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   Cestrum nocturnum (arbuste)  English     
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         Informations pour la gestion de l'espèce

    Preventative Measures: A Risk assessment of Cestrum nocturnum for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 16 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific).

    In New Zealand C. nocturnum has been included in the Auckland Regional Pest Management Strategy as a "Research Organism" and as such there are no rules or regulations restricting their propagation and growth (ARC, 2007). It has not been included in the National Plant Pets Accord, primarily due to a lack of information on current distribution and potential effects (Biosecurity New Zealand, 2010). While not included in any other Regional Pest Management Strategies, C. nocturnum is apparently prohibited from sale in the Northland Region (Williams, 2008) and Cestrum spp. in the Bay of Plenty Region have been prohibited from propagation, sale and distribution (Environment Bay of Plenty, 2010).

    Physical Control: Small plants can be hand pulled all year round and left on site to rot down (Weedbusters, 2010). As stems can resprout and reinfestation can occur through the seed bank, bared sites should be replanted to prevent regrowth (Weedbusters, 2010).

    Chemical Control: Good control results for C. nocturnum have been reported using triclopyr ester at 20% in crop oil applied basal bark (Katie Cassel, pers. comm.; in Motooka, et al., 2003) with C. nocturnum probably sensitive to foliar application of triclopyr (Motooka et al., 2003). Cutting and painting the cut surface with a herbicide solution can be done all year round (Weedbusters, 2010) with Environment Bay of Plenty (2010) recommending the use of one part Tordon Brushkiller to 20 parts of water (50 ml / L), and Weedbusters (2010) recommending 100 ml / L of Tordon Brushkiller, 100 ml / L of triclopyr 600 EC or 500 ml / L of Yates Hydrocotyle Killer. Larger infestations should be sprayed (Environment Bay of Plenty, 2010), ideally in spring or summer (Weedbusters, 2010) with Environment Bay of Plenty (2010) suggesting the use of 50 ml of Tordon Brushkiller in 10 L of water and Weedbusters (2010) recommending the use of triclopyr 600 EC (30 ml/ 10 L) or Yates Hydrocotyle Killer (15 ml / L).


         Études de cas sur la gestion
    Auckland Region (North Island)
    The most recent Auckland Regional Pest Management Strategy [RPMS] (2007 - 2012) (Auckland Regional Council [ARC], 2007) has listed Cestrum nocturnum as a "Research Organism" which is the same as the 2002 - 2007 Auckland RPMS (ARC, 2002). This means that futher research is considered neccessary before it is recognised as "capable of causing at some time a serious adverse and unintended effect" in terms of biosecurity values. Research Organisms are not considered pests and as such there are no rules or regulations restricting their propagation and growth (ARC, 2007). The 2007 - 2012 Auckland RPMS states that a comprehensive Biosecurity Research Implementation Plan (BRIP) will be developed, allowing the ARC to assess these Research Organisms and other potential pest species in order to determine whether they pose a significant risk to the Auckland region, potential pest pathways and vectors and also alternative recommendable species (ARC, 2007). C. nocturnum has not been included in the National Plant Pest Accord (NPPA) which would prevent their sale, propagation or distribution primarily due to a lack of information on current distribution and potential effects (Biosecurity New Zealand, 2010).

    A five-year weed control programme run by Waitakere City Council identified C. nocturnum as one of many exotic species to be controlled along "total control roads" through herbicide sprayng; roadsides have been identified as significant vectors for the spread of environmental weed species (Waitakere City Council, 2006). The herbicide or herbicides to be used were not specified in this report.
    Bay of Plenty Region (North Island)
    While Cestrum nocturnum has not been included in the Bay of Plenty Regional Pest Management Plan, Cestrum spp. have been prohibited from propagation, sale and distribution (Environment Bay of Plenty, 2010). Furthermore, the herbicide Tordon Brushkiller is reccommended for use in controlling C. nocturnum, either by cutting individual stumps and painting with a solution of one part Tordon Brushkiller to 20 parts of water, or spraying larger infestations with 50 ml of Tordon Brushkiller in 10 L of water (Environment Bay of Plenty, 2010).
    Moloka`i (Molokai) Is.
    Starr et al. (2005) used roadside surveys as an effective means to gather distribution information on populations of introduced plant species in areas where they are likely to get started; they were shown to be a useful tool for early detection efforts (Starr et al., 2005).
    Northland Region (North Island)
    While Cestrum nocturnum has not been included in the Northland Regional Pest Management Strategy, it has been included as a species that may need to be included in a report by Williams (2008). It was given a Biological Success rating of 11 (out of 21) and a score of 9 (out of 24) on Esler's Index of Weediness (Williams, 2008). C. nocturnum is also reported to have been once widely sold but now prohibited (Williams, 2008).
    Pohnpei
    Space & Falanruw (1999) recommend that Cestrum nocturnum, along with a number of other plant species introduced to Micronesia and shown to be invasive elsewhere, should be monitored for invasive behaviour and evaluated for quarantine.
    Tarawa Atoll (Gilbert Is.)
    Cestrum nocturnum is one of a number of species seen or reported to be only in cultivation that is recommended for close monitoring for spread or preferably eradication if only few examples are found (Space & Imada, 2004). Space & Imada (2004) also recommend that planting of a number of ornamental species including C. nocturnum should be discouraged and that an inter-island quarantine should be put in place in Kiribati to prevent its spread to other islands (Space & Imada, 2004).
    Tutuila Is.
    Space & Flynn (1999) recommend that Cestrum nocturnum, along with a number of other plant species introduced to American Samoa and shown to be invasive elsewhere, should be monitored for invasive behaviour and evaluated for quarantine.
    Upolu Is.
    Cestrum nocturnum is recognised here as a major invasive species and it has been recommended that it be controlled or eradicated in sensitive and natural areas such as Vailima Reserve (Space & Flynn, 2002b).
    Yap
    Space & Falanruw (1999) recommend that Cestrum nocturnum, along with a number of other plant species introduced to Micronesia and shown to be invasive elsewhere, should be monitored for invasive behaviour and evaluated for quarantine.


         Ressources pour la gestion/Liens

    2. Motooka, P., Castro, L., Nelson, D., Nagai, G., & Ching, L. (2003). Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii-Manoa), Honolulu. Cestrum nocturnum.
    5. Space, J.C., & Flynn, T. (2000). Report to the government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern. U.S.D.A. Forest Service.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland