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   Solenopsis invicta (昆虫)  English   
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         管理信息

    预防措施:早期诊断的积极监测和随后处理巢是最好的方式,以防止任何蚂蚁物种建立在新的环境。陷阱和引诱毒饵的方法,都可以产生良好的结果。(西蒙 O'Connor pers.comm). 太平洋的蚂蚁预防计划 是一份为植物保护被准备太平洋的植物保护组织与地区的技术上的会议的提议。这一计划旨在防止红火蚁和其它蚂蚁侵入物种,在太平洋各国之间传播,对经济,环境或社会造成影响。

    综合管理:在人为生态系中,入侵蚂蚁达到高密度的潜能更大, 对密集使用的初级生产土地,特别明显。例如,(小火蚁(Wasmannia auropunctata)) 在它的原生地南美洲地区域是一个大问题,此区域已经被人类过度开发,包括分别在哥伦比亚南部与巴西单一栽培甘蔗与可可粉 (Armbrecht 与 Ulloa-Chacon 2003). 同样地, ( 阿根廷蚁(Linepithema humile)) 在农业区的族群密度很高,例如柑橘类果园。改善土地管理,包括减少单一栽培和增加初级生产的效率,可能有助于防止蚂蚁入侵族群膨胀(减轻高密度的蚂蚁所造成的问题),并可以减少可能发生新的虫害的潜在来源。

    生物方法:寄生 phorid 苍蝇曾经被引进用来控制 S. invicta. 这些多种寄生蝇 (从阿根廷与巴西) 曾经在 Brackenridge Field Laboratory (BFL) 被研究人员释放。苍蝇幼虫发展进入蚂蚁内而且杀他们的宿主。1999 年中央奥斯汀的 BFL引进 Pseudacteon tricuspis到德州的一些地方。捕蝇器曾经用来描绘引入的 phorid 苍蝇的第一个品种的传布。结果发现引入的 phorid 苍蝇传布得克萨斯中部到超过 12个县与三百五十万英亩而且传布得克萨斯的海岸弯曲区域的七个县与一百五十万英亩,每年从最初引入的地方向外传布3-10哩。2004年引入其它二种 phorid 苍蝇。请参阅Using phorid 在得克萨斯 的进口火蚂蚁的生物控制者中飞。

    有关预防方法,化学、生物控制选择, 请参阅 管理数据English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Auckland Region (North Island)
    A mature nest of fire ants was discovered in a security area at Auckland international airport in early March 2001. The nest was destroyed and intensive surveillance and a targeted awareness campaign has not turned up any further signs of the ant. However, developing nests take several months to reach the stage where ants will forage above ground. Continued monitoring is essential to ensure that if other nests have started to develop further afield they will be detected and can be treated early. Hopefully the rapid response has prevented the ant from establishing and becoming very costly to eradicate (Harris 2001; Pascoe 2001).
    Beiliu
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in three towns in Beiliu City.
    Cayman Brac
    Populations of Solenopsis invicta are controlled around inhabited areas with a wide variety of commercially available insecticides (Burton, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    China
    On 17th Jan 2005, the DOA published official announcements of fire ant invasions and listed the species as a harmful import pest for further prevention. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) released the “Fire Ants Eradication and Prevention Training Plan”, and distributed 5000 copies of fire ant prevention booklets, 150,000 copies of prevention information posters and 2000 CDs to orient prevention and control activities in all affected areas. DOA also developed the “National Fire Ants Eradication Strategy”, which hopes to achieve: eradication in 3 years in small detached infected locations; eradication in 6 years at connected infected areas; national eradication of fire ants by 2013. Several safe and effective toxins for fire ants and ant nests will be released. Fire ant eradication management information systems will be developed to locate infected areas with GPS and to improve management (DOA, 2006. Original Chinese language document) (English translation of original document by Jia Ren, 2006).

    Ganzhou City, in China’s Jiangxi Province, took the following prevention activities against RIFA: any imported plants (with soil) from outside of the city need to be rechecked and recorded by local prevention branches of the Department of Agriculture. If fire ants or ant-like species are found, they should be reported to the Agriculture Protection Prevention centre within 24 hours (Zhong, 2006. Original Chinese language document) (English translation of original document by Jia Ren, 2006).

    Dayongqiao Park
    Red imported fire ants have been eradicated from Dayongqiao Park ( 20 ha) in Yongding District, Zhangjiajie City (DOA Announcement 499).
    Dengta Town
    Red imported fire ants have been eradicated from Dengta Town in Dongyuan County.
    Dianbai County
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine on both banks of a river on the border of Gaozhou City and Dianbai County.
    Dongguang
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in parts of Dongguang City.
    Gaozhou
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine on both banks of a river on the border of Gaozhou City and Dianbai County.
    Grand Cayman
    Populations of Solenopsis invicta are controlled around inhabited areas with a wide variety of commercially available insecticides (Burton, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    Huizhou
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in Huicheng District and Boluo County of Huizhou City.
    Lianping County
    Red imported fire ants have been eradicated from Lianping County in Heyuan City
    Little Cayman
    Populations of Solenopsis invicta are controlled around inhabited areas with a wide variety of commercially available insecticides (Burton, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    Longyan
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in Longyan City (DOA Announcement 574).
    Luchuan County
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in parts of Luchuan County (DOA Announcement 499).
    Maoming
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in two districts in Maoming City.
    Nanning
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in Nanning City (DOA Announcement 499).
    Queensland
    Around 35,000 hectares in Brisbane will be treated with two types of bait. Hydramethylnon will be used at the start of the programe on the known infested sites to reduce the fire ant populations. S-methoprene and pyriproxyfen are insect growth regulators which work by preventing ant larvae from developing into adults. Authorities say the chemicals are environmentally friendly, low toxic, and break down very quickly in the environment. The campaign will use three methods to apply bait- on foot, by vehicle for the more rural residential and industrial blocks with a machine driven spreader, and aerial for large open spaces (not residential areas). Each property in the treatment zone will be treated four times each year for three years. Full public cooperation is required for the operation to be successful.

