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   Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana) (amphibian)    
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    99 references found for Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana):
    Management information

    1. Adams, M.J., Pearl, C.A. and Bury, R.B. 2003. Indirect facilitation of an anuran invasion by non-native fishes. Ecology Letters. 6 (4): 343-351.
      Summary: Report on a field experiment designed to test the predictions that: (1) non-native fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque) lower the abundance of native dragonfly nymphs, (2) native dragonfly nymphs reduce the survival of bullfrog tadpoles and (3) survival of larval bullfrogs improves when a nonnative fish is present.

    2. Berroneau, Matthieu; Detaint, Mathieu ; Coic, Christophe. 2007. First Results of the Telemetry Study of Bullfrogs in Gironde (September 2004-June 2005), Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France 121: 21-33.
      Summary: American bullfrogs (N=25) were followed by Berroneau, Detaint and Coic (2007) using telemetry near Fronsac, Gironde to determine over-wintering habitats, home range and dispersion trends. Results should help in formulating eradication strategies for Bullfrogs, by helping to define the periods and the places of intervention.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed August 19 2010]
      Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
      The decision support tools are available from: [Accessed 13 October 2011]
      The guidance document is available from [Accessed 13 January 2009].

    5. Daszak, P; Strieby, A. ; Cunningham, A. A. ; Longcore, J. E. ; Brown, C. C. ; Porter, D. 2004. Experimental Evidence That the Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is a Potential Carrier of Chytridiomycosis, an Emerging Fungal Disease of Amphibians, Herpetological Journal 14(4): 201-207.
      Summary: These results from Daszak and colleagues (2004) provide the first experimental evidence that American bullfrogs can be infected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, but are relatively resistant to the disease chytridiomycosis, which is lethal to many other amphibian species.

    6. Diego A. Barrasso, Rodrigo Cajade, Santiago J. Nenda, Gabriel Baloriani, Raúl Herrera. 2009. Introduction of the American Bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Anura: Ranidae) in Natural and Modified Environments: An Increasing Conservation Problem in Argentina, South American Journal of Herpetology 4(1): 69-75.
      Summary: Diego and colleagues (2009) reported on the American bullfrog for the first time in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina in the locality of 9 de Julio.

    7. Doubledee, R.A.; Muller, E.B. and Nisbet, R.M. 2003. Bullfrogs, disturbance regimes, and the persistence of California red-legged frogs. Journal of Wildlife Management. 67 (2): 424-438.
      Summary: This article discusses the impacts of bullfrogs on the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), and examines various management strategies that have been employed.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 23 December 2009]

    9. Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Bonin, Aurelie ; Miaud, Claude. 2008. Population Genetics Reveals Origin and Number of Founders in a Biological Invasion, Molecular Ecology 17(3): 773-782.
      Summary: The authors used extensive genetic data to assess the history of invasion and to infer the propagule pressure for the American bullfrog. The results show that invasive populations of bullfrog in Europe descend from a handful of founders. The number of founders of invasive populations can be very small and can challenge the monitoring and biological control commonly set up for invaders.

    10. Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Thuiller, Wilfried; Miaud, Claude. 2007b. Prediction and Validation of the Potential Global Distribution of a Problematic Alien Invasive Species - the American Bullfrog, Diversity & Distributions 13(4): 476-485.
      Summary: Ficetola and colleagues (2007b) looked at habitat suitability models constructed from global data as well as invasiveness models for the European region. They created a worldwide and European projection for the environmental suitability of the American bullfrog.

    11. Galli, Leonardo; Pereira, Alfredo; Marquez, Alejandro; Mazzoni, Rolando. 2006. Ranavirus detection by PCR in cultured tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802) from South America, Aquaculture 257(1-4): 78-82.

    12. Garner, Trenton W. J.; Susan Walker; Jaime Bosch; Alex D. Hyatt; Andrew A. Cunningham; Matthew C. Fishert. 2005. Chytrid Fungus in Europe, Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(10): 1639-1641.

    13. Govindarajulu, P. 2004. Introduced bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in British Columbia: impacts on native Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla) and red-legged frogs (Rana aurora). Ph.D. thesis. University of Victoria, Victoria. Chapter 7.
      Summary: Contains detailed information about bullfrogs in British Columbia, Canada, and their impact on native frogs.

    14. Govindarajulu, Purnima; Altwegg, Res; Anholt, Bradley R. 2005. Matrix model investigation of invasive species control: Bullfrogs on Vancouver Island, Ecological Applications 15(6): 2161-2170.
      Summary: The authors studied demography of four populations on southern Vancouver Island, Canada, using field observations and capture-mark-recapture methods to estimate survival, growth, and fecundity of American bullfrogs.

    15. Grayson, Kristine L; Roe, Andrew W. 2007. Glow Sticks as Effective Bait for Capturing Aquatic Amphibians in Funnel Traps, Herpetological Review 38(2): 168-170.

    16. Group of experts on Invasive Alien Species. 2005. CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN WILDLIFE AND NATURAL HABITATS, Group of experts on Invasive Alien Species, 6th meeting, Palma de Majorca (Spain), 9-11 June 2005, BELGIUM / BELGIQUE: Actions taken in Belgium in response to the threats of Invasive alien species.

    17. Hanselmann, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Lampo, M.; Rajardo-Ramos, L.; Aguirre, A.A.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; Rodriguez, J.P. and Daszak, P. 2004. Presence of an emerging pathogen of amphibians in introduced bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana in Venezuela. Biological Conservation. 120 (1): 155-119.
      Summary: In this study, the authors examined histological samples from apparently healthy American bullfrogs that have been introduced into the Venezuelan Andes. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the pathogenic fungus responsible for global declines in amphibians, was present in 96% (46/48) of the individuals examined. In contrast to cases of chytridiomycosis outbreaks, the majority (44/46) of frogs had few, small lesions consistent with little or no clinical disease and no unusual mortality was observed. These findings have implications for amphibian declines in Venezuela and elsewhere.

    18. Kraus, F. 2009. Alien Reptiles and Amphibians: A Scientific Compendium and Analysis. Springer

    19. McAlpine, Donald F; Vail, Don A., 2005. Hyla Park: managing an amphibian conservation area in an eastern Canadian urban setting. Herpetological Bulletin.(94). WIN 2005. 17-21
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 25 September 2011]
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 1 September 2012]

    22. Scalera R., 2007. An overview of the natural history of non indigenous amphibians and reptiles. In: Gherardi F. (editor) Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution and Threats. Springer. Pp. 141-160.

    23. Scalera R., 2007. Virtues and shortcomings of EU legal provisions for managing NIS: Rana catesbeiana and Trachemys scripta elegans as case studies. In: Gherardi F. (editor) Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution and Threats. Springer. Pp. 669-678.

    24. The Outlaws of the Ecosystem - Invasive Alien Species Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea.
      Summary: Report from Republic of Korea.

    General references

    25. Adams, M. J. 1999. Correlated factors in amphibian decline: exotic species and habitat change in western Washington. J. Wildl. Manag. 63:1162-1171.
      Summary: This study found that bullfrogs were less likely than pond permanence and non-native fish to explain native anuran distributions in western Washington, USA.

    26. Adams, M. J. 2000. Pond permanence and the effects of exotic vertebrates on anurans. Ecological Applications 10:559-568.
      Summary: Enclosure experiments were used to determine if permanent ponds were suitable habitats for native amphibians in the absence of exotic taxa, using Washington state's Puget Lowlands for testing. Results indicate that permanent, rather than seasonal, ponds are suitable for native species, but that neither permanence nor the lack of exotic taxa were sufficient determinants of native amphibian survival rates. Abstract available from: [Accessed 29 December 2009]

    27. Akmentins, Mauricio Sebastián and Darío Elbio Cardozo, 2010. American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) invasion in Argentina. Biological Invasions Volume 12, Number 4 / April, 2010

    28. Babarro, Ricardo. (Pers comm., Dec 03) National Office for Biological Diversity Ministry of Environment Venezuela

    29. Ballard, Adam S.; Balfour, Peter S.; Conway, Courtney J. 2008. Rana catesbeiana (American Bullfrog) Predation, Herpetological Review 39(4): 462-463.

    30. Batista, Cristiane G. 2002. Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) Effects on Native Anuran Community, Herpetological Review 33(2): 131.

    31. Blaustein, A.R. and Kiesecker, J.M. 2002. Complexity in conservation: lessons from the global decline of amphibian populations. Ecology Letters. 5 (4): 597.
      Summary: This review paper discusses the complex range of factors contributing to the decline in amphibian populations, including the bullfrogs effects on red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) in the USA .

    32. Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John Jr. 2007. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Diet, Herpetological Review 38(3): 325-326.

    33. Boone, Michelle D; Little, Edward E. ; Semlitsch, Raymond D. 2004. Overwintered Bullfrog Tadpoles Negatively Affect Salamanders and Anurans in Native Amphibian Communities, Copeia 3: 683-690.
      Summary: This study demonstrates that overwintered Bullfrog tadpoles can respond to changing pond hydroperiods and can negatively impact metamorphosis of native amphibians.

    34. Bradford, D.F.; Jaeger, J.R. and Jennings, R.D. 2004. Population status and distribution of a decimated amphibian, the relict leopard frog (Rana onca. Southwestern Naturalist. 49 (2): 218-228.
      Summary: Discusses the factors causing the decline of the leopard frog, including competition with introduced bullfrogs.

    35. Bury, R. B. and Whelan, J. A. 1984. Ecology and management of the bullfrog. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 155, Washington, D.C.
      Summary: A comprehensive summary and critical review of information on the biology of the bullfrog related to its ecology, status, culture and management. Literature through 1982 is included.

    36. Bury, R.B. and Whelan, J.A. 1984. Ecology and management of the bullfrog. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 155, Washington, D.C.
      Summary: A comprehensive summary and critical review of information on the biology of the bullfrog related to its ecology, status, culture and management. Literature through 1982 was included.

    37. CABI Bioscience. 2005. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland STORED IN “COUNTRY” FILE FOR FULL REPORT. CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to The Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape SAEFL Delémont.

    38. Carpenter, Niel M; Casazza, Michael L; Wylie, Glenn D. 2002. Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) Diet, Herpetological Review 33(2): 130.

    39. Casas-Andreu, Gustavo; Cruz-Avina, Ricardo; Aguilar Miguel, Xochitl. 2002. Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), Herpetological Review 33(1): 63.

    40. Casas-Andreu, Gustavo; Cruzavina, Ricardo; Aguilar Miguel, Xochitl. 2002. Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), Herpetological Review 33(2): 146.

    41. Casper, Gary S. & Russ Hendricks. 2005. Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802: American Bullfrog. Modified from Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, edited by Michael Lannoo (2005 by the Regents of the University of California), used with permission of University of California Press. The book is available from UC Press.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 29 December 2009]

    42. Chivers, D.P., Wildy, E.L., Kiesecker, J.M. and Blaustein, A.R. 2001. Avoidance response of juvenile Pacific treefrogs to chemical cues of introduced predatory bullfrogs. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 27 (8): 1667-1676.
      Summary: This paper discusses the predator-prey interactions between bullfrogs and Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla.

    43. Christiansen, J.I. 2001. Non-native amphibians and reptiles in Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science. 108 (4): 210-211.
      Summary: This paper details the introduction of non-native amphibians to Iowa, including the bullfrog.

    44. Clarkson, Robert W. & James C. deVos, Jr. 1986. The Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana Shaw, in the Lower Colorado River, Arizona-California, Journal of Herpetology 20(1): pp. 42-49.
      Summary: This report documents ecological studies of the American bullfrog in the lower Colorado River, Arizona-California, during the summer of 1981, including density, habitat use, food preference and breeding behaviour.

    45. Combs, Ashley ; Hess, Garrett ; Chapman, Corey ; Stovall, Austin ; Burns, Zach ; Matthews, Stephen ; Goins, John David. 2005. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Diet, Herpetological Review 36(4): 43.
      Summary: English:
      The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (, under the section Novedades for information on updates.
      Invasive species - amphibians is available from: [Accessed 30 July 2008]
      La lista de especies del Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras de méxico cuenta actualmente con información aceca de nombre científico, familia, grupo y nombre común, así como hábitat, estado de la invasión en México, rutas de introducción y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la página de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualización, por favor consulte la portada (, en la sección novedades, para conocer los cambios.
      Especies invasoras - Anfibios is available from: [Accessed 30 July 2008]

    47. Cook, David G.; Jennings, Mark R. 2007. Microhabitat use of the California Red-legged Frog and Introduced Bullfrog in a Seasonal Marsh, Herpetologica 63(4): 430-440.
      Summary: Cook and Jennings (2007) conducted a study on the native red-legged frog and introduced bullfrog in a fish-free, structurally complex marsh not altered in ways that give obvious advantages to the bullfrog. Specifically, they determined: (1) the seasonal abundance of both species; and (2) the habitat use patterns.

    48. Cook, David. 2002. Rana aurora draytonii (California Red-legged Frog) Predation, Herpetological Review 33(4): 303.

    49. Cross, Chad L; Gerstenberger, Shawn L. 2002. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Diet, Herpetological Review 33(2): 129-130.

    50. Da Silva, Emanuel T; Costa, Henrique C. ; Feio, Renato N. 2007. Rana catesbeiana (American Bullfrog) Prey, Herpetological Review 38(4): 443.

    51. De Pascual, Amelia Diaz; Guerrero, Cherly. 2008. Diet Composition of Bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae) Introduced into the Venezuelan Andes, Herpetological Review 39(4): 425-427.

    52. Drost, Charles A. & Gary M. Fellers. 1996. Collapse of a Regional Frog Fauna in the Yosemite Area of the California Sierra Nevada, USA, Conservation Biology 10(2): 414-425.
      Summary: Dramatic losses of native amphibians in the Sierra Nevada mountains are documented and compared with baseline zoological surveys from the early 1900s. Potential causes are named as predatory fish and loss of refuge habitats.

    53. Eason, G.W. and Fauth, J.E. 2001. Ecological correlates of anuran species richness in temporary pools: A field study in South Carolina, USA. Israel Journal of Zoology. 47 (4): 347-365.
      Summary: This paper outlines anuran diversity in temporary ponds in South Carolina, USA.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 24 December 2009]

    55. Enge, K.M. and Wood, K.N. 2001. Herpetofauna of Chinsegut Nature Center, Hernando County, Florida. Florida Scientist. 64 (4): 283-305.
      Summary: This paper reports on the reptile and amphibian species present at Chinsegut Nature Center, Florida, USA, including the bullfrog.

    56. Ferreira, Rachel; Fonseca, Leila de Souza ; Afonso, Andre Muniz ; da Silva, Marlei Gornes ; Saad, Maria Helena ; Lilenbaum, Walter. 2006. A Report of Mycobacteriosis Caused by Mycobacterium marinum in Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Veterinary Journal 171(1): 177-180.
      Summary: The occurrence of mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium marinum in a commercial breeding farm of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is described. It is suggested that M. marinum is an important agent of granulomatous disease in bullfrogs and that infected animals, even when asymptomatic, could act as reservoirs spreading the disease and contaminating other frogs in the farm.

    57. Ficetola, Gentile Francesco, Christophe Coïc, Mathieu Detaint, Matthieu Berroneau, Olivier Lorvelec & Claude Miaud. 2007a. Pattern of Distribution of the American Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana in Europe, Journal Biological Invasions 9(7): 767-772.
      Summary: This report documents the trends of populations of the American bullfrog in Europe from surveys of wetlands in southwest France and questionnaires investigating the situation at a continental scale.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 6 March, 2010]

    59. Foster, B.J.; Sparks, D.W. and Duchamp, J.E. 2004. Urban herpetology II: Amphibians and reptiles of the Indianapolis airport conservation lands. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 113 (1): 53-59.
      Summary: Survey of amphibians and reptiles in Hendricks and Marion counties, Indiana, USA.

    60. Garner, Trenton W.J; Matthew W Perkins; Purnima Govindarajulu; Daniele Seglie; Susan Walker; Andrew A Cunningham and Matthew C Fisher. 2006. The emerging amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis globally infects introduced populations of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, Biol. Lett. 2 (3): 455-459.
      Summary: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is the chytridiomycete fungus which has been implicated in global amphibian declines and numerous species extinctions. Garner and colleagues (2006) show that introduced North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consistently carry this emerging pathogenic fungus.

    61. Govindarajulu, Purnima; W. M Stephen Price, Bradley R. Anholt. 2006. Introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in Western Canada: Has Their Ecology Diverged? Journal of Herpetology 40(2): 249-260.

    62. Hasegawa, Hideo. 2006. First record of Falcaustra catesbeianae Walton, 1929 (Nematoda, Cosmocercoidea, Kathlaniidae) from the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in Japan, Biogeography: 1-5.

    63. Hayes, Marc P. & Mark R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of Ranid Frog Species in Western North America: Are Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) Responsible? Journal of Herpetology 20(4): 490-509.
      Summary: The authors present four alternative hypotheses relating to the decline of ranid frog species native to western North America: 1) bullfrog introduction, 2) habitat alteration; 3) predation by introduced fish; and 4) commercial exploitation. The authors review data relating to four other factors suggested as having caused declines: 1) toxicants, 2) pathogens and parasites, 3) acid rain, and 4) catastrophic mortality. In the absence of satisfactory data, the chronological priority of fish introductions over those of bullfrogs and the greater access fish may have to earlier ranid life stages make the fish predation hypothesis more compelling.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 6 March, 2010]

    65. Hirai, T. 2004. Diet composition of introduced bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in the Mizorogaike Pond of Kyoto, Japan. Ecological Research. 19 (4): 375-380.
      Summary: This paper gives details about the diet of introduced bullfrogs in Mizorogaike Pond, in Kyoto, Japan.

    66. Hirai, Toshiaki. 2004. Diet composition of introduced bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in the Mizorogaike Pond of Kyoto, Japan, Ecological Research 19: 375–380.
      Summary: To study the bullfrog’s diet to assess its effect on a native fauna, Hirai (2004) presents in this paper the diet composition of the bullfrog in the Mizorogaike Pond, Kyoto, Japan. The author analysed the stomach contents of bullfrogs and found that adult bullfrogs feed predominantly on crayfish, and juveniles feed on a diverse range of arthropods.

    67. Hirai, Toshiaki. 2006a. Predation by Rana catesbeiana on a Breeding Male of Rana japonica, Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan(1): 15-16.

    68. Hirai, Toshiaki. 2006b. Predation by Rana catesbeiana on a Juvenile of Cynops pyrrhogaster, Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan(1): 16-17.
      Summary: Hirai (2006b) reports on prey items foung in a bullfrog captured beside a paddy field.

    69. Hou, Ping-Chun Lucy, Shiau, Tsu-Way, Tu, Ming-Chung, Chen, Ching-Chi, Chen, Tung-Yu, Tsai, Ya-Fen, Lin, Chun-Fu & Wu, Sheng-Hai. 2006. Exotic Amphibians in the Pet Shops of Taiwan, Taiwania 51(2): 87-92.
      Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
      Available from: [Accessed March 2005]
      Summary: The Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the world's 5,918 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. This website presents results of the assessments, including IUCN Red List threat category, range map, ecology information, and other data for every amphibian species.
      Available from: [Accessed 5 November 2006].
      Summary: This paper outlines the distribution of bullfrogs in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA.

    73. Kats, L.B. and Ferrer, R.P. 2003. Alien predators and amphibian declines: review of two decades of science and the transition to conservation. Diversity and Distributions. 9 (2): 99.
      Summary: This article discusses the impacts of alien species in North America, including the bullfrog.

    74. Kiesecker, J.M.; Blaustein, A.R. and Miller, C.L. 2001. Potential mechanisms underlying the displacement of native red-legged frogs by introduced bullfrogs. Ecology. 82 (7): 1964-1970.
      Summary: This paper gives detailed information about the competition between bullfrogs and native red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) in Oregon, USA.

    75. Kupferberg, S. J. 1997. Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) invasion of a California river: the role of larval competition. Ecology 78(6): 1736-1751.
      Summary: Native yellow-legged frogs, Rana boylii, were almost an order of magnitude less abundant in reaches where bullfrogs were well established. Competition from large overwintering bullfrog larvae significantly decreased survivorship and growth of native tadpoles.

    76. Laufer, G., Canavero, A., Nunez, D. & Maneyro, R. 2008. Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) invasion in Uruguay. Biological Invasions 10: 1183-1189.

    77. Lawler, S.P., Dritz, D., Strange, T. and Holyoak, M. 1999. Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red-legged frog. Conservation Biology. 13 (3): 613-622.
      Summary: This paper compares the effects of bullfrogs and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on the declining California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii).

    78. Lawler, S.P., Holyoak, M., Dritz, D. & Strange, T. 1999. Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red-legged frog. Conservation Biology 13(3): 613-622.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 6 March, 2010]
      Summary: This short note gives details about an incident of a bullfrog preying on the duckling of a white-cheeked pintail (Anas bahamensis) in Puerto Rico.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 23 December 2009]
      Summary: Species account in Europe.

    83. Merovich, C.E. and Howard, J.H. 2000. Amphibian use of constructed ponds on Maryland's eastern shore. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science. 107 (3-4): 151-159.
      Summary: This paper gives the results of a study of amphibian assemblages in constructed ponds in Maryland, including the presence of bullfrogs.

    84. Minowa, Shun; Senga, Yutaro ; Miyashita, Tadashi., 2008. Microhabitat Selection of the Introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in Paddy Fields in Eastern Japan. Current Herpetology. 27(2). DEC 2008. 55-59
      Summary: Introduction of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana is considered detrimental to native fauna. However, methods for controlling bullfrog populations have not yet been established. Managing habitats to resist invasion is important for alien species that are difficult to control directly. We surveyed habitat characteristics of paddy fields in eastern Japan inhabited by bullfrogs and analyzed their microhabitat selection. Our results suggest that adult bullfrogs prefer microhabitat with deep water. Therefore, it may be possible to prevent invasion of adults by keeping water shallow. Managing local habitats to prevent immigration may reduce the spread of bullfrogs on larger spatial scales.

    85. National Research Council. 1974. Amphibians. Guidelines for the breeding, care and management of laboratory animals. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

    86. Orchard, S. A., 1992. Amphibian population declines in British Columbia. Occasional paper. Canadian Wildlife Service. Ottawa
      Summary: Nine families of the class Amphibia are represented in British Columbia. Eighteen species are native, and at least two nonnatives have become established. Among the native species are a number of habitat specialists whose declines are clearly attributable to habitat destruction through human disturbance. It is suggested that predation and competition from increasing populations of introduced fish and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana ), as well as from managed populations of native waterfowl, may have contributed to the decline of these species.

    87. Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Bury, R.B.; and McCreary, B. 2004. Asymmetrical effects of introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) on native ranid frogs in Oregon. Copeia. 2004 (1): 11-20.
      Summary: This paper discusses the impacts introduced bullfrogs have has on native frogs in Oregon.

    88. Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Schuytema, G.S. and Nebeker, A.V. 2003. Behavioral responses of anuran larvae to chemical cues of native and introduced predators in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Journal of Herpetology. 37 (3): 572-576.
      Summary: This paper discusses the responses of native and introduced anurans to predator cues.

    89. Pryor, G.S. 2003. Growth rates and digestive abilities of bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) fed algal diets. Journal of Herpetology. 37 (3): 560-566.
      Summary: Contains information about the digestive abilities of tadpole bullfrogs.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 7 March, 2010]
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 23 December 2009]

    92. Smith, G.R. 1999. Microhabitat preferences of bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) of different ages. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. 25 (0): 73-76.
      Summary: This paper gives the results of an investigation into the habitat preferences of bullfrog tadpoles.

    93. Smith, H.M. and Chiszar, D. 2003. Distributional and variational data on the frogs of the genus Rana in Chihuahua, Mexico, including a new species. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society. 39 (3): 59-66.
      Summary: This paper gives details about the Rana spp. occurring in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    94. Stumpel, A. H. P., 1992. Successful reproduction of introduced bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana in northwestern Europe: A potential threat to indigenous amphibians. Biological Conservation. Vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 61-62. 1992.
      Summary: In The Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) larvae are imported on a large scale for trade in pet shops. Many of them survive the "goldfish bowl" and are then released in the wind as larvae or freshly metamorphosed juveniles. Since many records exist of full-grown bullfrogs, the animals clearly can reach adulthood in the wild. Nature conservationists have great concern about the potential threat to indigenous amphibians, and particularly to green frogs Rana esculenta complex, which occupy more or less the same niche. Examples of bullfrogs expelling other species have been shown by Dumas (1966), Moyle (1973) and Hammerson (1982). In The Netherlands there is no legislation that prevents this trade. Until recently, reproduction of bullfrogs has not been recorded in The Netherlands. In 1991, it became clear that reproduction had taken place since 1989 in a large garden pond in the city of Breda (central-south Netherlands).

    95. Virginia Museum of Natural History (VMNH), 2005. More Bryozoan Information. VMNH Virginia, USA.
      Summary: An overview of the biology and problems caused by bryozoans.

    96. Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, M.L. and Carpenter, M. 2003. Diet of bullfrogs in relation to predation on giant garter snakes at Colusa National Wildlife Refuge. California Fish and Game. 89 (3): 139-145.
      Summary: This paper outlines the relationship between bullfrog predation on giant garter snakes (Thamnophis gigas), and vice versa, in Colusa National Wildlife Refuge, California, USA.

    97. Wylie, Glenn D. ; Casazza, Michael L. ; Carpenter, Mike., 2003. Diet of bullfrogs in relation to predation on giant garter snakes at Colusa National Wildlife Refuge. California Fish & Game. 89(3). Summer 2003. 139-145.
      Summary: To evaluate predation by bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, on giant garter snakes, Thamnophis gigas, at Colusa National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) we collected 99 bullfrogs during three field seasons from 2000-2002. Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, were in 90% of the bullfrogs and were usually the only food item. We found four neonate giant garter snakes in three bullfrogs. We estimated the total annual predation of bullfrogs to be about 22% of neonate production, a value similar to the 20% tail loss we documented for giant garter snakes on the Refuge as another index of bullfrog predation pressure. Even with mortality from bullfrogs and other predators, snake size classes indicate sustainable recruitment into the Colusa NWR giant garter snake population. Smaller bullfrogs and bullfrog tadpoles are also food for giant garter snakes, so further studies are needed to determine the net effect of bullfrog removal for local giant garter snake populations.

    98. Zampela, R.A. and Bunnell, J.F. 2000. The distribution of anurans in two river systems of a coastal plain watershed. Journal of Herpetology. 34 (2): 210-221.
      Summary: This paper gives details about the distribution of anurans in the New Jersey Pinelands.

    99. Zhou Wei ; Li Ming-hui ; Zhang Xing-yu ; He Jia-fei., 2005. Food comparison between tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana and R. chaochiaoensis collected from the same habitat. Zoological Research. 26(1). FEB 05. 89-95
      Summary: adpoles of Rana catesbeiana and R. chaochiaoensis were collected from the same pond in the northeast suburb of Kunming. Their foods were analyzed. The results showed that food items of R. catesbeiana were eight types and 51 categories in tadpole stage I, and eight types and 33 categories in tadpole stage II. Food items of R. chaochiaoensis were six types and 30 categories in tadpole stage II. Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta were main items of food components in two species. However, there was a remarkable difference of food categories between tadpole stage II of R. chaochiaoensis and stage I of R. catesbeiana, and there was not difference of food categories between tadpole stage II of R. chaochiaoensis and R. catesbeiana. Comparisons among tadpole stage II of R. chaochiaoensis with stage I and II of R. catesbeiana, food niche overlap indexes were 0.6952 and 0.6887; biomass of unit body weight (food biomass/average weight) were 10.96 times and 15.48 times of two stages of R. catesbeiana; the indexes of percentage similarity of food (PS) were not high, i.e. 54.95% and 58.11%. Comparisons between the same body weight tadpoles of R. chaochiaoensis and R. catesbeiana, the tadpole of R. chaochiaoensis has greater food quantity. The biomass needed for survival by the tadpole of R. chaochiaoensis was higher than the tadpole of R. catesbeiana. The results both in this text and observed in the field indicated that there was a drastic competition between tadpoles of R. catesbeiana and R. chaochiaoensis in food. Tadpoles of R. chaochiaoensis were in a disadvantageous position
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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland