鳳仙花(Impatiens glandulifera)是一個高入侵性的植物，不應引入新的地方。應當注意防止種植區的觀賞植物，脫逃到野外。一旦建立族群，廣泛的研究顯示，移除極為困難。維持河岸兩旁密集的草地，可以防止鳳仙花(Impatiens glandulifera)發芽(生態學與水文學中心, 2004;沃茲沃思等人, 2000)。
請點擊此鏈接了解更多細節 鳳仙花的管理和控制 。
1. Alien Plants in Ireland, 2007. Impatiens glandulifera
摘要： The database of alien plants in Ireland contains detailed information on 715 alien plant taxa currently occurring in (semi-) natural habitats in Ireland (both the Republic and Northern-Ireland). This database was developed in 2006 at the School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, as part of the BioChange project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ireland.
Available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/index.php [Accessed April 26 2007]
This page available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/result_species.php?species=564&lang=latin&p=i [Accessed 26 April 2007]
2. Beerling, D. J; Woodward, F. I., 1994. Climate change and the British scene. Journal of Ecology. 82(2). 1994. 391-397.
3. Burkhart, Karin and Wolfgang Nentwig, 2008. Control of Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) by Antagonists in its Invaded Range. Invasive Plant Science and Management Volume 1, Issue 4 (October-December 2008) pp. 352–358
摘要： Abstract: Field and garden experiments were performed to investigate if pathogens, generalist herbivores, or a specialist herbivore (the tortricid moth Pristerognatha fuligana) have the potential to control the invasive Himalayan balsam. Impacts of generalist herbivores and pathogenic fungi were excluded by using thiacloprid and trifloxystrobin. Results show no effect of any antagonist in the field experiment, though we found a modest impact of the combined influence of generalist herbivores and pathogenic fungi in the garden experiment, i.e., under suboptimal growing conditions. Limited information from the native area (the Himalayas) suggests a strong impact of specialist herbivores, thus confirming the enemy release hypothesis. We predict that impact studies of native specialized herbivores will clearly indicate antagonists from the native area with a strong impact on Himalayan balsam in its invaded area.
Available from: http://wssa.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-pdf&doi=10.1614%2FIPSM-08-090.1 [Accessed 20 January 2009]
6. Collingham, Y. C., Wadsworth, R. A., Huntley, B., Hulme, P. E. 2000. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Non – Indigenous Riparian Weeds: Issues of Spatial Scale and Extent. The Journal of Applied Ecology 37 supplement 1, NERC/SERAD Special Issue. Large Scale Processes in Ecology and Hydrology:13 – 27
8. Dawson, F. Hugh; Holland, David., 1999. The distribution in bankside habitats of three alien invasive plants in the U.K. in relation to the development of control strategies. Hydrobiologia.(415). Nov. 15, 1999. 193-201.
摘要： Abstract: The national distribution of Fallopia japonica (Japanese Knotweed), Heracleum mantegazzianum (Giant Hogweed) and Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) in bankside habitats is given for 1994-96 in the U.K. and contrasted with the occurrence of large stands of other nuisance plants. The typical habitats of these plants were derived by analysis of flow, channel and bank substrates from River Habitat Surveys and shows their invasion potential across the U.K. Study of the dispersal mechanisms and control techniques shows: (a) the consequences of accidental introductions to river banks from locations away from the river, (b) their further dispersal by the downstream drift of seed or fragments with their subsequent invasion, and (c) the key areas in the development of appropriate control programmes. The concentration of effort to immediate action and to small areas, especially upstream, is recommended, in preference to widespread but incomplete control.
10. Essl, F.; Hauser, E., 2003. Distribution, habitat preference and management concept of selected invasive neophytes in the national park Thayatal and the adjacent area (Austria). Linzer Biologische Beitraege. 35(1). 30 Juni, 2003. 75-101.
14. Hulme P.E & Bremner E.T., 2006. Assessing the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on riparian habitats: partitioning diversity components following species removal. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 43-50
15. Hulme, Philip E., 2006. Beyond control: wider implications for the management of biological invasions. Journal of Applied Ecology. 43(5). OCT 2006. 835-847.
摘要： Abstract: 1. Government departments, environmental managers and conservationists are all facing escalating pressure to address and resolve a diversity of invasive alien species (IAS) problems. Yet much research to date is primarily concerned with quantifying the scale of the problem rather than delivering robust solutions and has not adequately addressed all stages of the invasion process, and only a few studies embrace the ecosystem approach.2. Three successive steps, prevention, eradication and control, form the cornerstones of recommended best practices aimed at managing IAS. The goal of such actions is the restoration of ecosystems to preserve or re-establish native biodiversity and functions.3. Prevention is widely promoted as being a more environmentally desirable strategy than actions undertaken after IAS establishment, yet is hindered by the difficulty in separating invasive from non-invasive alien species. Furthermore, the high number of candidate IAS, the investment required in taxonomic support and inspection capacity, and the expense of individual risk assessments may act against the net benefits of prevention. More rewarding avenues may be found by pursuing neural networks to predict the potential composition of pest assemblages in different regions and/or model introduction pathways to identify likely invasion hubs.4. Rapid response should be consequent on early detection but, when IAS are rare, detection rates are compromised by low occurrence and limited power to discern significant changes in abundance. Power could be increased by developing composite indicators that track trends in a suite of IAS with similar life histories, shared pathways and/or habitat preferences.5. The assessment of management options will benefit from an ecosystem perspective that considers the manipulation of native competitors, consumers and mutualists, and reviews existing management practices as well as mitigates other environmental pressures. The ease with which an IAS can be targeted should not only address the direct management effects on population dynamics but also indirect effects on community diversity and structure. Where the goal is to safeguard native biodiversity, such activities should take into account the need to re-establish native species and/or restore ecosystem function in the previously affected area.6. Synthesis and applications. A comprehensive approach to IAS management should include consideration of the: (i) expected impacts; (ii) technical options available; (iii) ease with which the species can be targeted; (iv) risks associated with management; (v) likelihood of success; and (vi) extent of public concern and stakeholder interest. For each of these issues, in addition to targeting an individual species, the management of biological invasions must also incorporate an appreciation of other environmental pressures, the importance of landscape structure, and the role of existing management activities and restoration efforts.
17. Kollmann, Johannes; Banuelos, Maria Jose; Nielsen, Steen Lykke., 2007. Effects of virus infection on growth of the invasive alien Impatiens glandulifera. Preslia (Prague). 79(1). MAR 2007. 33-44.
摘要： Abstract: The absence of fungal or viral diseases of some invasive alien plants partially explains their success. However, for several species this issue has not been studied and no account of such infections are recorded for Impatiens glandulifera, a problematic weed in moist and half-open habitats of central and western Europe. We record for the first time viral infections in plants from different European regions grown in a common garden experiment. The infection was systemic and could be transferred to two species of Chenopodium and five species of Nicotiana, and resulted in the development of local necrotic spots within a week. The symptoms resembled Tobacco Rattle Virus, but this was not confirmed by an ELISA-test. In I. glandulifera the virus led to reduced above-ground biomass. Relative stem biomass and basal diameter were also lower in diseased plants, but there was no significant differences in plant height and number of main branches. Also virus infection did not affect the following reproductive traits: time to flowering, pollen viability, fruit abortion, seed/ovule ratio, seed number per fruit and individual seed mass. This virus was not transmitted via seed. The potential effects of such viral infections on the population dynamics and biological control of this alien plant are discussed.
18. Kurtto, Arto., 1996. Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) as an ornamental and escape in Finland, with notes on the other Nordic countries. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses. 31(3). 1996. 221-228.
摘要： Abstract: Impatiens glandulifera, a native of the Himalayas, is in Europe a popular ornamental and nowadays also a common and often completely naturalised garden escape, especially along rivers and brooks. In Norden the process of true naturalization began probably in the 1920s-1940s. Autochory, various forms of anthropochory (including deliberate transport of seeds and seedlings), hydrochory and combinations of these are the main means of dispersal. The success and even invasive nature of the species are based on many factors, of which the most important are: (1) climatic hardiness (originally a plant of high mountains), (2) wide phenotypic flexibility connected with a fairly wide ecological spectrum, (3) synchronous and early germination of a large number of seeds to achieve habitat dominance by a light-blocking canopy (shade tolerance, massive cotyledons and rapid elongation of shoots are essential in this), (4) abundant seed set ensured by showy and late flowers producing much nectar rich in sugars, and by self-compatibility, (5) lack of diseases and scarcity of parasites and feeders.
19. Larsson, Charlotta; Martinsson, Karin., 1998. Impatiens glandulifera in Sweden - An invasive species or a harmless garden escape? Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift. 92(6). 1998. 329-345.
摘要： Abstract: The Himalayan Balsam Impatiens glandulifera, first introduced to Sweden in 1842, has been available in Swedish trade since the last decades of the 19th century. It became a garden escape during the 1920s and was naturalised in southern Sweden in the 1940s. It has spread into natural habitats, especially moist localities such as banks of streams and rivers. It is mainly found in the southwest, with occasional localities in the east and north. During the last decades its expansion has been promoted by decreased grazing. The invasiveness of I. glandulifera in seminatural and natural habitats was studied in totally 7.8 km of riverbanks along Viskan in Vastergotland, SW Sweden. Established populations were mainly found in glades. Extensive populations were found in ungrazed grassland but not in pastures. Vascular plant species found within the stands were almost all perennials known as strong competitors, e. g. Rubus idaeus, Urtica dioica and Elytrigia repens, although they were quite low in numbers. I. glandulifera was sometimes found together with the indigenous I. noli-tangere. I. glandulifera affects the surrounding vegetation by its competiveness.
21. Perrins J. M, Fitter A, Williamson M., 1993. Population Biology and Rates of Invasion of Three Introduced Impatiens Species in the British Isles. Journal of Biogeography 20:33 – 44
22. Protopopova, Vera V.; Shevera, Myroslav V.; Mosyakin, Sergei L., 2006. Deliberate and unintentional introduction of invasive weeds: A case study of the alien flora of Ukraine. Euphytica. 148(1-2). MAR 2006. 17-33.
摘要： Abstract: Based on the analysis of invasions of alien plants in Ukraine, the impact of non-native plant species upon the native flora and adverse consequences of their spread are assessed. A case study gives examples of the role of alien plants in fragmentation of populations of native species; contamination of genetic resources of rare and endangered native species, formation of new ecotypes and hybridization with native taxa, disruption of the structure of natural plant communities as a result of introduction of alien species and formation of specific plant communities with domination of aliens. Arguments are provided against uncontrolled casual introductions and subsequent escape from cultivation as a result of ill-judged deliberate introduction of plants for ornamental, agricultural, technical, forestry, and other uses without any preliminary assessment of their invasion potential in the region concerned. Invasions of alien plants promote dramatic changes in the taxonomic, geographical, and ecological patterns of local floras, disruptions in the phytosociological spectrum, spectra of biomorphs, deterioration of zonal peculiarities of the flora, and finally lead to the decline of the vegetation productivity. A list of highly invasive plant species threatening forest, steppe, and submediterranean zones of East Europe is provided.
23. Provan, Jim; Love, Heather M.; Maggs, Christine A., 2007. Development of microsatellites for the invasive riparian plant Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) using intersimple sequence repeat cloning. Molecular Ecology Notes. 7(3). MAY 2007. 451-453.
摘要： Abstract: Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) is an invasive riparian plant species that can outcompete native perennials. Population genetic data on dispersal may aid in the management of invasive species, so we have developed microsatellite markers for this significant invader using an intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR)-based cloning method. Eight polymorphic markers displayed between two and five alleles, with overall levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.0500 to 0.7500 and from 0.1449 to 0.7692, respectively.
24. Pysek, Petr ; Prach, Karen., 1995. Invasion dynamics of Impatiens glandulifera: A century of spreading reconstructed. Biological Conservation. 74(1). 1995. 41-48.
摘要： Abstract: The invasion of Impatiens glandulifera in the territory of the Czech Republic, Central Europe, was reconstructed on the basis of floristic records. The first spontaneous occurrences were reported from the end of the 19th century. The exponential phase of invasion started in the 1930s and the highest increase in the cumulative number of localities reported occurred in the 1960s. Since its introduction, I. glandulifera has spread into 47.4% of available mapping squares. The species is closely confined to riparian habitats. At present it occupies 56% of the length of larger river systems. It is predicted that it will occur in all larger rivers in the Czech Republic by c. 2025, assuming that the rate of invasion remains constant. The rates of invasion in the Czech Republic, British Isles, Bavaria (Germany), and Slovakia are compared. In all the countries considered, the greatest increase occurred in recent decades, and was related to the date of escape from cultivation. Although the situation in the Czech Republic is at present not critical, the ability of I. glandulifera to outcompete native flora, and its predicted expansion along water courses, indicates that it could become a more serious threat to nature conservation in the future.
25. Sheppard, A.W; R. H Shaw & R Sforza., 2005. Top 20 environmental weeds for classical biological control in Europe: a review of opportunities, regulations and other barriers to adoption. Weed Research Volume 46 Issue 2, Pages 93 - 117
摘要： Abstract: Classical biological control remains the only tool available for permanent ecological and economic management of invasive alien species that flourish through absence of their co-evolved natural enemies. As such, this approach is recognized as a key tool for alien species management by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) and the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species (ESIAS). Successful classical biological control programmes abound around the world, despite disproportionate attention being given to occasional and predictable non-target impacts. Despite more than 130 case histories in Europe against insect pests, no exotic classical biological control agent has been released in the EU against an alien invasive weed. This dearth has occurred in the face of increasing numbers of exotic invasive plants being imported and taking over National Parks, forests and amenity areas in this region, as well as a global increase in the use of classical biological control around the world. This paper reviews potential European weed targets for classical biological control from ecological and socioeconomic perspectives using the criteria of historical biological control success, taxonomic isolation from European native flora, likely availability of biological control agents, invasiveness outside Europe and value to primary industry and horticulture (potential for conflicts of interest). We also review why classical biological control of European exotic plants remains untested, considering problems of funding and public perception. Finally, we consider the regulatory framework that surrounds such biological control activities within constituent countries of the EU to suggest how this approach may be adopted in the future for managing invasive exotic weeds in Europe.
26. T¨orok, K; Z. Botta-Dukat, I. Dancza, I. N´emeth, J. Kiss, B. Mih´aly & D. Magyar., 2003. Invasion gateways and corridors in the Carpathian Basin: biological invasions in Hungary. Biological Invasions 5: 349–356, 2003.
摘要： Abstract: Biological invasions in Hungary are causing severe problems as a result of recent introductions and rapid land use changes. Poorly managed agricultural and rural, disturbed areas, and aquatic ecosystems are the most prone to plant invasions. Dry grasslands and semi-natural forests are less prone to invasions. A few plant species have led to human health (allergenic) problems. Some insect species have caused economic problems to crop production. A number of monitoring networks and control measures are in place for selected plants and insects.
27. Usher M B., 1986. Invasibility and Wildlife Conservation Invasive Species on Nature Reserves. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences. 314(1167). 1986. 695-710.
摘要： Abstract: Nature reserves are often considered to be assemblages of species in natural or semi-natural communities. However, in many parts of the world they also contain exotic species that interact with the native flora and fauna. An International Working Group has been endeavouring to understand the management of invasive species in natural landscapes. Data for four invasive species within the British Isles are analysed. The case studies investigated include Indian balsam (Impatiens glandulifera), rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum), mink (Mustela vison) and coypu (Myocastor coypus). The rates of spread have been variable, usually increasing after an establishment phase. The discussions concentrate on assessing the impact of invasive species, on deciding whether control measures are feasible and/or desirable, on deciding whether or not nature reserves are less prone to invasion than other habitats, and on assessing wildlife conservation values when invasive species are present.
29. Wadsworth, R. A., Collingham, Y. C., Willis, S. G., Huntley, B., Hulme, P. E. 2000. Simulating the Spread and Management of Alien Riparian Weeds: Are They Out of Control? The Journal of Applied Ecology 37 supplement 1, NERC/SERAD Special Issue. Large Scale Processes in Ecology and Hydrology:28 – 38
摘要： Abstract: 1. This paper examines the circumstances under which control programmes may reduce the range of two widespread invasive weeds of riparian habitats: Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) and Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed). 2. The spread of both species was modelled using MIGRATE, a spatially explicit model that incorporates realistic demographic parameters and multiple dispersal mechanisms. Simulations of a range of control scenarios were run within a geographical information system (GIS) using authentic landscapes based on topographic, hydrological and land cover maps of County Durham, UK. Results were interpreted at both a catchment and a regional scale. 3. Six representative strategies were explored that prioritized control as follows: at random, in relation to human population density, or by the size, age (new and old) or spatial distribution of weed populations. These strategies were assessed at different intensities of management (area treated per year) and for varying efficiencies (proportion of plants destroyed) as well as the timeliness (how long since the species became established) of implementations. 4. Strategies that prioritized control based on weed population and spatial characteristics were most effective, with plant population size and spatial distribution being the key parameters. The reduction in geographical range within a catchment or region following control was always greater for H. mantegazzianum than I. glandulifera due to its slower rate of spread. 5. Successful control of both species at a regional scale is only possible for strategies based on species distribution data, undertaken at relatively high intensities and efficiencies. The importance of understanding the spatial structure of the population and potential habitat available, as well as being able to monitor the progress of the eradication programme, is highlighted. Tentative conclusions are offered as to the feasibility of eradicating these species at a regional scale.
30. Weber, Ewald., 2000. Switzerland and the invasive plant species issue. Botanica Helvetica. 110(1). Juni, 2000. 11-24.
摘要： Abstract: The increasing number of naturalized non-native plant species with a negative ecological impact on the communities where they grow (invasive species) is viewed as a major component of global change and is an important topic of current ecological research. In most regions of the world, the number of alien species is increasing as a result of trade, tourism, and disturbance, thus increasing the likelihood of plant invasions. Several international organizations have incorporated the invasive plant species issue in their main activities and have formulated guidelines for the management and eradication of invasive species. Switzerland as a central European country does not have as many invasive species as for example countries of other continents; however, some species are regarded as being invasive and are of special concern due to the highly fragmented and intensively used landscape. With the exceptions of the Alps, wildlife and areas of high conservation value are restricted to usually small areas, surrounded by heavily disturbed habitats or urban areas. In such places, invasive plant species may pose additional threats to the native diversity. Species of high concern are for example the north American Robinia pseudoacacia, Solidago altissima, S. gigantea, and the Asian species Impatiens glandulifera and Reynoutria japonica. In this article, the invasive species issue is highlighted with regard to the Swiss flora, and the needs for actions are discussed.
31. Willis, S. G.; Hulme, P. E., 2002. Does temperature limit the invasion of Impatiens glandulifera and Heracleum mantegazzianum in the UK? Functional Ecology, Volume 16, Number 4, August 2002 , pp. 530-539(10)
摘要： Abstract: 1. Impatiens glandulifera Royle and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Levier are widespread, non-indigenous plant species in the UK. A variety of correlational analyses suggest that their spatial extent is limited by climate, although no experimental studies have tested this hypothesis. This paper reports the first detailed experimental examination of the impact of climate on the performance of the two species.
2. Seeds of each species were sown, in each of 2 years, in replicated plots along an elevational gradient (10-600 m a.s.l.) in north-east England. Both species germinated readily at all elevations, even in areas well above their current limits within the study area. The plants were, however, smaller at higher altitudes. I. glandulifera also produced fewer seeds with increasing elevation.
3. Plant performance was assessed in relation to actual and interpolated climate data along the elevational transect. For H. mantegazzianum, the timing of germination was correlated most strongly with the pre-emergence heat sum; for I. glandulifera this relationship was significant in one year only. Maximum height of both species was correlated with increasing post-emergence heat sum, as was pod production by I. glandulifera. The biomass of second-year H. mantegazzianum plants varied non-linearly with post-emergence heat sum. For both species, overwinter survival of seeds was not related to winter temperature or frost days. Overwinter survival of first-year H. mantegazzianum plants declined with increasing frost incidence.
4. The results suggest that, of the two species, only I. glandulifera is currently most limited by temperature, although this is not the only factor determining the distribution of the species.