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   Vespula vulgaris (昆蟲)  English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    預防措施:及早發現建立的族群是很重要的,它是最初隔離程序後的下一個防線。土地保育研究單位已經進行一般無脊椎動物監測技術研究,以瞭解生物安全監測的缺口。這些包括馬氏網、迷你馬氏網、窗網、黏網、陷網、紫外光網、平蟻網、螞蟻餌誘器、斯珀黃蜂網、地瓶網、黃色平網與打網。以上,以馬氏網、迷你馬氏網、窗網、黏網、陷網、紫外光網、平蟻網、螞蟻餌誘器、斯珀黃蜂網、地瓶網在捕捉黃蜂時較有效。請跟隨這個的連結陷捕方法的描述:http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/id_surveillance.asp
    在高風險環境下的無脊椎動物概括性的調查非常少,新無脊椎動物族群的資訊來源,通常來自公眾的觀察(Landcare Research 2007)。

    有兩個方法可以減少當地的黃蜂問題:找出並且破壞區域內所有的巢,或使用毒餌。在大區域的灌木林,使用人工摧毀巢,可能很困難而且是勞動密集的(Toft and Harris 2004)。毒餌的好處是,覓食的黃蜂會把毒藥帶回蜂巢,意謂著我們無須知道巢的位置,也不用接近它,蜂巢通常非常大也很難接近(Landcare Research 2007)。
    兩個方法都只能減輕當季的問題,覓食的工蜂將再侵入原區域。原區域到下個季節,將幾乎無疑地會被黃蜂蟻后再度侵入,蟻后飛行 30 公里尋找適當的築巢地點。

    1977 年幾乎在夏威夷剛發現黃蜂時,各島嶼的移除與控制計劃就開始啟動了。 毒藥 bendiocarb 被用於嘗試控制黃蜂與移除農業區以外的蜂巢。(它沒被登記為農業使用)張(1988)發現毒餌與化學毒物最有效組合是 0.5% microencapsulated diazinon 混和罐裝的 Figaro 牌鮪魚貓食物。 用 Amidino-hydrazone 做相似的毒餌混合,也是有效的。毒餌分配器的顏色,也證明是重要的:毒餌分配器最佳的顏色是,半透明白色。

    生物方法:生物控制已經被用於嘗試控制大面積分佈的黃蜂。關於生物控制更多的資訊黃蜂請跟隨這一個連結:http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Wasps/biocontrol.asp 。 English   



         管理資源 /鏈接

    1. Beggs, J. R. 1999. The ecological impact and control of introduced wasps (Vespula spp) in Nothofagus forest. Unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 197 pp.
    2. Beggs, J. R. and Harris, R. J. 2000. Can the wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum significantly reduce the density of Vespula wasps? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27: 73-74.
    3. Beggs, J. R. in press. Impact and control of introduced Vespula wasps in New Zealand. Proceedings of the 4th International Hymenoptera Conference. CSIRO.
    4. Beggs, J. R., Alspach, P. A., Moller, H., Toft, R. J. and Tilley, J. A. V. 1992. Impacts of the parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum on colonies of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris). Proceedings 41st Annual Conference Entomological Society of New Zealand.
    5. Beggs, J. R., Toft, R. J., Malham, J. P., Rees, J. S., Tilley, J. A. V., Moller, H. and Alspach, P. 1998. The difficulty of reducing introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris) populations for conservation gains. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 22: 55-63.
    6. Beggs, J.R. (2001). The ecological consequences of social wasps (Vespula spp.) invading an ecosystem that has an abundant carbohydrate resource. Biological Conservation 99: 17-28.
    7. Beggs, J.R., Rees, J.S., Toft, R.J., Dennis, T.E. & Barlow, N.D. (2008). Evaluating the impact of a biological control parasitoid on invasive Vespula wasps in a natural forest ecosystem. Biological Control 44: 399–407.
            摘要:
    8. Donovan, B. D. 1991. Life cycle of Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid of some vespid wasps. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 181-192.
    9. Donovan, B. J. 1989. Potential enemies of the introduced wasp parasitoid Sphecophaga vesparum (Hymneoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 365-367.
    10. Donovan, B. J. and Read, P. E. C. 1987. Attempted biological control of social wasps, Vespula spp., (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) with Sphecophaga vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 14: 329-335.
    11. Donovan, B. J., Moller, H., Plunkett, G. M., Read, P. E. C. and Tilley, J. A. V. 1989. Release and recovery of the introduced wasp parasitoid, Sphecophaga vesparum vesparum (Curtis) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 121-125.
    12. Glare, T. R., Harris, R. J. and Donovan, B. J. 1996. Aspergillus flavus as a pathogen of wasps, Vespula spp., in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 23: 339-344.
    13. Harcourt, S. J., Harris, R. J., Rose, E. A. F., Glare, T. R. and Nelson, T. L. 1997. The potential of Beauveria bassiana for the control of common and German wasps (Vespula vulgaris L. and V. germanica F.) in New Zealand. Proceedings of 4th international workshop on microbial control of soil dwelling pests.
    16. Harris, R. J. and Read, P. E. C. 1999. Enhanced biological control of wasps. Science for conservation 115: 39pp.
    17. Harris, R. J., Harcourt, S. J., Glare, T. R., Rose, E. A. F. and Nelson, T. L. 2000. Susceptibility of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to generalist entomopathogenic fungi and their potential for wasp control. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 75: 251-258.
    18. Harris, R.J. & Etheridge, N.D. (2001). Comparison of baits containing fipronil and sulfluramid for the control of Vespula wasps. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 39-48.
    22. Spurr, E.B., 1991. Reduction of wasp (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) populations by poison-baiting; experimental use of sodium monofluroacetate (1080) in canned sardine. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 18: 215-222.
    25. Spurr, E.B., and Elliott, G. 1996. User trials with Finitron wasp bait. New Zealand beekeeper 3: 18-20.
    26. Toft, R. J. and Rees, J. S. 1998. Reducing predation of orb-web spiders (Araneidae) by controlling common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) in a New Zealand beech forest. Ecological Entomology 23: 90-95.
    27. Walker, K. 2007. English wasp (Vespula vulgaris) Pest and Diseases Image Library.
            摘要: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
    The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2)Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4)Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=795 [Accessed 10 November 2007]
    28. Weston, R. J., Woolhouse, A. D., Spurr, E. B., Harris, R. J. and Suckling, D. M. 1997. Spiroacetals and other venom constituents as potential wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) attractants. Journal of Chemical Ecology 23: 553-568.

         結果頁: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland