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   Lythrum salicaria (plante aquatique, herbacée)  English     
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         Études de cas sur la gestion
    Arizona
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Prohibited noxious weed'.
    British Columbia
    A leaf eating beetle, Galerucella calmariensis, was introduced as a biological control in British Columbia, Canada, in 1993. It established at all non-tidal sites but could not establish in tidal sites. Defoliation levels varied considerably. Defoliation levels were reduced by the predation on Galerucella eggs, which may prevent or delay successful biological control of L. salicaria. L. salicaria was drastically damaged in areas where G. calmariensis flourished (Denoth & Meyers, 2005).
    California
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'B list (noxious weeds)'.
    Canada
    Physical control though labour intensive has been found to be effective in the case of smaller infestations. Chemical controls have limited application for this species because no herbicides are registered in Canada for use against purple loosestrife in aquatic habitats.
    In terrestrial habitats, Roundup and SEE 2,4-D are used but provide only temporary control.
    Three highly host-specific beetles have been approved for use in Canada as biocontrol agents of purple loosestrife. One is a weevil that attacks the root system of purple loosestrife (Hylobius transversovittatus) and the two others are leaf-feeding beetles (Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla). When these insects are present in high densities they cause defoliation of mature plants, death of seedlings and the destruction of flowering spikes or prevention of their formation. Indications of successful introduction and control of purple loosestrife have been recorded at a number of release sites.
    Colorado
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    Idaho
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    Indiana
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    Iowa
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Secondary Noxious weed'.
    Manitoba
    Results from a study conducted in Manitoba, Canada indicated that an integrated strategy using herbicides (glyphosate and triclopyr amine), combined with biological control Galerucella calmariensis outperformed herbicide alone treatments and G. calmariensis alone (Henne et al, 2005).
    Minnesota
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Primary noxious weed'.
    Missouri
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    Montana
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Category 2 Noxious weed'.
    Nebraska
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    New Mexico
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Class A Noxious weed'.
    New York
    Leaf eating beetles Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla were released over a 4 year period (1994 through 1997) at 36 sites in Central New York State. A long-term assessment of biological control impacts after 10 years in central New York State concluded that Galerucella species had significant impacts on plants at the individual level, i.e. shorter plants and reduced flowering rates. However there was no change at the population level: there was no change in overall plant density or in size of stands. Surveys of beetle movement from release site showed only limited spread of beetles to new areas (Grevstad, 2006).

    Other management strategies include hand pulling, spraying with glyphosate, disking, mowing, and attempts to minimize environmental disturbance were all employed along the New York State Thruway which has served as a migration route for L. salicaria to Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge (Wilcox, 1989).

    New Zealand
    Lythrum salicaria has been included in the Auckland Regional Councils pest plants, and is classified as a Total Control Pest plant. Total Control Pest Plants are banned from sale, propagation, and distribution.
    North Carolina
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Class B Noxious weed'.
    North Dakota
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    Ohio
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Prohibited Noxious weed'.
    Oregon
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'B designated weed and Quarantined noxious weed'.
    Pennsylvania
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    South Dakota
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    Tennessee
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.
    Washington
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'. 'Class B noxious weed'.
    Wisconsin
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'. 'Nuisance weed'.
    Wyoming
    Purple loosestrife is classified as a 'Noxious weed'.


         Ressources pour la gestion/Liens

    1. Albright, Matthew F.; Harman, Willard N.; Fickbohm, Scott S.; Meehan, Holly; Groff, Sarah; Austin, Tavis, 2004. Recovery of native Flora and behavioral responses by Galerucella spp. following biocontrol of purple lossestrife. American Midland Naturalist. 152(2). October 2004. 248-254.
    2. Anderson, Robert P.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Egbert, Stephen L., 2006. Vegetation-index models predict areas vulnerable to purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) invasion in Kansas. Southwestern Naturalist. 51(4). DEC 2006. 471-480.
    3. Barbier, Edward; Knowler, Duncan, 2006. Commercialization decisions and the economics of introduction. Euphytica. 148(1-2). MAR 2006. 151-164.
    4. Bartelt, Robert J.; Cosse, Allard A.; Zilkowski, Bruce W.; Wiedenmann, Robert N.; Raghu, S., 2008. Early-summer pheromone biology of Galerucella calmariensis and relationship to dispersal and colonization. Biological Control. 46(3). SEP 2008. 409-416.
    5. Blossey, Bernd; Skinner, Luke C.; Taylor, Janith, 2001. Impact and management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. Biodiversity & Conservation. 10(10). October, 2001. 1787-1807.
    7. Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2001. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 2. Weed risk assessment. Science for Conservation 185. 30 p.
            Résumé: This report is the second stage in the development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand. Importers and traders in aquatic plants were surveyed to identify the plant species known or likely to be present in New Zealand. The Aquatic Plant Weed Risk Assessment Model was used to help assess the level of risk posed by these species. The report presents evidence of the various entry pathways and considers the impact that new invasive aquatic weed species may have on vulnerable native aquatic species and communities.
    Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/SFC185.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
    9. Dech, Jeffery P.; Nosko, Peter., 2002. Population establishment, dispersal, and impact of Galerucella pusilla and G. calmariensis, introduced to control purple loosestrife in central Ontario. Biological Control. 23(3). March, 2002. 228-236.
    10. Denoth, Madlen; Myers, Judith H., 2005. Variable success of biological control of Lythrum salicaria in British Columbia. Biological Control. 32(2). February 2005. 269-279.
    12. Grevstad, F.S. 2006. Ten-year impacts of the biological control agents Galerucella pusilla and G. calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in Central New York State. Biological Control 39: 1-8.
    13. Henne, D.C.; C.J. Lindgren; T.S. Gaborc; H.R. Murkin, and R.E. Roughley, 2005. An integrated management strategy for the control of purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae) in the Netley-Libau Marsh, southern Manitoba
    14. Herrick, Bradley M.; Wolf, Amy T., 2005. Invasive plant species in diked vs. undiked Great Lakes wetlands. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 31(3). 2005. 277-287.
    15. Knezevic, Stevan Z., Doug Smith, Ralph Kulm, Don Doty, Dick Kinkaid, Mick Goodrich, Rod Stolcpart., 2004. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Control with Herbicides: Single-Year Application. Weed Technology, Vol. 18, Invasive Weed Symposium (2004), pp. 1255-1260
    16. Landis, Douglas A.; Sebolt, Donald C.; Haas, Michael J.; Klepinger, Michael., 2003. Establishment and impact of Galerucella calmariensis L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Lythrum salicaria L. and associated plant communities in Michigan. Biological Control. 28(1). September 2003. 78-91.
    17. Lavoie, Claude, 2010. Should we care about purple loosestrife? The history of an invasive plant in North America. Biological Invasions 2010. DOI 10.1007/s10530-009-9600-7
    18. Lindgren, C.J., Corrigan, J., DeClerck-Floate, R., 2002. Lythrum salicaria L., Purple Loosestrife (Lythraceae). In: Mason, P.G., Huber, J.T. (Eds.), Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981-2000. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 382-390.
            Résumé: Detailed review of biological control program against purple loosestife in Canada.
    19. Lindgren, Cory J., 2000. Performance of a biological control agent, Galerucella calmariensis L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L. in Southern Manitoba (1993-1998). Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. pp. 367-382 (2000). Cory J. Lindgren
            Résumé: Detailed report on the impact of the biological control agent G. calmariensis in Manitoba release sites. Management implications.
    20. Lindgren, Cory J., 2003. A brief history of Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, in Manitoba and its status in 2001. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 117(1). January-March 2003. 100-109.
    21. Lindgren, Cory J., 2006. Angler awareness of aquatic invasive species in Manitoba. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 44 JUL 2006. 103-108.
    22. Lodge, David M., Susan Williams, Hugh J. MacIsaac, Keith R. Hayes, Brian Leung, Sarah Reichard, Richard N. Mack, Peter B. Moyle, Maggie Smith, David A. Andow, James T. Carlton, Anthony McMichael, 2006. Biological Invasions: Recommendations for U.S Policy and Management. Ecological Applications: Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 2035-2054.
    23. McAvoy, T. J.; Kok, L. T., 2007. Fecundity and feeding of Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla on Lythrum salicaria. BioControl (Dordrecht). 52(3). JUN 2007. 351-363.
    24. Mgidi, Theresa N.; Le Maitre, David C.; Schonegevel, Lucille; Nel, Jeanne L.; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M., 2007. Alien plant invasions - incorporating emerging invaders in regional prioritization: A pragmatic approach for Southern Africa. Journal of Environmental Management. 84(2). JUL 2007. 173-187.
    25. Mullin, Barbra H., 1998. The biology and management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Weed Technology. 12(2). April-June, 1998. 397-401.
    26. Nagel, Jennifer M.; Griffin, Kevin L., 2001. Construction cost and invasive potential: Comparing Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae) with co-occurring native species along pond banks. American Journal of Botany. 88(12). December, 2001. 2252-2258
    27. National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
            Résumé: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
    Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
    28. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005. Unwanted Organisms. Factsheet Lythrum salicaria
    29. Ottenbreit K. A, 1991. The distribution, reproductive biology, and morphology of Lythrum species, hybrids, and cultivars in Manitoba. MS thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba
            Résumé: Detailed report on Lythrum cultivars and hybrids.
    30. Piper, G. L., 1996. Biological control of the wetlands weed purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in the Pacific northwestern United States. Hydrobiologia Volume 340, Numbers 1-3 / December, 1996 291-294
    32. Strayer, David L.; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Caraco, Nina F.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Findlay, Stuart; Nieder, W. Charles; Pace, Michael L., 2005. Interactions between alien species and restoration of large-river ecosystems. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie Supplement. 155(1-4). 2005. 133-145.
    34. Welk, Erik., 2004. Constraints in range predictions of invasive plant species due to non-equilibrium distribution patterns: Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. Ecological Modelling. 179(4). December 1, 2004. 551-567.
    35. Wiebe, Amy P.; Cortilet, Anthony B.; Obrycki, John J.; Owen, Micheal D. K., 2001. Releases of natural enemies of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.), in Iowa Wetlands. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 74(2). April, 2001. 106-109.
    36. Wiebe, Amy P.; Obrycki, John J., 2001. Purple loosestrife: History, management, and biological control in Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science. 108(4). December, 2001. 166-170.
    37. Wilcox, A Douglas, 1989. Migration and Control of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) along Highway Corridors. Environmental Management Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 365-370 1989
    38. Wilson, Colin, Wildlife Management Officer, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment, Parks & Wildlife Service, Northern Territory, Australia.
            Résumé: Compilor of original GISD profile of Chromoleana odorata.
    39. Yakimowski, Sarah B.; Hager, Heather A.; Eckert, Christopher G., 2005. Limits and effects of invasion by the nonindigenous wetland plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife): a seed bank analysis. Biological Invasions. 7(4). JUL 2005. 687-698.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland