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   Quadrastichus erythrinae (insect)
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         Management Information

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         Location Specific Management Information
    It is feared that if control measures are not put in place, the wasp could expand its range northwards where it could pose a threat to the endemic E. boninensis on the Bonin Islands. The population size of E. boninensis is already limited on the Bonin Islands (Uechi et al. 2007).

         Management Resources/Links

    2. Fischer, J. B.; Strom, B. L.; Smith, S. L., 2009. Evaluation of a commercially available ELISA kit for quantifying imidacloprid residues in Erythrina sandwicensis leaves for management of the Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 85(2). APR 2009. 99-103.
    3. Gates, M. & Delvare, G. 2008. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae), with a summary of African Eurytoma biology and species checklist. Zootaxa 1751: 1–24.
    4. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR), 2006. Species Info Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae)
            Summary: The mission of the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific. HEAR is available from
    This page is available from:
    5. Heu, R.A., Tsuda, D.M., Nagamine, W.T., Yalemar, J.A. and Suh, T.H. 2006. Erythrina gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), New Pest Advisory. Department of Agriculture: Manoa (Hawaii).
    6. Kanai, Kenichi; Matsuhira, Kunihiko; Uechi, Nami; Yukawa, Junichi, 2008. Invasion of the Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology & Zoology. 52(3). 2008. 151-154.
    8. Rubinoff, Daniel; Holland, Brenden S.; Shibata, Alexandra; Messing, Russell H.; Wright, Mark G., 2010. Rapid Invasion Despite Lack of Genetic Variation in the Erythrina Gall Wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim). Pacific Science. 64(1). JAN 2010. 23-31.
    9. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Pest Focus - February 2006 Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae)
    12. Walker, K. 2007. Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) Pest and Diseases Image Library.
            Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
    The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2)Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4)Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from :, this page is available from: [Accessed 10 November 2007]
    13. Wang Yan-Ping; Wen Jun-Bao, 2006. Potential risk assessment of a new invasive pest, Quadrastichus erythrinae, to the mainland of China . Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 43(3). MAY 2006. 364-367.
    15. Xu, T., Christopher M. Jacobsen, Arnold H. Hara, Ji Lia and Qing X Lic, 2008. Efficacy of systemic insecticides on the gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae in wiliwili trees (Erythrina spp.). Pest Management Science 65(2): pp. 163 - 169.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland