23 參考文獻 found for Elaeagnus pungens:
摘要： This paper looks at everything necessary to keep the historic site of Yorktown, VA, preserved.
Available from: http://home.nps.gov/applications/nature/documents/ACF34.pdf [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Available from: http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/PMH/PMH-COM-trees.pdf [Accessed May 8, 2007]
3. Berger S. & Walther G.-R. 2006. Distribution of evergreen broad-leaved woody species in Insubria in relation to bedrock and precipitation. Botanica Helvetica 116/1: 65-77.
摘要： Abstract: An increasing number of evergreen broad-leaved species has naturalised in deciduous lowland forests near the lakes of southern Switzerland and northern Italy (Insubria), favoured by rising winter temperatures of the last few decades.We investigated how the abundance of these species varies across the Insubrian region, and whether distribution patterns can be explained by the responses of particular species to local environmental constraints. Species composition, cover values and maximal size of exotic and indigenous evergreen broad-leaved species were recorded at 22 study sites throughout the Insubrian region and analysed in relation to the regional precipitation gradient and geological bedrock.The survey revealed distinct differences in the distribution and composition of evergreen broad-leaved species: some species were restricted to the moister western part of Insubria, probably due to low drought tolerance, whereas other species were mainly found in the drier eastern part of Insubria or on calcareous rock, probably due to competitive exclusion from more fertile sites.These ecological preferences generally correspond to those reported from the core range of the species, but some local limitations suggest a restricted ecological breadth of species occurring at their northern range margin.
4. Berger S. & Walther G.-R. 2007 Immergrüne Laubgehölze – Indikatoren des Klimawandels? Berichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft 19: 44-59 (in German).
摘要： Climate is an important factor limiting plant species’ ranges. In recent years a global warming trend has been observed, hence, impacts on the distribution of plants and the composition of the vegetation are expected. Evergreen broad-leaved species are at their northern boundary of distribution in Central Europe. Their northern range margins are limited by low winter temperatures. However, limiting parameters are species specific due to the species’ biological traits. It is essential to investigate and discuss these species specific parameters in detail to understand recent range shifts of the respective species. The limiting parameters and relevant biological traits of selected evergreen broad-leaved woody species are discussed in this paper. Furthermore it provides an overview of the current distribution of the species in a Central European perspective, regarding indigenous as well as some exotic species known to naturalise.
5. Berger S., Soehlke G., Walther G.-R. & Pott, R. 2007. Bioclimatic limits and range shifts of cold-hardy evergreen broad-leaved species at their northern distributional limit in Europe. Phytocoenologia, 37(3-4): 523-539.
摘要： Abstract: The few native evergreen broad-leaved species occurring in central Europe have attracted the interest of generations of scientists; thus, the factors limiting their northern distribution have been well studied. For investigation of climate change-driven range shifts, these climate-sensitive species are particularly well suited. We here analyse recent range shifts of some of the cold-hardiest evergreen broad-leaved species, including both native and introduced species in Europe.
Based on updated field data and outputs from bioclimatic models, we show that the milder winter conditions of the last few decades are consistent with the northward expansion of potential ranges and an increase in the number of evergreen broad-leaved species. At the landscape scale, these species indicate a considerable change in the composition and structure of temperate deciduous forests in various parts of Europe.
摘要： Available from: http://www.botany.org/plantsciencebulletin/psb-2002-48-4.php [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Available from: http://web.uconn.edu/mcbstaff/benson/BensonHome/NZJB-TypicalFrankia.pdf [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Gives list of synonyms, maps, and taxonomy.
Available from: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/synonyms.asp?plantID=1558 [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from : http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=502223 [Accessed May 8, 2007]
10. Kelly, L. 2006. The Vascular Flora of Huggins Island, Onslow County, North Carolina. Castanea. 71(4): 295-311.
摘要： This paper discusses the types of vegetation found on Huggin's Island, NC.
11. Loewenstein, N.J., E.F. Loewenstein. 2005. Non-native plants in the understory of riparian forests across a land use gradient in the Southeast. Urban Ecosystems. 8: 79-91.
摘要： Discusses urban-rural distribution of non-native plants.
摘要： Gives full description of Elaeagnus pungens.
Available from: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_srs062 [Accessed May 8, 2007]
13. Morgan and Overholt, 2005. New Records of Invasive Exotic Plant Species in St. Lucie County, Florida. Castanea pp. 59–62 Volume 70, Issue 1 (March 2005)
14. Nelson, A. 1935. Rocky Mountain Herbarium Studies. III. The Elaeagnaceae-A Mono-Generic Family. American Journal of Botany. 22(7): 681-683.
摘要： Discusses the two genera Elaeagnus and Hippophae.
摘要： Available from: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/e.htm [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Available from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/EP/EP09700.pdf [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Available from: http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198501015.html [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Gives a description of the plant, its impacts, habitat, and distribution.
Available from: http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/biology/plants/Pages/Elaeagnus%20Pungens.htm [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Species information including common names, distribution, uses.
Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?14928 [Accessed May 8, 2007]
摘要： Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ELPU2 [Accessed 12 January 2008]
22. Walther G.-R. 1999. Distribution and limits of evergreen broad-leaved (laurophyllous) species in Switzerland. Botanica Helvetica 109: 153-167
摘要： The Central European forests are relatively species-poor compared with the analogue vegetation of North America or East Asia. Only few woody, evergreen broad-leaved species were able to recolonize Central Europe after the last glaciation. Nowadays, exotic species are spreading with increasing frequency. Especially evergreen broad-leaved (laurophyllous) species become more and more established in the indigenous vegetation. The process of their introduction and spread, in the context of potential causal factors, are discussed in the following paper.
摘要： Available from: http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/E/Elaeagnus_pungens.asp [Accessed May 8, 2007]