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   Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (水生植物)  English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         管理信息

    机械方法:裸冠菊(Gymnocoronis spilanthoides)是很难有效地杀死,除草剂只能杀死此植物上部。任何水面下的部位都不会被杀死,可以再生。用手拔除往往导致再生和进一步蔓延。机械清除联同去淤操作一起执行。首先使用除草剂,7至10天后,用机械去除1公尺深度内所有淤泥和植物材料,带走,干燥。应把杂草材料晒干,而且如果可能的话应烧毁。或者可以把它放置在一个密封的塑料袋,放在阳光下腐烂和分解,然后弃置于经批准的土地(耕地保护 2004)。

    文化教育:所有的杂草管理,预防是更好和更符合成本效益。在澳大利亚,栽种裸冠菊(Gymnocoronis spilanthoides)是非法的,因为大多数州和地区都把它列为有害杂草。然而,塞内加尔茶已被种植作为一个水族馆植物和作为园林装饰性池塘植物,以吸引蝴蝶物种。如果发现裸冠菊(Gymnocoronis spilanthoides)被出售,应该联系国家或地区的杂草控制机构。早期发现和移除也很重要,以防止裸冠菊扩散。小侵扰可以移除,如果他们是早期发现,而一个持续不断的努力,才能确保不建立新的侵扰(该环境和遗产部, 2003)。人们应该避免购买种子或从因特网邮购目录上购买(环境和遗产部, 2003)。声明的用途也应该包括在这里。在澳大利亚,塞内加尔茶已被种植作为一个水族馆植物和作为园林装饰性池塘植物,以吸引蝴蝶物种。塞内加尔茶是一种复原力强的观赏植物,它也被牲畜吃,可提供潮湿地区的冬季放牧需求。

    化学方法:昆士兰东南部长期的经验显示草甘膦不是一有效的消除工具。它会产生一些问题,它是无选择性,会杀死当地物种,如沼泽草和莎草。此外,它没有残留的影响,这意味着它会创造一个充满光线的空隙,一个塞内加尔茶重新生长理想的苗床。此外,植物碎片毒素处理后,导致叶片脱落和繁殖体的形成。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Australia
    The importation of G. spilanthoides into Australia is not permitted because of the risk of further spread, and the potential introduction of new genetic diversity that could make future control more difficult (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003).
    Unfortunately, as with many aquatic weeds, there is evidence that G. spilanthoides has been deliberately planted and farmed on public lands. These activities must be stopped to prevent its introduction and further spread throughout Australia (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003).
    “Members of the public are asked to be on the lookout for infestations” (Land Protection, 2004).
    Nelson
    G. spilanthoides has been designated as a 'Total control pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The objective of the strategy is to eradicate known infestations of G. spilanthoides in the Tasman-Nelson region by 2006. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    Northland Region (North Island)
    Senegal tea is considered to be a "surveillance pest plant" by the Northland Regional Council which shall assume responsibility for implementing appropriate management programmes with the aim of eradicating these pest plants if found in Northland. Surveillance pest plants have been identified as being of potential high risk to the Northland Region. The Regional Council will also seek to prevent their establishment or spread by prohibiting their sale, propagation and distribution. This will be achieved by Authorised Persons regularly monitoring plant retail and wholesale outlets for these pest plants. The Northland Regional Council will also disseminate technical information on control methods and the ecology of these plants, and fund research into biological control options. Research into their distribution and environmental impacts may also be carried out during the life of the Strategy. There is, however, no legal requirement for landowners/occupiers to control established infestations.
    It is also considered to be a "service delivery plant" by the Northland Regional Council. Plants will be treated by a recognised method, at intervals that will ensure the infestations are controlled, reduced and eventually eradicated. Further to this requirement, service delivery pest plants are banned from sale, propagation and distribution.
    Please see the Pest management for defintions of pest designation.
    Queensland
    G. spilanthoides is a declared Class 1 plant under Queensland legislation. Declaration requires landholders to control declared pests on the land and waters under their control. A Local Government may serve a notice upon a landholder requiring control of declared pests (Land Protection, 2004).
    The National Registration Authority has approved the minor off label use of Roundup BiactiveR (permit number, PER5195) against G. spilanthoides in aquatic situations in Queensland (rivers, streams and creeks) at a rate of 10mL/1L water until February 2005. This product can only be applied to G. spilanthoides by persons who are trained or experienced in the preparation, handling and use of agricultural chemicals (Land Protection, 2004).
    Redland Shire
    Redland shire has actively hand pulled senegal tea on Eprapah Creek (South east Queensland) for 10 years but progress is slow. Hand pulling is laborious, particularly for volunteer weed groups and working near water is hazardous.
    Tasman District
    G. spilanthoides has been designated as a 'Total control pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The objective of the strategy is to eradicate known infestations of G. spilanthoides in the Tasman-Nelson region by 2006. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    Waikato Region (North Island)
    G. spilanthoides is classified as an “Eradication Plant Pest” by Environment Waikato. Environment Waikato will directly manage and control it, as well as monitor the weed and providing identification and control information to the community.
    Please see definitions for hierarchy of pest designations.


         管理资源 /链接

    3. Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2001. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 2. Weed risk assessment. Science for Conservation 185. 30 p.
            摘要: This report is the second stage in the development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand. Importers and traders in aquatic plants were surveyed to identify the plant species known or likely to be present in New Zealand. The Aquatic Plant Weed Risk Assessment Model was used to help assess the level of risk posed by these species. The report presents evidence of the various entry pathways and considers the impact that new invasive aquatic weed species may have on vulnerable native aquatic species and communities.
    Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/SFC185.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
    5. Environment Waikato. 2002. Senegal Tea (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides).
    6. Land Protection. 2004. Senegal tea Gymnocoronis spilanthoides. Queensland Government: Natural Resources and Mines.
    7. National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
            摘要: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
    Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
    10. Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland