Skarmoutsos and Skarmoutsos (2000) state that, "B. xylophilus is a quarantine pest for the European Union under Directive 77/93/EEC (Anonymous 1993)." The EPPO Bulletin (2003) reports that, "B. xylophilus is an EPPO A1 pest." The bulletin sets out pest-specific phytosanitary requirements for and its vectors, this covers plants for planting, cut
branches, isolated bark and various types of wood (squared wood, round wood, packaging wood, particle wood and waste wood) of coniferous species generally.
Samples from 3416 batches of wooden packaging material were inspected for the presence of nematodes in the Ningbo Entry–Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, China between January 2003 to June 2005. Bursaphelenchus spp. were detected in 202 batches from 25 different countries, species detected include B. xylophilus, B. fungivorus, B. rainulfi, B. hylobianum, B. thailandae, B. mucronatus, B. aberrans, B. lini, B. singaporensis, B. doui, B. conicaudatus, B. vallesianus, B. pinasteri, B. hofmanni and B. arthuri. The most frequently found species were B. mucronatus, B. xylophilus, B. fungivorus, B. rainulfi and B. thailandae.
B. xylophilus was not only found in packaging wood imported from areas where it is known to occur (i.e. The United States of America, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan), but also from countries considered to be free of this dangerous pest (i.e. Brazil, Thailand, Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Spain).
The authors state that, " The occurrence of B. xylophilus in packaging wood from countries regarded as being free of the nematode can most likely be explained by the global circulation of wooden packaging material among infested and non-infested countries. Our findings emphasise the need to fully implement international standards on phytosanitary treatment of packaging wood, in order to prevent further spread of the pine wood nematode, and the need for careful re-examination of the current heat treatment measures". (Abstract: Gu et al. 2006)
In 2002, United Nation FAO's (Food and Agriculture Organisation) Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures imposed a global standard for treating wood packaging International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 to stop the spread of invasives, that are now being adopted by individual countries.
For details on management of this species including physical, biological and chemical control please management information.
The American Phytopathological Society (APS) offers on its website illustrated lessons to introduce the symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle, epidemiology, disease management, and scientific, economic and social significance of major plant diseases. Please follow this link
Pine wilt disease for details.
Location Specific Management Information
The epidemic in Nagasaki was controlled by eradication of dead trees. At present insecticides, nematicides and fumigants are widely used to control disease (Kosaka, Hajime., pers.comm., 2005).
A national eradication programme comprising exceptional and urgent control measures was adopted to prevent spread of the pest. A survey conducted in the rest of the country, by the end of 1999, showed that the infestation in Portugal was confined an area north-east of Setúbal City, in the Setúbal Peninsula and surrounding areas - the 'affected zone' (GANP, 1999, in Sousa et al. 2002) or 'quarantine area' (IPPC, 2001, in Sousa et al. 2002).
3. Donald, P.A., W.T. Stamps, and M.J. Linit. Pine wilt disease. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-I-2003-0130-01
Summary: The American Phytopathological Society (APS) offers on its website illustrated lessons to introduce the symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle, epidemiology, disease management, and scientific, economic and social significance of major plant diseases. The website will also offer basic information on the history, biology, survival, dissemination, host-parasite interactions, epidemiology and management of the major groups of plant pathogens. This section is in development.
APS Introductory Plant Pathology Resources is available from http://www.apsnet.org/education/IntroPlantPath/top.html. This page is available from:
http://www.apsnet.org/education/LessonsPlantPath/PineWilt/default.htm [Accessed 7 November 2006]
5. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), 2002. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its vectors: procedures for official control. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 33: 301-304.
Summary: Procedures for the control of species.
7. Gu, J., Braasch, H., Burgermeister, W. & Zhang, J., 2006. Records of Bursaphelenchus spp. intercepted in imported packaging wood at Ningbo, China. Forest Pathology 36 (5), 323-333.
8. Ichihara, Y., K. Fukuda, and K. Suzuki. 2001. Suppression of ectomycorrhizal development in young Pinus thunbergii trees inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Forest Pathology 31: 141-147. [Accessed 21 July 2004]
Summary: Study on beneficial effects of mycorrhizal on species
9. Kosaka, H., T. Aikawa, N. Ogura, K. Tabata., and T. Kiyohara. 2001. Pine wilt disease casued by the pine wood nematode: the induced resistance of pine trees by the avirulent isolates of nematode. European Journal of Plant Pathology 107: 667-675.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
10. Nakamura, K. and Yoshida, N. 2004. Successful control of pine wilt disease in Fukiage-hama seacoast pine forest in south-eastern Japan. Nematology Monographs and Perspectives 1: 269-281.
11. OEPP/EPPO, 2003. National regulatory control systems Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its vectors. Bulletin
13. Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio and Kawazu, Kazuyoshi., 2003. Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 59:365–370
15. Walker, K. 2006. Pine Wilt Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 24/09/2006 8:10:56 AM.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia.
PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=574 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
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