Location Specific Management Information
Preventative:D'Adamo and collegues (2002) predicted the potential distribution of V. germanica in Argentina. Climatic conditions in the wasps original range were compared with climatic conditions in Argentina by means of ecoclimatic matching techniques (CLIMEX). The results showed that much of Argentina does not appear to be suitable for the establishment of this species. However, the model predicts that V. germanica could reach higher densities than those presently observed in Patagonia. The model predicts that there are areas in the center of the country which favour the wasp. However the region currently invaded by the wasp is surrounded by an 'unfavourable region' band which could be the reason why the wasp has not dispersed.
Chemical:In NW Patagonia (Argentina) Sackmann et al (2001) found that beef baited with fipronil reduced wasp densities by 80-100%. Further studies by Sackmann and Corley (2007) found that the most attractive bait for V. germanica was beef. Honey and corn syrup did not attract foraging wasps as effectively, even when mixed with beef. The only effective insecticide was hydramethylnon 2% which reduced wasp populations by 54% after 72 hours. Although fipronil was more effective, the potential of insects to develop resistance to consistent use of one product may suggest the need for alternating use of insecticides in some situations (Sackmann & Corley, 2007).
Vespula germanica are expected to continue to spread, particularly into northern Australia (Spradbery & Maywald 1992, Ward et al., 2002). A slightly longer wasp-activity season exists in the warmer parts of Australia (Sydney) than in the cooler parts (Melbourne, Hobart) (Ward et al., 2002). The genetic structure of this species in Australia has been studied (Goodisman et al., 2001). Toxic-baiting has been successfully used for localized control in some areas (Wood et al., 2006).
A recent study in Chile examined the pathogenicity of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. It was determined that two strains of B. bassiana were pathogenic for workers and males of V. germanica reaching high mortality and sporulation percentages (Merino et al
Since 1979 the North American Sphecophaga vesparum burraSphecophaga v. vesparum were liberated in New Zealand (Donovan, 1996). It was found the the European subspecies had successfully established, whilst the North American subspecies had not.
S. orientalis was imported from Israel and released in New Zealand during 1998. Sphecophaga orientalis in Israel was reported to parasitize 100% of Oriental hornet nests (the nest architecture and life cycle of the Oriental hornet is similar to that of V. germanica) (Havron & Margalith, 1995). Donovan et al. (2002) reporting on the release conclude that S. orientalis appears to possess the potential to attack small and large nests of V. germanica and together with S. v. vesparum would exert pressure on the alien wasps population.
2001 trials in Tasmania using Fipronil at a concentration of 0.05% in fresh meat was found to reduce V. germanica densities by over 99% within two days. Further trials conducted in 2002 determined that significant reductions occurred using chicken and wallaby meat baited with Fipronil. Chicken bait containing the bittering agent Bittrex was less effective, but may be necessary as a deterrent to non-target species (Warren & Statham, 2002). Please see Control of European wasps (Vespula germanica) by baiting from the Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research for more information.
Waikato Region (North Island)
Wasps (Vespula and Polistes spp.) are also classified as “Eradication and Containment Animal Pests” by Environment Waikato. Environment Waikato and land occupiers are responsible for controlling them under the eradication and containment pest groups. Please see definitions for hierarchy of pest designations (Environment Waikato, 2002).
1. Beggs, J.R. 2000. Impact and control of introduced Vespula wasps in New Zealand. Hymenoptera: Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control. eds. A.D. Austin, M. Dowton CSIRO publishing. 468 pp.
4. Chang V, 1988. Toxic baiting of the western yellow jacket (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 81, 228-235.
6. D’adamo P, Lozada M, Corley J 2003. Conspecifics enhance attraction of Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) foragers to food baits. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96: 685–688
7. D’adamo, P; Lozada, M 2005. Conspecific and food attraction in the wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), and their possible contributions to control. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98: 236-240
8. Donovan, B. J., 1996 Progress with biological control of wasps. The New Zealand Beekeeper 3 (4): 14-15
10. Donovan, B.J., Moller, H., Plunkett, G.M., Read, P.E.C., & Tilley, J.A.V. 1989. Release and recovery of the introduced wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 16, 355-364.
15. Merino, L., France, A. & Gerding, M. (2007). Selection of native fungi strains pathogenic to Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Agricultura Tecnica 67(4): 335-342.
16. Sackmann P, Rabinovich M, Corley J C, 2001. Succesful removal of Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) by toxic baiting in NW Patagonia, Argentina. J. Econ. Entomol. 94, 812-816.
17. Spurr, E B., 1991. Reduction of wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) populations by poison baiting; experimental use of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in canned sardine. NZ. J. Zool.18, 215-222.
18. Sutherst, R. W.; Maywald, G. F.; Yonow, T.; Stevens, P. M. 1999: CLIMEX: predicting the effects of climate on plants and animals. User guide. CSIRO Publications. 88 p.
19. Walker, K. 2007. European wasp (Vespula germanica) Pest and Diseases Image Library.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2)Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4)Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia.
PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=794 [Accessed 10 November 2007]
21. Wood G, Hopkins K, Schellhorn N A, 2006. Preference by Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) for processed meats: implications for toxic baiting. J Econ. Entomol. 99, 263-267.
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