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    68 references found for Wasmannia auropunctata:
    Management information

    1. Abedrabbo, S. 1994. Control of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, on Santa Fe Island in the Galapagos Islands. pp. 219–227 in Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder. 332 pp.
      Summary: AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, In-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
      AntWeb is available from: [Accessed 20 April 2006]
      The species page is available from: [Accessed 2 May 2006]
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 21 October 2008]
      Summary: This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia’s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta), tropical fire ant (S. geminata), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).
      Available from: [Accessed 17 November 2009]
      Summary: This background document to the Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories provides supporting information on a range of issues such as tramp ant biology, population dynamics, spread, biodiversity impacts and management measures.
      Available from: [Accessed 17 November 2009]

    6. Delabie, J. H. C. 1989. Preliminary evaluation of an alternative technique for the control of the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata in cacao plantations. Agrotropica 75: 75-78.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 25 February 2008]

    8. Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005. Draft Threat Abatement Plan for for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories

    9. Formis: A Master Bibliography of Ant Literature. USDA, Agricultural Research Service.
      Summary: Webpage created to centralise information on the Wasmannia auropunctata invasion in Tahiti. Contains an assessment of the situation, images, maps, scientific documents, links and contacts.
      Summary: The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
      There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
      The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
      NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
      (This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
      Available from: [Accessed 20 May 2007]

    12. Harris, R.J. & Barker, G. (2007). Relative risk of invasive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) establishing in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 34: 161-178.

    13. Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez, A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. and Case, T.J. 2002. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 181-233.

    14. ISSG, compilation of email correspondence with Simon O'Connor, Jean-Yves Meyer and Eric Loeve in November 2005

    15. Lubin, Y. 1984. Changes in the native fauna of the Galápagos Islands following invasion by the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 21: 229- 242.

    16. McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.

    17. Meyer, J.-Y and Jourdan, H. Undated. Little Fire Ant in Tahiti and Miconia in New Caledonia: French connection to tackle “new” invasions in South Pacific Islands

    18. Ness, J.H and Bronstein, J.L. 2004. The Effects of Invasive Ants on Prospective ant Mutualists, Biological Invasions 6: 445-461.
      Summary: Discusses over a dozen of the worst arthropod pests in the South Pacific, with particular emphasis on ants and their control and management.
      Summary: A proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting For Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant and other invasive ant species with economic, environmental and/or social impacts, entering and establishing in or spreading between (or within) countries of the Pacific Region.

    21. Roque, Albelo L., Causton, C. E. and Mieles, A. 2000. The ants of Marchena Island, twelve years after the introduction of the little fire ant, Wasmnnia auropunctata. Noticias de Galápagos.
      Summary: PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
      The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
      Available from: [Accessed 17 December 2008]

    23. Silberglied, R. 1972. The ‘little fire ant,’ Wasmannia auropunctata, a serious pest in the Galapagos Islands. Noticias Galapagos 19/20: 13–15.

    24. Souza, E., Follett, P.A., Price, D.K., Stacy, E.A. (2006). Field Suppression of the Invasive Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Tropical Fruit Orchard in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology 101(4): 1068-1074.

    25. SPREP. 2003. Report on the 2nd Pilot of SPREP Invasive Species Training Course in Vanuatu.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 10 December 2005]

    27. Ulloa Chacón, P. and Cherix, D. 1994. Perspectives on control of the little fire ant, (Wasmannia auropunctata), on the Galapagos Islands. In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, CO: 63-72.
      Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from :, this page is available from: [Accessed 6 October 2006]

    29. Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The Major Invertebrate Pests and Weeds of Agriculture and Plantation Forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research, Canberra.
      Summary: Compiled tables of the distribution and importance of invertebrate pests.

