Physical: Manual methods such as exclusion, trapping, and shooting have been employed in an attempt to control European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) populations. Mechanical controls include scaring with the use of sonic devices. (Adeney, 2001; Kern, 2003).
Location Specific Management Information
United States (USA)
European starlings are too well-established in the United States for eradication to be employed as a plausible form of management.
Under legislation administered by the Department of Agriculture and Food, the Common Starling is a declared pest in Western Australia. No starlings can be imported or kept anywhere in the State and any found are removed.
The 2006 media release further states that "Over 900 birds have already been removed through control activities in the Munglinup area since the birds were first detected". In recognition of the increased size of the infestation, the Department of Agriculture recently decided that the situation would be best handled as an Emergency Incident. The extent of the infestation is being further quantified, while control activities continue to be implemented (Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, 3 March 2006). A number of control schemes and eradication protocols are currently being investigated. In addition, birds are also being radio-collared to enable the observers to track down larger flocks which would subsequently be trapped or netted (WWF-Australia, undated). Key organisations involved in stopping the starling are the WA Departments of Agriculture and Food (DAF) and of Environment and Conservation (DEC), Birds Australia, and the South Coast Regional Initiative Planning Team (SCRIPT) regional NRM group. It seems that the breeding season is critical in preventing further spread of starlings into the Southwest Australia.
1. Airola, Daniel A; Grantham, Jesse. Jones and Stokes, Purple Martin population status, nesting habitat characteristics, and management in Sacramento, California
Western Birds. 34(4). 2003. 235-251.
Summary: Impacts of Starling population on purple martin population.
4. James, Francis C. 1997, Nonindigenous Birds. Pages 139-156 in Daniel Simberloff, Don C. Schmitz, Tom C. Brown, editors. Strangers in Paradise Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press, Washington D.C. 360 pp.
Summary: Chapter on nonindigenous bird species in Florida. Contains information on Management
5. Kern, William J. 2004. European Starling.
Summary: A website with basic ecology information as well as economic and health impacts of the starling. This site also details several methods of control.
6. Long, J. L. (1981). Introduced Birds of the World. (Reed: Sydney.)
Summary: Detailed information on the introductions of introduced birds of the world
9. The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT)., 2003. Annotated Bibliographies on the Ecology and Management of Sturnus vulgaris
10. The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT)., 2003. Field manual of Sturnus vulgaris
12. Tracey, P.J.,Woods, R., Roshier, D., West, P., Saunders, G. The role of wild birds in the transmission of avian influenza for Australia: an ecological perspective. Emu, 2004, 104, 109-124
Summary: Notes on starlings as carriers of avian influenza virus.
14. Weber, W. J. (1979). Health hazards from pigeons, starlings and English sparrows. (Thomson Publications: California.)
Summary: Review of the confirmed and potential human health risks of pigeons, starlings and sparrows.
15. WWF-Australia, Undated. Starling factsheet
Summary: This document seeks to inform Western Australians about the threat posed by starlings, with the hope of increasing community
surveillance efforts and reporting of starling sightings.
Available from: http://wwf.org.au/publications/starling-factsheet/ [Accessed 13 February 2008]
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