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   Asterias amurensis (sea star)     
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         Management Information

    A two-year study was undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage (Australia) by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters and those not found within Australian waters.
    All of the non-native potential target species identified in this report are ranked as high, medium and low priority, based on their invasion potential and impact potential. Asterias amurensis is identified as one of the ten most damaging potential domestic target species, based on overall impact potential (economic and environmental). A hazard ranking of potential domestic target species based on invasion potential from infected to uninfected bioregions identifies Asterias amurensis as a 'medium priority species' - these species have a reasonably high impact/or invasion potential.
    For more details, please see Hayes et al. 2005.
    The rankings determined in Hayes et al. 2005 will be used by the National Introduced Marine Pest Coordinating Group in Australia to assist in the development of national control plans which could include options for control, eradication and/or long term management.

    For details on preventative measures, chemical, physical and biological control options, please see management information compiled by the ISSG   



         Location Specific Management Information
    Derwent Estuary (Australia)
    Physical removal of A. amurensis has been trialled, but was proven to be ineffective in controlling the seastar population. Specially-designed traps, similar to lobster traps, are used to protect commercial shellfish leases. They are not effective on a large scale however (Goggin, 1999).
    Henderson lagoon
    Community volunteers, CRIMP (Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests) and DPIWE (Department of Primary Industries, Water & Environment) have organised and conducted two eradication efforts that have collected 401 and 283 A. amurensis individuals, respectively. It is not known if the seastar has successfully spawned in the lagoon.


         Management Resources/Links

    1. Bryne M., Morrice, M.G., Wolf, B., 1997. Introduction of the northern Pacific asteroid Asterias amurensis to Tasmania: reproduction and current distribution. Marine Biology 127: 637-685
            Summary: Over view of Introduction and reproduction methods of the Asterias amurensis.
    2. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    4. Department of the Environment and Heritage. Introduced Marine pests, National Control Plan for Northern Pacific Seastar, Implementation Workshop May 2002.
            Summary: Plans for Australia to implement a National Control Plan to prevent further invasion.
    6. Goggin, C.L., 1998. Proceedings of a meeting on the biology and management of the introduced seastar Asterias amurensis in Australian waters, 19 May 1998. Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests Tech Rep No. 15. CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart
    8. Hewitt C. L, L. Campbell., Ronald E. Thresher., Richard B. Martin., Sue Boyd., Brian F. Cohen., David R. Currie., Martin F. Gomon., Michael J. Keough., John A. Lewis., Matthew M. Lockett., Nicole Mays., Matthew A.McArthur., Tim D. O’Hara., Gary C. B. Poore., D. Jeff Ross., Melissa J. Storey., Jeanette E. Watson and Robin S. Wilson., 2004. Introduced and cryptogenic species in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Marine Biology 144: 183–202
    9. Hill, N.A; Blount, C; Poore, A.G.B; Worthington, D; Steinberg, P.D., 2003. Grazing effects of the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii in two contrasting rocky reef habitats: effects of urchin density and its implications for the fishery. Marine and Freshwater Researc 3; 54 (6) : 691-700
            Summary: Had small section on effects of Asterias amurensis.
    11. Kuris, A. M., Lafferty, K. D and Grygier, M. J., 1996. Detection and preliminary evaluation of natural enemies for possible biological control of the northern pacific seastar, Asterias amurensis. Technical report no 3, Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests, 12 pp
    14. Ross, D. J., Johnson, C. R., Hewitt, C. L., Ruiz, G. M. 2004. Interaction and impacts of two introduced species on soft-sediment marine assembledge in SE Tasmania. Marine Biology 144: 747-756
            Summary: Comparison of field study conducted between Asterias amurensis and Carcinus maenus on the Tasmanian coast.
    15. Ross, J. D., Craig R. Johnson & Chad L. Hewitt., 2003. Assessing the ecological impacts of an introduced seastar: the importance of multiple methods. Biological Invasions 5: 3–21
            Summary: This paper synthesizes work on the current and predicted impacts of an introduced predatory seastar (Asterias amurensis) on soft sediment assemblages, including native species subject to commercial fishing, in the Derwent Estuary and other areas of southeast Tasmania.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland