind, huaxin, ipil-ipil, jumbie bean, kan thin, kanthum thect, koa-haole, kra thin, kratin, lamtoro, lead tree, leucaena, leucaena, liliak, lino criollo, lopa samoa, lusina, nito, pepe, rohbohtin, schemu, siale mohemohe, subabul, tamarindo silvestre, tangantangan, tangan-tangan, te kaitetua, telentund, tuhngantuhngan, uaxim, vaivai, vaivai dina, vaivai ni vavalangi, wild mimosa, wild tamarind, zarcilla
- 47. Ligustrum robustum (shrub)
- Ligustrum robustum subsp.walkeri is a highly invasive weed in the Mascarene Achipelago in the Indian Ocean. It was introduced to Mauritius over a century ago and to La Réunion Island in the 1960s. On the oceanic islands that it has invaded, it disrupts primary forest regeneration and threatens native floral biodiversity. Its high fruit production, due to a lack of natural enemies in regions where it has invaded, has been cited as one reason for its high invasiveness.
- Common Names: bora-bora, Ceylon privét, Sri Lankan privet, tree privet, troene
- 48. Linepithema humile (insect)
- Linepithema humile (the Argentine ant) invades sub-tropical and temperate regions and is established on six continents. Introduced populations exhibit a different genetic and social makeup that confers a higher level of invasiveness (due to an increase in co-operation between workers in the colony). This allows the formation of fast growing, high density colonies, which place huge pressures on native ecosystems. For example, Linepithema humile is the greatest threat to the survival of various endemic Hawaiian arthropods and displaces native ant species around the world (some of which may be important seed-dispersers or plant-pollinators) resulting in a decrease in ant biodiversity and the disruption of native ecosystems.
- Common Names: Argentine ant, Argentinische Ameise, formiga-Argentina
- 49. Lymantria dispar (insect)
- Lymantria dispar commonly known as the Asian gypsy moth, is one of the most destructive pests of shade, fruit and ornamental trees throughout the Northern hemisphere. It is also a major pest of hardwood forests. Asian gypsy moth caterpillars cause extensive defoliation, leading to reduced growth or even mortality of the host tree. Their presence can destroy the aesthetic beauty of an area by defoliating and killing the trees and covering the area with their waste products and silk. Scenic areas that were once beautiful have become spotted with dead standing trees where the Asian gypsy moth has invaded. Also, urticacious hairs on larvae and egg masses cause allergies in some people.
- Common Names: Asian gypsy moth, erdei gyapjaslepke, gubar, gypsy moth, lagarta peluda, limantria, løVstraesnonne, maimai-ga, mniska vel’kohlava, neparnyy shelkopryad, Schwammspinner, spongieuse
- 50. Lythrum salicaria (herb)
- Lythrum salicaria is an erect perennial herb with a woody stem and whirled leaves. It has the ability to reproduce prolifically by both seed dispersal and vegetative propagation. Any sunny or partly shaded wetland is vulnerable to L. salicaria invasion, but disturbed areas with exposed soil accelerate the process by providing ideal conditions for seed germination.
- Common Names: Blutweiderich, purple loosestrife, rainbow weed, salicaire pourpre, spiked loosestrife
- 51. Macaca fascicularis (mammal)
- Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque) are native to south-east Asia and have been introduced into Mauritius, Palau (Angaur Island), Hong Kong and parts of Indonesia (Tinjil Island and Papua). They are considered to be invasive, or potentially invasive, throughout their introduced range and management may be needed to prevent them from becoming invasive in areas such as Papua and Tinjil. They are opportunistic mammals and reach higher densities in degraded forest areas, including habitats disturbed by humans. They have few natural predators in their introduced ranges. Macaca fascicularis impact native biodiversity by consuming native plants and competing with birds for fruit and seed resources. In addition, they facilitate the dispersal of seeds of exotic plants. Macaca fascicularis may also impact on the commercial sector through their consuming of agriculturally important plant species and damaging of crops.
- Common Names: crab-eating macaque, long-tailed macaque
- 52. Melaleuca quinquenervia (tree)
- The broad-leaved paperbark tree or melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) can reach heights of 25 meters and hold up to 9 million viable seeds in a massive canopy-held seed bank. This fire-resistant wetland-invader aggressively displaces native sawgrass and pine communities in south Florida, alters soil chemistry and modifies Everglades ecosystem processes. Melaleuca is notoriously difficult to control, however, bio-control (integrated with herbicidal and other methods) holds a promising alternative to traditional control methods.
- Common Names: aceite de cayeput, ahambo, balsamo de cayeput, belbowrie, bottle brush tree, broadleaf paperbark tree, broadleaf teatree, broad-leaved paperbark tree, cajeput, capeputi, corcho, five-veined paperbark tree, itahou, Japanese paper wasp, kayu putih, kinindrano, Mao-Holzrose, melaleuca, niaouli, niaouli, numbah, oli, paper bark tree, paperbark teatree, punk tree, white bottlebrush tree
- 53. Miconia calvescens (tree)
- Miconia calvescens is a small tree native to rainforests of tropical America where it primarily invades treefall gaps and is uncommon. Miconia is now considered one of the most destructive invaders in insular tropical rain forest habitats in its introduced range. It has invaded relatively intact vegetation and displaces native plants on various islands even without habitat disturbance. Miconia has earned itself the descriptions “green cancer of Tahiti" and “purple plague of Hawaii". More than half of Tahiti is heavily invaded by this plant. Miconia has a superficial root system which may make landslides more likely. It shades out the native forest understorey and threatens endemic species with extinction.
- Common Names: bush currant, cancer vert, cancer vert, miconia, purple plague, velvet tree
- 54. Micropterus salmoides (fish)
- Micropterus salmoides (bass) has been widely introduced throughout the world due to its appeal as a sport fish and for its tasty flesh. In some places introduced Micropterus salmoides have affected populations of small native fish through predation, sometimes resulting in the their decline or extinction. Its diet includes fish, crayfish, amphibians and insects.
- Common Names: achigã, achigan, achigan à grande bouche, American black bass, bas dehanbozorg, bas wielkogeby, bass, bass wielkgebowy, biban cu gura mare, black bass, bolsherotnyi amerikanskii tscherny okun, bol'sherotyi chernyi okun', buraku basu, fekete sügér, forelbaars, forellenbarsch, green bass, green trout, großmäuliger Schwarzbarsch, huro, isobassi, khorshid Mahi Baleh Kuchak, lakseabbor, largemouth bass, largemouth black bass, lobina negra, lobina-truche, northern largemouth bass, okounek pstruhový, okuchibasu, Öringsaborre, Ørredaborre, ostracka, ostracka lososovitá, perca Americana, perche d'Amérique, perche noire, perche truite, persico trota, stormundet black bass, stormundet ørredaborre, tam suy lo ue, zwarte baars
- 55. Mikania micrantha (vine, climber)
- Mikania micrantha is a perennial creeping climber known for its vigorous and rampant growth. It grows best where fertility, organic matter, soil moisture and humidity are all high. It damages or kills other plants by cutting out the light and smothering them. A native of Central and South America, M. micrantha was introduced to India after the Second World War to camouflage airfields and is now a major weed. It is also one of the most widespread and problematic weeds in the Pacific region. Its seeds are dispersed by wind and also on clothing or hair.
- Common Names: American rope, Chinese creeper, Chinesischer Sommerefeu, fue saina, liane americaine, mile-a-minute weed, ovaova, usuvanua, wa bosucu, wa mbosuthu, wa mbosuvu, wa mbutako, wa ndamele
- 56. Mimosa pigra (shrub)
- Mimosa pigra is invasive, especially in parts of South East Asia and Australia. It reproduces via buoyant seed pods that can be spread long distances in flood waters. Mimosa pigra has the potential to spread through natural grassland floodplain ecosystems and pastures, converting them into unproductive scrubland which are only able to sustain lower levels of biodiversity. In Thailand Mimosa pigra blocks irrigation systems that supply rice fields, reducing crop yield and harming farming livelihoods. In Vietnam it has invaded unique ecosystems in protected areas, threatening the biodiversity of seasonally inundated grasslands.
- Common Names: bashful plant, catclaw, catclaw mimosa, chi yop, columbi-da-lagoa, eomrmidera, espino, giant sensitive plant, giant sensitive tree, giant trembling plant, juquiri, juquiri grand, kembang gajah, mai yah raap yak, maiyarap ton, malicia-de-boi, mimosa, mimose, putri malu, semalu gajah, sensitiva, trinh nu nhon, una de gato, xao ho
- 57. Mnemiopsis leidyi (comb jelly)
- The ctenophore, Mnemiopsis ledyi, is a major carnivorous predator of edible zooplankton (including meroplankton), pelagic fish eggs and larvae and is associated with fishery crashes. Commonly called the comb jelly or sea walnut, it is indigenous to temperate, subtropical estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North and South America. In the early 1980s, it was accidentally introduced via the ballast water of ships to the Black Sea, where it had a catastrophic effect on the entire ecosystem. In the last two decades of the twentieth century, it has invaded the Azov, Marmara, Aegean Seas and recently it was introduced into the Caspian Sea via the ballast water of oil tankers.
- Common Names: American comb jelly, comb jelly, comb jellyfish, Rippenqualle, sea gooseberry, sea walnut, Venus' girdle, warty comb jelly
- 58. Mus musculus (mammal)
- The house mouse (Mus musculus) probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with humans which extends back at least 8,000 years. They cause considerable damage to human activities by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosystems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in the success of M. musculus is its behavioural plasticity brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments.
- Common Names: biganuelo, field mouse, Hausmaus, house mouse, kiore-iti, raton casero, souris commune, wood mouse
- 59. Mustela erminea (mammal)
- Mustela erminea (the stoat) is an intelligent, versatile predator specialising in small mammals and birds. It is fearless in attacking animals larger than itself and adapted to surviving periodic shortages by storage of surplus kills. In New Zealand it is responsible for a significant amount of damage to populations of native species.
- Common Names: ermine, ermine, Grosswiesel, Hermelin, hermine, short-tailed weasel, short-tailed weasel, stoat
- 60. Myocastor coypus (mammal)
- Myocastor coypus (coypu) is a large semi-aquatic rodent which originated from South America. However, due to escapes and releases from fur farms there are now large feral populations in North America, Europe and Asia. Their burrows penetrate and damage river banks, dykes and irrigation facilities. Myocastor coypus' feeding methods lead to the destruction of large areas of reed swamp. Habitat loss caused by coypus impacts plant, insect, bird and fish species.
- Common Names: Biberratte, coipù, coypu, nutria, ragondin, ratão-do-banhado, Sumpfbiber
- 61. Morella faya (shrub)
- Morella faya, commonly called the fire tree, is a native to the Azores, Madeira Islands and the Canary Islands. It has been introduced to several places including Hawaii, New Zealand and Australia. This fast growing tree, whose dispersal is facilitated by introduced frugivorous birds, is capable of rapidly forming dense stands and has a negative effect on the recruitment and persistence of native plant species.
- Common Names: candleberry myrtle, fayatree, Feuerbaum, fire tree, firebush
- 62. Mytilus galloprovincialis (mollusc)
- Mytilus galloprovincialis (blue mussel or the Mediterranean mussel) is native to the Mediterranean coast and the Black and Adriatic Seas. It has succeeded in establishing itself at widely distributed points around the globe, with nearly all introductions occurring in temperate regions and at localities where there are large shipping ports (Branch and Stephanni 2004). Ship hull fouling and transport of ballast water have been implicated in its spread and its impact on native communities and native mussels has been suggested by a number of studies and observations (Carlton 1992; Robinson and Griffiths 2002; Geller 1999).
- Common Names: bay mussel, blue mussel, Mediterranean mussel, Mittelmeer-Miesmuschel
- 63. Oncorhynchus mykiss (fish)
- Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) are one of the most widely introduced fish species in the world. Native to western North America, from Alaska to the Baja Peninsula, Oncorhynchus mykiss have been introduced to numerous countries for sport and commercial aquaculture. Oncorhynchus mykiss is highly valued as a sportfish, with regular stocking occurring in many locations where wild populations cannot support the pressure from anglers. Concerns have been raised about the effects of introduced trout in some areas, as they may affect native fish and invertebrates through predation and competition.
- Common Names: Alabalik, Alabalik türü, Amerikaniki Pestrofa, Aure, Baiser, Baja California rainbow trout, Brown trout, Coast angel trout, Coast rainbow trout, Coast range trout, Dagova pastarva, Forel rajduzhna, Forelle, Hardhead, Kamchatka steelhead, Kamchatka trout, Kamloops, Kamloops trout, Kirjolohi, K'wsech, Lord-fish, Masu, Nijimasu, Orret, Pastrva, Pestropha, pstrag teczowy, Pstrag teczowy , Pstruh duhový, Pstruh dúhový, rainbow trout, Rainbow trout , Redband, redband trout, Regenbogenforelle, Regenbogenforelle , Regenboogforel, Regnbåge, Regnbågslax, Regnbogasilungur, Regnbueørred, Regnbueørret, Salmon trout, Salmones del Pacífico, Silver trout, Stahlkopfforelle, Stålhovedørred, Steelhead, steelhead trout, Steelhead trout , Summer salmon, Sxew'k'em, Trofta ylberi, Trofte ylberi, Trota, Trota iridea, Trucha, trucha arco iris, Trucha arco iris , Trucha arcoiris, truite arc-en-ciel, Truta , Truta-arco-iris, Urriöi
- 64. Ophiostoma ulmi sensu lato (fungus)
- Dutch elm disease (DED) is a wilt disease caused by a pathogenic fungus disseminated by specialised bark beetles. There have been two destructive pandemics of the disease in Europe and North America during the last century, caused by the successive introduction of two fungal pathogens: Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the latter much more aggressive. The vector is represented by bark beetles, various different species of scolyts living on elm trees. These beetles breed under the bark of dying elm trees. The young adults fly from the DED infected pupal chambers to feed on healthy elm trees. As a consequence, spores of the fungus carried on the bodies of these beetles are deposited in healthy plant tissue. Ophiostoma ulmi sensu lato can also spread via root grafts.
- Common Names: dutch elm disease, Schlauchpilz
- 65. Opuntia stricta (shrub)
- Opuntia stricta is a cactus that can grow up to 2 metres in height and originates in central America. This spiny shrub favours habitats such as rocky slopes, river banks and urban areas. Opuntia stricta was considered to be Australia's worst ever weed. Opuntia stricta is also invasive in South Africa, where biological options are currently being explored to control the problem.
- Common Names: Araluen pear, Australian pest pear, chumbera, common pest pear, common prickly pear, erect prickly pear, Feigenkaktus, gayndah pear, nopal estricto, pest pear of Australia, sour prickly pear, spiny pest pear, suurturksvy
- 66. Oreochromis mossambicus (fish)
- Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has spread worldwide through introductions for aquaculture. Established populations of Oreochromis mossambicus in the wild are as a result of intentional release or escapes from fish farms. Oreochromis mossambicus is omnivorous and feeds on almost anything, from algae to insects.
- Common Names: blou kurper, common tilapia, fai chau chak ue, Java tilapia, kawasuzume, kurper bream, malea, mojarra, mosambik-maulbrüter, Mozambikskaya tilapiya, Mozambique cichlid, Mozambique mouth-breeder, Mozambique mouthbrooder, Mozambique tilapia, mphende, mujair, nkobue, tilapia, tilapia del Mozambique, tilapia du Mozambique, tilapia mossambica, tilapia mozámbica, trey tilapia khmao, weißkehlbarsch, wu-kuo yu
- 67. Oryctolagus cuniculus (mammal)
- Native to southern Europe and North Africa, the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has been introduced to all continents, except Antarctica and Asia. In many countries, rabbits cause serious erosion of soils by overgrazing and burrowing, impacting on native species that depend on undamaged ecosystems.
- Common Names: Europäisches Wildkaninchen, kaninchen, lapin, rabbit
- 68. Pheidole megacephala (insect)
- Pheidole megacephala is one of the world's worst invasive ant species. Believed to be native to southern Africa, it is now found throughout the temperate and tropical zones of the world. It is a serious threat to biodiversity through the displacement of native invertebrate fauna and is a pest of agriculture as it harvests seeds and harbours phytophagous insects that reduce crop productivity. Pheidole megacephala are also known to chew on irrigation and telephone cabling as well as electrical wires.
- Common Names: big-headed ant, brown house-ant, coastal brown-ant, Grosskopfameise, lion ant
- 69. Phytophthora cinnamomi (oomycete)
- The oomycete, Phytophthora cinnamomi, is a widespread soil-borne pathogen that infects woody plants causing root rot and cankering. It needs moist soil conditions and warm temperatures to thrive, and is particularly damaging to susceptible plants (e.g. drought stressed plants in the summer). P. cinnamomi poses a threat to forestry, ornamental and fruit industries, and infects over 900 woody perennial species. Diagnostic techniques are expensive and require expert identification. Prevention and chemical use are typically used to lessen the impact of P. cinnamomi.
- Common Names: cinnamon fungus, green fruit rot, heart rot, jarrah dieback, phytophthora crown and root rot, Phytophthora Faeule der Scheinzypresse, phytophthora root rot, seedling blight, stem canker, wildflower dieback
- 70. Pinus pinaster (tree)
- Pinus pinaster, originally from the Mediterranean Basin, has been planted in temperate regions within and outside its natural range for a wide range of reasons. It regenerates readily almost everywhere it is planted and in many places it invades natural shrubland, forest and grassland. Pinus pinaster forms dense thickets which supress native plants, changes fire regimes and hydrological properties and alters habitats for many animals.
- Common Names: cluster pine, maritime pine
- 71. Plasmodium relictum (micro-organism)
- The protozoa, Plasmodium relictum, is one of the causative parasites of avian malaria and may be lethal to species which have not evolved resistance to the disease (e.g. penguins). It may be devastating to highly susceptible avifauna that has evolved in the absence of this organism, such as native Hawaiian birds. The parasite cannot be transmitted directly from one bird to another, but requires a mosquito to move from one bird to another. In Hawaii, the mosquito that transmits Plasmodium relictum is the common house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Passerine birds are the most common victims of avian malaria.
- Common Names: avian malaria, paludisme des oiseaux, Vogelmalaria
- 72. Platydemus manokwari (flatworm)
- Worldwide land snail diversity is second only to that of arthropods. Tropical oceanic islands support unique land snail faunas with high endemism; biodiversity of land snails in Pacific islands is estimated to be around 5 000 species, most of which are endemic to single islands or archipelagos. Many are already under threat from the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), an introduced predatory snail. They now face a newer but no less formidable threat, the introduced flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes). Both "biocontrol" species continue to be dispersed to new areas in attempts to control Achatina fulica.
- Common Names: Flachwurm, flatworm, snail-eating flatworm
- 73. Pomacea canaliculata (mollusc)
- Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail with a voracious appetite for water plants including lotus, water chestnut, taro and rice. Introduced widely from its native South America by the aquarium trade and as a source of human food, it is a major crop pest in south east Asia (primarily in rice) and Hawaii (taro) and poses a serious threat to many wetlands around the world through potential habitat modification and competition with native species.
- Common Names: apple snail, channeled apple snail, Gelbe Apfelschnecke, golden apple snail, golden kuhol, miracle snail
- 74. Potamocorbula amurensis (mollusc)
- The suspension-feeding clam, Potamocorbula amurensis is native to Japan, China and Korea in tropical to cold temperate waters. Known as the Asian or Chinese clam, it has been designated as a major bilogical disturbance with significant ecological consequences in the San Francisco Bay area of California where large populations have become established.
- Common Names: Amur river clam, Amur river corbula, Asian bivalve, Asian clam, brackish-water corbula, Chinese clam, marine clam, Nordpazifik-Venusmuschel, Numakodaki
- 75. Prosopis glandulosa (tree)
- Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite) is a perennial, woody, deciduous shrub or small tree. It forms impenetrable thickets that compete strongly with native species for available soil water, suppress grass growth and may reduce understory species diversity.
- Common Names: honey mesquite, mesquite, Mesquite-Busch, Texas mesquite
- 76. Psidium cattleianum (shrub)
- Psidium cattleianum is native to Brazil, but has been naturalised in Florida, Hawai'i, tropical Polynesia, Norfolk Island and Mauritius for its edible fruit. It forms thickets and shades out native
vegetation in tropical forests and woodlands. It has had a devastating effect on native habitats in Mauritius and is considered the worst plant pest in Hawai'i, where it has invaded a variety of natural areas. It benefits from feral pigs (Sus scrofa) which, by feeding on its fruit, serve as a dispersal agent for its seeds. In turn, the guava provides favourable conditions for feral pigs, facilitating further habitat degradation.
- Common Names: cattley guava, cherry guava, Chinese guava, Erdbeer-Guave, gargoulette, gouyavier, goyave de Chine, kuahpa, ngguava, purple strawberry guava, strawberry guava, tuava tinito, waiawi
- 77. Pueraria montana var. lobata (vine, climber)
- Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) roots can eventually comprise over 50% of the plant’s biomass, serving as an organ for carbohydrate storage for recovery after disturbance and making it difficult to control with herbicides. Only in the eastern United States is kudzu considered a serious pest, although it is also established in Oregon in the northwestern USA, in Italy and Switzerland, and one infestation on the northern shore of Lake Erie in Canada. Kudzu is considered naturalized in the Ukraine, Caucasus, central Asia, southern Africa, Hawai, Hispaniola, and Panama. Impacts of kudzu in the southeastern USA include loss of productivity of forestry plantations (estimated at about 120 USD per hectare per year), smothering and killing of native plants and denying access to lands for hunting, hiking, and bird watching.
- Common Names: acha, aka, aka, aka, aka fala, akataha, fen ge, fen ke, foot-a-night vine, gan ge, gan ge teng, Japanese arrowroot, Ko-hemp, Kopoubohne, kudzu, kudzu común, kudzu vine, Kudzu-Kletterwein, kuzu, nepalem, shan ge teng, vigne japonaise, vine-that-ate-the-South, wa yaka, wa yaka
- 78. Pycnonotus cafer (bird)
- Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) is a noisy, gregarious bird distinguished by a conspicuous crimson patch below the root of the tail. It is aggressive and chases off other bird species and may also help to spread the seeds of other invasive species. It is an agricultural pest, destroying fruit, flowers, beans, tomatoes and peas. It occurs naturally from Pakistan to southwest China and has been introduced to many Pacific Islands, where it has caused serious problems by eating fruit and vegetable crops, as well as nectar, seeds and buds.
- Common Names: bulbul à ventre rouge, bulbul cafre, red-vented bulbul, Rußbülbül
- 79. Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana) (amphibian)
- The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana)) is native to North America. It has been introduced all over the world to over 40 countries and four continents. Many introductions have been intentional with the purpose of establishing new food sources for human consumption. Other populations have been established from unintentional escapes from bullfrog farms. Consequences of the introduction of non-native amphibians to native herpetofauna can be severe. The American bullfrog has been held responsible for outbreaks of the chytrid fungus found to be responsible for declining amphibian populations in Central America and elsewhere. They are also important predators and competitors of endangered native amphibians and fish. The control of this invasive in Europe partly relies upon increasing awareness, monitoring and education about the dangers of releasing pets into the wild. Strict laws are also in place to prevent further introductions. Eradication is achieved largely by physical means including shooting, spears/gigs, bow and arrow, nets and traps.
- Common Names: bullfrog, grenouille taureau, North American bullfrog, Ochsenfrosch, rana toro, Stierkikker
- 80. Rattus rattus (mammal)
- A native of the Indian sub-continent, the ship rat (Rattus rattus) has now spread throughout the world. It is widespread in forest and woodlands as well as being able to live in and around buildings. It will feed on and damage almost any edible thing. The ship rat is most frequently identified with catastrophic declines of birds on islands. It is very agile and often frequents tree tops searching for food and nesting there in bunches of leaves and twigs.
- Common Names: black rat, blue rat, bush rat, European house rat, Hausratte, roof rat, ship rat
- 81. Rubus ellipticus (shrub)
- Rubus ellipticus is a thorny shrub that originates from southern Asia. It has been introduced to several places, including Hawaii, Southern USA and the UK, and is grown in cultivation for its edible fruits. This plant has become a major pest in Hawai'i, threatening its own native species of raspberry (Rubus hawaiiensis), and the ability of this plant to thrive in diverse habitat types makes it a particularly threatening invasive plant.
- Common Names: Asian wild raspberry, broadleafed bramble, Ceylon blackberry, eelkek, golden evergreen raspberry, Himalaya-Wildhimbeere, kohkihl, Molucca berry, Molucca bramble, Molucca raspberry, piquant lou-lou, robust blackberry, soni, wa ngandrongandro, wa sori, wa votovotoa, wild blackberry, wild raspberry, yellow Himalayan raspberry, yellow Himalayan raspberry
- 82. Salmo trutta (fish)
- Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
- Common Names: an breac geal, aure, bachforelle, blacktail, breac geal, brook trout, brown trout, denizalabaligi, denizalasi, Europäische Forelle, finnock, forelle, galway sea trout, gillaroo, gwyniedyn, havørred, havsöring, herling, hirling, kumzha, k'wsech, lachförch, lachsforelle, lassföhren, losos taimen, losos' taimen, mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar, meerforelle, meritaimen, morska postrv, morskaya forel', orange fin, öring, orkney sea trout, ørred, ørret, pastrav de mare, peal, pstruh morsky, pstruh obecný, pstruh obecný severomorský, pstruh obycajný, salmo trota, salmon trout, sea trout, sewin, siwin, sjøaure, sjøørret, sjourrioi, taimen, thalasopestrofa, troc, troc wedrowna, trota fario, trout, trucha, trucha común, trucha marina, truita, truite brune, truite brune de mer, truite de mer, truite d'europe, truta marisca, truta-de-lago, truta-fário, truta-marisca, urriði, whiting, whitling, zeeforel
- 83. Salvinia molesta (herb)
- Salvinia molesta is a floating aquatic fern that thrives in slow-moving, nutrient-rich, warm, freshwater. A rapidly growing competitive plant, it is dispersed long distances within a waterbody (via water currents) and between waterbodies (via animals and contaminated equipment, boats or vehicles). It is cultivated by aquarium and pond owners and it is sometimes released by flooding, or by intentional dumping. S. molesta can form dense vegetation mats that reduce water-flow and lower the light and oxygen levels in the water. This stagnant dark environment negatively affects the biodiversity and abundance of freshwater species, including fish and submerged aquatic plants.Salvinia invasions can alter wetland ecosystems and cause wetland habitat loss. Salvinia invasions also pose a severe threat to socio-economic activities dependent on open, flowing and/or high quality waterbodies, including hydro-electricity generation, fishing and boat transport.
S. molesta in 2013 was elected as the one of the '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species' to replace the Rinderpest virus which was declared eradicated in the wild in 2010
- Common Names: African payal
, African pyle, aquarium watermoss, fougère d’eau, giant salvinia , giant salvinia , kariba weed
, koi kandy, salvinia, water fern , water spangles
- 84. Schinus terebinthifolius (tree)
- Native to Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil, Schinus terebinthifolius is a pioneer of disturbed sites, but is also successful in undisturbed natural environments. It is an aggressive evergreen shrub or small tree, 3-7 metres in height that grows in a variety of soil types and prefers partial sun. Schinus terebinthifolius produces shady habitats that repel other plant species and discourage colonisation by native fauna and alter the natural fire regime. Its fruit has a 'paralysing effect' on birds and even grazing animals when ingested. Schinus terebinthifolius seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals and it readily escapes from garden environments. It is planted as both an ornamental and shade tree and has many uses.
- Common Names: baie rose , Brazilian holly, Brazilian pepper, Brazilian pepper tree, Christmas berry, copal, encent, faux poivrier, Florida holly, Mexican pepper, naniohilo, pimienta de Brasil, poivre du Brésil, poivre marron, poivre rose, poivrier d'Amérique, Rosapfeffer, warui, wilelaiki
- 85. Sciurus carolinensis (mammal)
- The grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is native to deciduous forests in the USA and has been introduced to the UK, Ireland, Italy and South Africa. In the introduced range grey squirrels damage trees by eating the bark and in Europe they cause the local extinction of red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) populations through competition and disease.
- Common Names: Grauhoernchen, gray squirrel, grey squirrel, scoiattolo grigio
- 86. Solenopsis invicta (insect)
- Solenopsis invicta is an aggressive generalist forager ant that occurs in high densities and can thus dominate most potential food sources. They breed and spread rapidly and, if disturbed, can relocate quickly so as to ensure survival of the colony. Their stinging ability allows them to subdue prey and repel even larger vertebrate competitors from resources.
- Common Names: fourmi de feu, red imported fire ant (RIFA), rote importierte Feuerameise
- 87. Spartina anglica (grass)
- Spartina anglica is a perennial salt marsh grass which has been planted widely to stablize tidal mud flats. Its invasion and spread leads to the exclusion of native plant species and the reduction of suitable feeding habitat for wildfowl and waders.
- Common Names: common cord grass, Englisches Schlickgras, rice grass, townsends grass
- 88. Spathodea campanulata (tree)
- The African tulip tree (Spathodea campanulata) is an evergreen tree native to West Africa. It has been introduced throughout the tropics, and, has naturalised in many parts of the Pacific. It favours moist habitats and will grow best in sheltered tropical areas. It is invasive in Hawaii, Fiji, Guam, Vanuatu, the Cook Islands and Samoa, and is a potential invader in several other tropical locations.
- Common Names: African tulip tree, Afrikanischer Tulpenbaum, amapola, apär, baton du sorcier, fa‘apasi, fireball, flame of the forest, fountain tree, Indian Cedar, ko‘i‘i, mata ko‘i‘I, mimi, orsachel kui, patiti vai, pisse-pisse, pititi vai, rarningobchey, Santo Domingo Mahogany, taga mimi, tiulipe, tuhke dulip, tulipan africano, tulipier du Gabon
- 89. Sphagneticola trilobata (herb)
- Although Sphagneticola trilobata is the accepted name for this species, it is widely known as Wedelia trilobata. Sphagneticola trilobata is native to the tropics of Central America and has naturalised in many wet tropical areas of the world. Cultivated as an ornamental, it readily escapes from gardens and forms a dense ground cover, crowding out or preventing regeneration of other species. In plantations, it will compete with crops for nutrients, light and water, and reduce crop yields.
- Common Names: ate, atiat, creeping ox-eye, dihpw ongohng, Hasenfuss, ngesil ra ngebard, rosrangrang, Singapore daisy, trailing daisy, tuhke ongohng, ut mõkadkad, ut telia, wedelia
- 90. Sturnus vulgaris (bird)
- Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa, Sturnus vulgaris (the European starling) has been introduced globally, save in neotropic regions. The starling prefers lowland habitats and is an aggressive omnivore. Sturnus vulgaris cost hundreds of millions of dollars in agricultural damage each year and contribute to the decline of local native bird species through competition for resources and nesting spaces.
- Common Names: blackbird, common starling, English starling, estornino pinto, etourneau sansonnet, étourneau sansonnet, Europäischer Star, European starling
- 91. Sus scrofa (mammal)
- Sus scrofa (feral pigs) are escaped or released domestic animals which have been introduced to many parts of the world. They damage crops, stock and property, and transmit many diseases such as Leptospirosis and Foot and Mouth disease. Rooting pigs dig up large areas of native vegetation and spread weeds, disrupting ecological processes such as succession and species composition. Sus scrofa are omnivorous and their diet can include juvenile land tortoises, sea turtles, sea birds, endemic reptiles and macro-invertebrates. Management of Sus scrofa is complicated by the fact that complete eradication is often not acceptable to communities that value feral pigs for hunting and food.
- Common Names: kuhukuhu, kune-kune, petapeta, pig, poretere, razorback, te poaka, Wildschwein
- 92. Tamarix ramosissima (shrub)
- Tamarix ramosissima is a rampantly invasive shrub that has dominated riparian zones of arid climates. A massive invasion of T. ramosissmia in the western United States has dominated over a million acres. Typically found in conjunction with other Tamarix species and resultant hybrids, T. ramosissima displaces native plants, drastically alters habitat and food webs for animals, depletes water sources, increases erosion, flood damage, soil salinity, and fire potential.
- Common Names: salt cedar, Sommertamariske, tamarisk, tamarix
- 93. Trachemys scripta elegans (reptile)
- The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) has been the most popular turtle in the pet trade with more than 52 million individuals exported from the United States to foreign markets between 1989 and 1997. Despite the vast worldwide occurrence of the sliders little is known of their impact on indigenous ecosystems, clearly research and education on the dangers of releasing pet turtles into the wild are needed. Their omnivorous diet and ability to adapt to various habitats, gives them great potential for impacting indigenous habitats.
- Common Names: Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte, Krasnoukhaya cherepakha, Nordamerikansk terrapin, punakorvakilpikonna, punakõrv-ilukilpkonn, raudonausis vežlys , raudonskruostis vežlys, red-eared slider, red-eared slider terrapin, rödörad vattensköldpadda, rødøret terrapin, rødøreterrapin , Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkroete, Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkröte , sarkanausu brunurupucis, slider, tortue à tempe rouge, tortue de Floride, zólw czerwonolicy, zólw czerwonouchy, zólw ozdobny
- 94. Trichosurus vulpecula (mammal)
- The brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a solitary, nocturnal, arboreal marsupial introduced from Australia. It damages native forests in New Zealand by selective feeding on foliage and fruits and also preys on bird nests and is a vector for bovine tuberculosis.
- Common Names: brushtail possum, Fuchskusu
- 95. Trogoderma granarium (insect)
- Trogoderma granarium are considered a pest of considerable impact to stored foodstuffs. It maintains its presence in food storage in very low numbers and is able to survive long periods of time in an inactive state.
- Common Names: escarabajo khapra, khapra beetle, khaprakäfer, trogoderma (dermeste) du grain
- 96. Ulex europaeus (shrub)
- Ulex europaeus is a spiny, perennial, evergreen shrub that grows in dense and impenetrable thickets which exclude grazing animals. It is common in disturbed areas, grasslands, shrublands, forest margins, coastal habitats and waste places. Ulex europaeus is a very successful and tenacious plant once it becomes established and is extremely competitive, displacing cultivated and native plants, and altering soil conditions by fixing nitrogen and acidifying the soil. It creates an extreme fire hazard due to abundant dead material and its oily, highly flammable foliage and seeds. Soil is often bare between individual plants, which increases erosion on steep slopes where Ulex europaeus has replaced grasses or forbs. Spiny and mostly unpalatable when mature, Ulex europaeus reduces pasture quality where it invades rangeland. Ulex europaeus understorey in cultivated forests interferes with operations; increasing pruning and thinning costs and can interfere with the growth of conifer seedlings.
- Common Names: ajonc, ajonc d'Europe, bois jonc, chacay, furze, Gaspeldoorn, genêt, Ginestra spinosa, gorse, jonc marin, kolcolist zachodni, picapica, Stechginster, Tojo, vigneau, vIrish furze, whin, zépinard des hauts
- 97. Undaria pinnatifida (alga)
- The kelp (Undaria pinnatifida) is native to Japan where it is cultivated for human consumption. It is an opportunistic weed which spreads mainly by fouling ship hulls. It forms dense underwater forests, resulting in competition for light and space which may lead to the exclusion or displacement of native plant and animal species.
- Common Names: apron-ribbon vegetable, Asian kelp, haijiecai, Japanese kelp, miyeuk, qundaicai, wakame
- 98. Vespula vulgaris (insect)
- Vespula vulgaris (the common wasp) nest underground and in the cavities of trees and buildings. In addition to causing painful stings to humans, they compete with other insects and birds for insect prey and sugar sources. They will also eat fruit crops and scavenge around rubbish bins and picnic sites.
- Common Names: common wasp, common yellowjacket, Gemeine Wespe
- 99. Vulpes vulpes (mammal)
- The European red fox is probably responsible for declines of some small canids and ground-nesting birds in North America, and numerous small- and medium-sized rodents and marsupials in Australia. A programme to reduce predation pressure on native fauna within the critical weight range of 35 g to 5.5 kg in Western Australia has involved the use of 1080 fox baits.
- Common Names: fuchs, lape, lis, raposa, red fox, renard, rev, Rotfuchs, silver, black or cross fox, volpe, vos, zorro
- 100. Wasmannia auropunctata (insect)
- Wasmannia auropunctata (the little fire ant) is blamed for reducing species diversity, reducing overall abundance of flying and tree-dwelling insects, and eliminating arachnid populations. It is also known for its painful stings. On the Galapagos, it eats the hatchlings of tortoises and attacks the eyes and cloacae of the adult tortoises. It is considered to be perhaps the greatest ant species threat in the Pacific region.
- Common Names: albayalde, cocoa tree-ant, formi électrique, formiga pixixica, fourmi électrique, fourmi rouge, hormiga colorada, hormiga roja, hormiguilla, little fire ant, little introduced fire ant, little red fire ant, pequena hormiga de fuego, petit fourmi de feu, Rote Feuerameise, sangunagenta, satanica, small fire ant, tsangonawenda, West Indian stinging ant
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