    General references

    30. Alonso, L. E. 1969. Spatial and temporal variation in the ant occupants of a facultative ant-plant. Biotropica 30: 201-213.
      Summary: A report on the significant correlation between the abundance of W. auropunctata and low native ant biodiversity in fragmented Colombian forests.
      Available from: [Accessed 24 February 2005]

    32. Brooks, S. and Nickerson, J.C. 2000. Featured Creatures.

    33. Bruneau, de Miré P. 1969. Une formi utilisée au Cameroun dans la lutte contre les mirides du cacaoyer: Wasmannia auropunctata Roger. Café Cacao Thé 13: 209-212.
      Summary: Abstract: The author drew attention to the fact that in order to keep their plantations healthy the Boulous of Kribi area in Cameroun made use of an ant that had most probably been imported: Wasmannia auropunctata Roger. These ants were carried from one plantation to another in basket traps made of bundles of raphia leaflets and containing sugar cane or palm nut parings as bait which had been left in contact with the ants for at least three days. A trial showed that in less than ten days after being deposited these traps contained both larvae and immature adults of Wasmannia auropunctata. "Knock-down" counts from cacao trees in the Kribi region showed that this ant has driven away the mirids and Crematogaster ants and has reduced the number of insects generally, especially the Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Coleoptera. On the other hand, it contributed to the presence of psyllids and coccids of the genus Saisseria.

    34. Clark, D. B, Guayasamin, C., Pazmino, O., Donoso, C. and Paez de Villacis, Y. 1982. The tramp ant Wasmannia auropunctata: Autoecology and effects on ant diversity and distribution on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Biotropica 14(3): 196-207.

    35. Conant, P. and Hirayama, C. 2000. Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): established on the Island of Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 64: 21-22.

    36. de la Vega, I. 1994. Food searching behavior and competition between Wasmannia auropunctata and native ants on Santa Cruz and Isabela, Galápagos Islands. In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact, and Control of Introduced Species. Westview Press, Boulder, CO: 73-79.

    37. de Souza, A. L. B., Delabie, J. H. C. and Fowler, H. G. 1998. Wasmannia spp. (Hym., Formicidae) and insect damages to cocoa in Brazilian farms. Journal of Applied Entomology 122: 339-341.
      Summary: Diagnostic insect damage to cocoa tree leaves and fruits were compared in situations with and without the presence of the little fire ants, Wasmannia auropunctata and the closely related and sympatric W. cf rochai. No significant differences in thrips, lepidopteran, or chrysomelid beetle damage to fruits, or to young and old leaves, were associated with these ants. However, significant increases of pseudococcids Planococcus citrii, associated with areas dominated by W. auropunctata, and to a lesser degree with W. cf rochai, were present. W. auropunctata has been reported to be a canopy mosaic dominant in cocoa farms, but the lack of reduced herbivore incidences and its lack of spatial permanence do not support favoring its populations for the management of phytophagous insect control.

    38. Delabie, J. H. C., da Encarnacao, M. A. V. and Cazorla, I. M. 1994. Relations between the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, and its associated mealybug, Planococcus citri, in Brazilian cocoa farms. In: D. F. Williams (Ed.) Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact, and Control of Introduced Species. Westview Press, Boulder, CO: 91-103.

    39. Delabie, J.H.C., Jahyny, B., Cardosodo do Nascimento, I., Mariano, C.S.F., Lacau, S., Campiolo, S., Philpott, S.M. & Leponce, M. (2007). Contribution of cocoa plantations to the conservation of native ants (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with a special emphasis on the Atlantic Forest fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil. Biodiversity Conservation 16: 2359-2384.

    40. Deyrup, M., Davis, L. and Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126: 293-326.
      Summary: More than 50 species of exotic ants have established breeding populations in Florida. This is the largest exotic ant fauna of any U.S. state. An annotated list of species (including distribution, origin, and pest status) includes 4 new records for the U.S.

    41. Fabres, G. and Brown, W. L. Jr. 1978. The recent introduction of the pest ant Wasmannia auropunctata into New Caledonia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 17: 139-142.

    42. Fernald, H. T. 1947. The little fire ant as a house pest. J. Econ. Entomol. 40: 428.

    44. Guilbert, E., Chazeau, J. and De Larbogne, L. B. 1994. Canopy arthropod diversity of New Caledonian forests sampled by fogging: Preliminary results. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. Brisbane 36, No. 1: 77-85.
      Summary: Faunal composition and community structure of canopy arthropods was analyzed from insecticidal fogging samples in 3 types of New Caledonian forests: dense evergreen forest on ultramafic alluvium (Riviere Bleue), sclerophyllous forest on limestone and cong.

    46. Heraty, J. M. 1994. Biology and importance of two eucharitid parasites of Wasmannia and Solenopsis. In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.: 104-120.
      Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
      Available from: [Accessed March 2005]

    48. Jackson, P. F. R. 1976. Fire-ants pose threat to Galapagos conservation. Environmental Conservation 3: 268.

    49. Jourdan, H. 1997. Threats on Pacific Island: the spread of the Tramp Ant Wasmannia auropunctata. Pacific Conservation Biology 3(1): 61-64.

    50. Jourdan, H., Sadlier, R. and Bauer, A. 2000. Premieres observations sur les consequences de l'invasion de Wasmannia auropunctata 1863 (Roger) sur les predateurs superieurs dans les ecosystemes neo-caledoniens. Actes Coll. Insectes Sociaux 13: 121-126.

    51. Kamura, C.M., Morini, M.S.C.,, Figueiredo, C.J., Bueno, O.C. &Campos-Farinha, A.E.C. (2007). Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest. Brazilian Journal of Biology 67(4): 635-641.

    52. Keller, L., Cherix, D. and Ulloa-Chacon, P. 1989. Description of a new artificial diet for rearing ant colonies as Iridomyrmex humilis, Monomorium pharaonis and Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 36: 348-352.

    53. McGlynn, T. P. 1999. Non-native ants are smaller than related native ants. American Naturalist 154: 690-699.
      Summary: I compare the sizes of non-native and native ants to evaluate how worker size may be related to the ability of a species to invade new habitats. I compare the size of 78 non-native ant species belonging to 26 genera with the size of native congeneric species.

    54. Meier, R. E. 1985. Interference behavior of two tramp ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at protein baits on the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Experientia 41: 1228.

    55. Meier, R. E. 1994. Coexisting patterns and foraging behavior of introduced and native ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae) in the Galapagos Islands. In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact, and Control of Introduced Species. Westview Press, Boulder, CO: 44-62.

    56. Moore P.A. Feline Corneal Disease. Clin. Tech. Small An. Pract. 2005, 20, 2: 83-93

    57. Rapp, G. 1999. Introduction of the fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata into Vanuatu. Ag. Alert 18: 1.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 24 February 2005]

    59. Roque-Albelo, L. and Causton, C. 1999. El Niño and Introduced Insects in the Galápagos Islands: Different Dispersal Strategies, Similar Effects, Noticias de Galápagos (60).

    60. Roze M., Plisnier M., Sottovia J.-L., Cloet P.R. Etude de la keratopathie tropicale à la Martinique. Revue Méd. Vét., 2004, 155, 12 : 598-601

    61. Solomon, S.E. & Mikheyev, A.S. (2005). The ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) fauna of Cocos Island, Costa Rica.Florida Entomologist 88(4): 415-423.

    62. Spencer, H. 1941. The small fire ant Wasmannia in citrus groves - a preliminary report. Florida Entomologist 24: 6-14.

    63. Tennant, L. E. 1994. The Ecology of Wasmannia auropunctata in primary tropical rainforest in Costa Rica and Panama. In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species Westview Press Boulder, CO: 80-90.

    64. Vanderwoude, C. and Numbuk, S. 2006. Preliminary Report on Infestation of Little Fire Ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) at Kreer Heights, Wewak. AntiAnts.

    66. Walker, K.L. (2006). Impact of the Little Fire Ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, on Native Forest Ants in Gabon. Biotropica 38(5): 666–673.

    67. Wetterer, J. K., Walsh, P. D. and White, L. J. T. 1999. Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a highly destructive tramp ant, in wildlife refuges of Gabon, West Africa. African Entomology 7: 292-294.

    68. Williams, D. F. and Whelan, P. M. 1992. Bait attraction of the introduced pest ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Galapagos Islands. J. Entomol. Sci. 27(1): 29-34.
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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland