Hicks and McMahon (2002) report that, "Near extinction of Perna perna from Texas Gulf of Mexico waters occurred in the summer of 1997 when mean surface-water temperatures approached its incipient upper limit of 30degreeC." A cycle of particularly warm summer like of that seen in 1997 might control P. perna to a certain degree naturally in its introduced range.
Preventative measures: A two year study undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australia by CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Marine Research, was designed to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters (potential domestic target species) and those that are not found within Australian waters (potential international target species). Potential domestic target species, in this context are defined as ship-vectored, established, non-native (or cryptogenic) species that have demonstrated significant impact on human health, economic interests or environmental values in the Australian marine environment. Potential international target species are similarly defined as ship vectored, non-native (or cryptogenic) species that have demonstrated significant impacts outside of Australia. All of the non-native potential target species identified in the independent report published are ranked as high, medium and low priority, based on their invasion potential and impact potential.
The impact potential of a species is expressed in terms of their actual (or potential) human health, economic and environmental impacts. P. perna has been categorised as one of ten potentially most damaging species.
The potential international target species are prioritised by their location in the invasion potential/impact potential space. P. perna has been categorised as 'Low priority'. (Hayes et al. 2005)
Chemical: P. perna is a common pest organism in cooling water systems of coastal power stations where it can coexist with P. viridis and Brachidontes striatulus (Rajagopal et al. 1996; 2003a, 2003b). A comparison of the chlorine tolerance of these three species shows that P. perna is the most sensitive among the three. Data collected by the authors show that, "Continuous dosing at a residual level of at least 1 mg/L is necessary to force P. perna to close their shells, without allowing a recovery phase (Rajagopal, 2003a). Therefore, it is desirable to maintain such residual levels during peak settlement periods of P. perna to prevent fresh colonization. However, the residual levels to be administered depend on the most tolerant species. Therefore, to control a mussel fouling community containing P. viridis, P. perna, and B. striatulus, chlorine residuals are to be chosen based on the tolerance of P. viridis, which is the most tolerant among the three".
1. Bainy, A. C. D., E. A. Almeida, I. C., Muller, E. C. Ventura, and I. D. Medeiros. 2000. Biochemical responses in farmed mussel Perna perna transplanted to contaminated sites on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil. Marine Environmental Research. 50(1-5). July-December, 2000. 411-416.
2. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
5. Rajagopal S, Nair KVK, Azariah J, van der Velde G, Jenner HA., 1996b. Chlorination and mussel control in the cooling conduits of a tropical coastal power station. Marine Environmental Research 41: 201-220.
6. Rajagopal S, Nair KVK, van der Velde G, Jenner HA., 1996a. Seasonal settlement and succession of fouling communities in Kalpakkam, east coast of India. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology 30: 309-325.
7. Rajagopal S, van der Velde G, van der Gaag M, Jenner HA., 2003c. How effective is Intermittent chlorination to control adult mussel fouling in cooling water systems? Water Research 37: 329-338.
8. Rajagopal S, Venugopalan VP, Nair KVK, Azariah J., 1991. Biofouling problems and its control in a tropical coastal power station a case study. Biofouling 3: 325-338.
9. Rajagopal S, Venugopalan VP, Nair KVK, van der Velde G, Jenner HA., 1998. Settlement and growth of the green mussel Perna viridis (L.) in coastal waters: influence of water velocity. Aquatic Ecology 32: 313-322.
10. Rajagopal S, Venugopalan VP, van der Velde G, Jenner HA., 2003a. Response of fouling brown mussel, Perna perna (L.) to chlorine. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Issue: Volume 44, Number 3
11. Rajagopal S, Venugopalan VP, van der Velde G, Jenner HA., 2003b. Tolerance of five species of tropical marine mussels to continuous chlorination. Marine Environmental Research 55: 277-291.
12. Rajagopal S, Venugopalan VP, van der Velde G, Jenner HA., 2005. Greening of the coast: what makes the mussel Perna viridis so successful? Aquatic Ecology (Under Revision)
13. Rajagopal, S., V. P. Venugopalan, G. Velde, and H. A. Jenner. 2003. Response of fouling brown mussel, Perna perna (L.), to chlorine. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003 Apr; 44(3):369-76.
14. Segnini, M. I., K. S. Chung, and J. E. Perez. 1998. Salinity and temperature tolerances of the green and brown mussels, Perna viridis and Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical. 46 (SUPPL. 5). Dec., 1998. 121-125.
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