    After the treatment phase is complete in June 2004, monitoring and validation work will continue until June 2006. The director of the Queensland Fire Ant Control Centre believes there is a greater than 80 per cent probability of eradicating the ant. The Department of Agriculture has also begun a survey of Western Australia's commercial nurseries and garden centres to ensure the red imported fire ant has not become established in the State. Department senior entomologist Peter Davis states "A massive eradication campaign in the Brisbane area is being funded by State and Federal governments at a cost of $123 million dollars over the next five years. Nurseries, and freight destinations will be checked to be sure the whole of the country is free from these nasty ants."

    The Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (DPI&F) Queensland Government states in this news release that the battle against red imported fire ants in Queensland enters a fresh phase this summer as the National Eradication Program shifts its primary focus from area-wide treatment to surveillance of 70 000 hectares of land within the fire ant restricted area. (DPI&F: 2 November 2005).
    A news release from DPI&F) Queensland Government states that a red imported fire ant nest has been found and treated on a property in Toowong, in Brisbane's inner west. The infestation lies 4.5km beyond the closest restricted area boundary (Tennyson) and 6.2km from the nearest previously-identified area of fire ant infestation. This indicates it is unlikely to be a consequence of spread by natural means. (DPI&F: 13 January 2006).

    Shanghang County
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in parts of Shanghang County (DOA Announcement 574).
    Shenzhen
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in several districts of Shenzhen.
    Texas
    Parasitic phorid flies have been introduced to control S. invicta. Multiple species of these parasitic flies (originally from Argentina and Brazil) have been released by researchers at the Brackenridge Field Laboratory (BFL). The fly larvae develop inside the ants and kill their host. Pseudacteon tricuspis, was introduced to several locations in Texas beginning in 1999 with BFL in central Austin. Flytraps have been used to map the spread of the first species of phorid fly introduced. It is found that the inrtroduced phorid flies have spread to more than 12 counties and 3.5 million acres in Central Texas and seven counties and 1.5 million acres in the Coastal Bend region of Texas, speading at 3 to ten miles per year from the initial introduction areas. Two other phorid flies have been introduced since 2004. For more details please see Using phorid flies in the biocontrol of imported fire ants in Texas.

    US States/Counties Quarantine Map (January 9th 2002)

    Wuchuan
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in several towns in Wuchuan City (DOA Announcement 453).
    Wuchuan
    The infected areas have been separated into “occurrence areas” and “surveillance areas” to stop the spread of fire ants (DOA 2006. Translated from Chinese by Jia Ren 2006).
    Yangjiang
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in parts of Yangchun in Yangjiang City.
    Yongxin District
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in parts of Yongxin District (DOA Announcement 499).
    Zhongshan
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in parts of Zhongshan City.
    Zhuhai
    Red imported fire ants are under control and quarantine in two districts of Zhuhai City.


         管理资源 /链接

    1. AntWeb, 2006. Solenopsis invicta
            摘要: AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, In-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
    AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
    The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=solenopsis&name=invicta&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
    3. Carmichael, A. 2006. Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 12:06:03 PM.
            摘要: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=93 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
    4. Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
            摘要: This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia’s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta), tropical fire ant (S. geminata), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).
    Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
    9. Forgie, A. Shaun., Kathryn O'Halloran, Darren, F. Ward, Margaret Stanley, Jo S. Rees and Christine Daly., 2006. Environmental Impact Assessment for baits used during RIFA (red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta) incursions. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0607/046
    11. Gutrich, J.J., Ellen VanGelder and Lloyd Loope., 2007 In press. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii. Environ. Sci. Policy, doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2007.03.007
    12. Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.
            摘要: The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
    There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
    The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
    NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
    (This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
    Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
    13. Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez, A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. and Case, T.J. 2002. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 181-233.
    14. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    16. McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
    20. Ness, J.H and Bronstein, J.L. 2004. The Effects of Invasive Ants on Prospective ant Mutualists, Biological Invasions 6: 445-461.
    24. Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California — Davis.
            摘要: PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
    The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
    Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
    29. Tunnel Vision: RIFA newsletters
            摘要: Tunnel Vision is the quarterly newsletter produced by the Cooperative Extension Service, University of Arkansas. The purpose of the newsletter is to inform people about the red imported fire ant and what is being done throughout the U.S. on this pest insect.
    31. Vogt, J.T. & Wallet, B. (2008). Feasibility of using template-based and object-based automated detection methods for quantifying black and hybrid imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. Invictaxrichteri) mounds in aerial digital imagery. The Rangeland Journal 30: 291-295.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland