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   Hiptage benghalensis (vine, climber, shrub)  français     
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         Management Information

    Education and public awareness are appropriate cultural controls to ensure the weed is not planted as an ornamental near environmentally precious areas. In countries with tropical regions and warm climates such as Palau it is recommended that troublesome species (including H. benghalensis) should be prevented from reaching the country and establishing in native ecosystems such as tropical rainforests. Weed species should receive high priority for exclusion from entry into the country and promptly evaluated for eradication if found to be present. It is essential that plant growers are aware of the species' potential to become invasive in the wild (Starr Starr and Loope 2003). français     


         Location Specific Management Information
    Hawaii
    Statewide distribution and observations of this plant's behavior needs to be gathered. It is not the subject of any noxious weed act.
    India
    At all costs this species must not be introduced to the third Mascarene Island of Rodrigues, where it would very likely also become highly invasive (Strahm, W., pers.comm., 2003).
    Kaua`i Is.
    H. benghalensis is reported as invasive in Hawai'i (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). In addition, this species is listed by Staples et al. (2000) in their checklist of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai'i (Starr Starr and Loope 2003). It would be good to get detailed information on the infestation in Kaua'i, O'ahu, and Hawai'i. If it is naturalized, it should be published as part of the flora of Hawai'i. It has not been observed on Maui. Statewide distribution and observations of this plant's behavior needs to be gathered.
    Mauritius
    At all costs this species must not be introduced to the third Mascarene Island of Rodrigues, where it would very likely also become highly invasive (Strahm, W., pers.comm., 2003).
    Oahu Is.
    On O'ahu, the O'ahu Invasive Species Committee (OISC) is targeting H. benghalensis for eradication. The OISC is currently doing herbicide trials to find the most effective control methods. They have been cutting all places where H. benghalensis touches the ground and painting the stumps with 20% Garlon 4. The results of the trials are not yet known.
    Oahu Is.
    H. benghalensis is reported as invasive in Hawai'i (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). In addition, this species is listed by Staples et al. (2000) in their checklist of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai'i (Starr Starr and Loope 2003). It would be good to get detailed information on the infestation in Kaua'i, O'ahu, and Hawai'i. If it is naturalized, it should be published as part of the flora of Hawai'i. It has not been observed on Maui. Statewide distribution and observations of this plant's behavior needs to be gathered.
    On O'ahu, it is being targeted for eradication by OISC. It is cultivated on O'ahu at the University of Hawai'i, Manoa Campus (Carr 2001). M. Leech (OISC) reports that they are currently assessing the H. benghalensis populations on O'ahu and prioritizing by size which ones they will be controlling. It is thought that the largest infestation is in Manoa, but its full extent is still unknown. The following locations were noted in a review of H. benghalensis specimens housed at Bishop Museum: several cultivated specimens around the University of Hawai'i campus, Makiki heights in a garden, cultivated at Waikane, growing wild at Kaneohe Bay for at least 4 years, Pali Hwy. noted as the first naturalized collection, Kea'ahala stream noted as many seedlings in understory, and cultivated in Lanikai.
    Reunion (La Reunion)
    At all costs this species must not be introduced to the third Mascarene Island of Rodrigues, where it would very likely also become highly invasive (Strahm, W. pers. comm., 2003).
    Reunion (La Reunion) français 
    The struggle against Hiptage bengalensis goes on in many parts of the island (the Bras des Merles Biological Reserve , the Roche Ecrite Nature Reserve…). The most common method is to cut the vine with a machete at 2 locations: near the base at ground level and as high as possible. This method does not lead to the death of individuals, but benefits trees by getting rid of the entwining and smothering vine. The stump on the ground can be treated with an application of herbicide (Garlon and Round-up) but this does not seem to provide additional effectiveness (Hivert, 2003).


         Management Resources/Links

    2. Hivert, J. 2003. Plantes exotiques envahissantes - Etat des méthodes de lutte mise en oeuvre par l'Office National des Forêts à La Réunion. ONF Réunion.
            Summary: Synthèse des méthodes de lutte employées par l'ONF à la Réunion contre une vingtaine de plantes exotiques envahissantes.
    4. Kueffer, C. and Mauremootoo, J., 2004. Case Studies on the Status of Invasive Woody Plant Species in the Western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (Islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-3E. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland