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   Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (兩棲動物) English  français   
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    41 參考文獻 found for Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus):
      摘要: This report reviews available information on the adverse effects of 14 alien vertebrates considered to be ‘significant invasive species' on islands of the South Pacific and Hawaii, supplementing the authors’ experience with that of other workers.
      摘要: Available from: [Accessed August 19 2010]
      摘要: A small amount of information plus line drawings.
      Available from: [Accessed 15 July, 2003].
      摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
      The decision support tools are available from: [Accessed 13 October 2011]
      The guidance document is available from [Accessed 13 January 2009].

    5. CSIROnline, 2001. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.
      摘要: Good information on cane toad control in Australia.

    6. Doody, J.S., Green, B., Sims, R., Rhind, D., West, P., and Steer, D. 2006. Indirect impacts of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) on nest predation in pig-nosed turtles (Carettochelys insculpta). Wildlife Research 33, 349–354.
      摘要: Discusses the most invasive freshwater fish in the Pacific region and also includes a checklist of introduced fish to the Pacific.

    8. Hyatt, Alex and Humphrey, John. 1995. Biological Control of the Cane Toad in Australia. FROGLOG Number 15. CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory.
      摘要: Has information on efforts to use biological control on cane toads in Australia.
      摘要: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
      Available from: [Accessed 25 May 2011]
      摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.

    11. Lever, C. 2001. The Cane Toad: the history and ecology of a successful colonist. Westbury Publishing, West Yorkshire. 230pp.
      摘要: An extremely comprehensive text on all aspects of cane toad ecology and history. Has very detailed coverage of all the locations where cane toads have been introduced. An excellent resource for further information.
      摘要: This report documents work contributing to a project commissioned by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre to validate and refine risk assessment models used in decisions to import and manage introduced vertebrate species. The intent of the project was to: a) increase predictive accuracy, scientific validation and adoption of risk assessment models for the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates, and b) reduce the risk of new vertebrate pests establishing introduced populations in Australia.
      Available from: [Accessed 16 March 2011]

    13. Narayan, E.; Christi, K.; Morley, C.; Trevenen, P., 2008. Sexual dimorphism in the cane toad Bufo marinus: a quantitative comparison of visual inspection methods for sexing individuals. The Herpetological Journal, Volume 18, Number 1, January 2008 , pp. 63-65(3)
      摘要: A study was conducted to determine whether simple morphological characteristics could be used to rapidly determine the sex of cane toads. We found that four characteristics reliably allowed rapid assessment of sex: skin texture on the dorsal surface, skin colour on the dorsal surface, the presence of a creamy-coloured stripe along the dorsal margin and the presence of vocal sac openings. These criteria were tested by an assessment of use by both experienced and novice operators and were shown to be reliable for sexing cane toads that were large enough to assess morphological characteristics reliably (individuals with a snout-vent length exceeding 50 mm). Of the four techniques, the presence of vocal sac openings proved to be the most reliable. Such techniques may be used for a number of purposes, and are particularly useful during conservation projects that attempt to eradicate or reduce the effects of this invasive alien species on local ecosystems.

    14. Natural Resources and Water (NRW), 2006. Fact sheet: Cane toad Bufo marinus Queensland Government Dept. of Natural Resources and Water
      摘要: Available from: [Accessed 12 March 2010]
      摘要: Models for assessing the risk that exotic vertebrates could establish in Australia have been developed for mammals, birds (Bomford 2003; Bomford 2006, 2008), reptiles and amphibians (Bomford 2006, 2008; Bomford et al. 2005). These Risk Assessment models have been further explored by Western Australia Department of Agriculture & Food (DAFWA) to confirm that they reasonably predict public safety, establishment and pest risks across a full range of exotic species and risk levels. Mammals and birds were assessed for the pest risk they pose if introduced to Australia, by calculating Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC) Threat Categories. These categories incorporate risk of establishing populations in the wild, risk of causing public harm, and risk of becoming a pest (eg causing agricultural damage, competing with native fauna, etc). The 7-factor Australian Bird and Mammal Model was used for these assessments.
      摘要: Available from: [Accessed 13 February 2008]
      摘要: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
      Available from: [Accessed 10 November 2009]

    19. Wilson, Colin, Wildlife Management Officer, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment, Parks & Wildlife Service, Northern Territory, Australia.
      摘要: Compilor of original GISD profile of Chromoleana odorata.


    20. Aguirre, W. and Poss, S. G., 1999. Bufo marinus. Non-Indigenous species in the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem.
      摘要: Some useful general information on the species.

    21. Breuil, M. & Ibéné, B. 2004. Les Hylides invasifs dans les Antilles françaises et le peuplement batrachologique naturel. Bull. Soc. Herpetol. Fr, 10 p.
      摘要: Synthèse des introductions d'hylides (rainettes) dans les Antilles françaises. Trois espèces exotiques et envahissantes sont inventoriées.

    22. Breuil, M. 2002. Histoire naturelle des Amphibiens et des Reptiles terrestres de l'archipel Guadeloupéen. In Patrimoines Naturels, MNHN, Paris.
      摘要: Ce livre propose une synthèse sur les amphibiens et reptiles terrestres de l'archipel Guadeloupéen. Six espèces d'anoures, 5 de tortues, 21 de lézards dont 4 éteintes et 7 de serpents sont détaillées.
      摘要: English:
      The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (, under the section Novedades for information on updates.
      Invasive species - amphibians is available from: [Accessed 30 July 2008]
      La lista de especies del Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras de méxico cuenta actualmente con información aceca de nombre científico, familia, grupo y nombre común, así como hábitat, estado de la invasión en México, rutas de introducción y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la página de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualización, por favor consulte la portada (, en la sección novedades, para conocer los cambios.
      Especies invasoras - Anfibios is available from: [Accessed 30 July 2008]

    24. Eldredge, L.G., 1994 Introductions of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific Islands. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.
      摘要: A good overview of information about cane toads in Florida.
      Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2003].
      摘要: Available from: [Accessed November 28 2012]

    27. Grant, G. S. 1996. Prey of introduced Bufo marinus in American Samoa. Herpetological Review 27: 67–79.
      摘要: Has a moderate amount of general information.
      Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2003].

    29. Hinkley, A. D. 1962. Diet of the giant toad, Bufo marinus (L.), in Fiji. Herpetologica 18: 253–259.
      摘要: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
      Available from: [Accessed 13 February 2008]
      摘要: The Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the world's 5,918 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. This website presents results of the assessments, including IUCN Red List threat category, range map, ecology information, and other data for every amphibian species.
      Available from: [Accessed 5 November 2006].

    32. Jackson, W. B. 1962. Area of study. In Storer, T. I. (ed.) Pacific Island rat ecology. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 225: 14–20.

    33. Lever, R. J. A. W. 1945. The giant toad in the Solomon Islands. Fiji Agricultural Journal 16: 1.

    34. Lorvelec, O., Pascal., M., Pavis, C., Feldmann, P. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the French West Indies : Inventory, threats and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4, 131-161
      摘要: Cet article fait le point des connaissances sur les amphibiens et les reptiles indigènes et introduits des Antilles françaises. Les impacts des espèces introduites sur la faune indigène sont discutés. Le cas de la conservation des populations d' Iguana delicatissima sur lîle de Petite-Terre est présenté.
      摘要: Base de données en ligne sur le patrimoine naturel français.
      Available from: [Accessed 26 March 2008]
      摘要: Database containing some useful information and a large number of references.
      Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2003]

    37. Pernetta, J. C. and Watling, D. 1978. The introduced and native terrestrial vertebrates of Fiji. Pacific Science 32: 223–244.
      摘要: Distribution information with an extremely extensive reference list.
      Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2008].
      摘要: Has some good photos.
      Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2003]
      摘要: An interesting article on the effect that the cane toad is having on the indigenous Aboriginal population of Australia's Arnhem Land.
      Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2003].

    41. Villadolid, D. V. 1956. A study of Cotabato rats and their control. Araneta Journal of Agriculture 3: 1–45.
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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland