Garry Oak Ecosystems (Canada)
The ISSC (Invasive Species Steering Committee) of the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT) (a partnership of a number of governmental and non-governmental agencies) focuses on research and management of invasive species in Garry oak and associated ecosystems. has developed field manuals for invasive species. Please follow this link for the field manual for Sciurus carolinensis.
All specimens seen during 1991-92 were destroyed (Brooke et al., 2004, in Varnham 2005).
Considered a pest by 1930, there have been various attempts over the years to control or eradicate the grey squirrel.
Effective geographical containment of the populations of grey squirrels of Italy (which hosts the only populations of grey squirrel in continental Europe), is of critical importance for preventing the spread of the species in the medium term to France and Switzerland, and in the long term to the rest of Eurasia (Bertolino & Genovesi 2003). Containment of the grey squirrel’s invasion could allow time to develop more effective control methods in the future, and allow authorities in Switzerland and France to develop effective response strategies.
An eradication campaign was started in Italy in 1997 but was suspended following legal action by some radical animal rights organisations (Genovesi & Bertolino, 2001). The suspension of activities was followed by a significant range expansion of the grey squirrel, which is now present in continuous woodlands and in residential parks in three distinct populations in Italy.
There is the technical ability to plan and carry out local eradications and containment plans in Italy based on the protocol developed during the attempted eradication in Racconigi. It is based on live-trapping, anaesthesia of captured animals, and subsequent euthanasia. It ensures absolute selectivity, minimizes stress of the captured squirrels and avoids any sufferance to the animals. The competent authorities, which in the Italian system are at the local level, are being called upon to start the eradication of the population of grey squirrels of the Ticino valley west of Milano without any further delay, and to promptly communicate the results to national authorities in Italy and Switzerland. The Ticino valley is a critical corridor for the expansion of the species, as the river originates in Switzerland and the continuous riverine tree vegetation that characterises the valley could enable the grey squirrel to rapidly expand to alpine areas and to Switzerland (Genovesi, P., in press).
United Kingdom (UK)
The red squirrel is a priority species under the UK Governments Biodiversity Action Plan process. The Species Action Plan (SAP) for red squirrels, formed in 1995, aimed to re-establish red squirrel populations, where appropriate, and maintain and enhance current populations through good management. Such is the threat from grey squirrels, the main focus of work has had to concentrate on identifying and protecting key sites for red squirrel conservation. The criteria used to identify key sites include extent and suitability of habitat, how easily a site can be defended, current threat from grey
squirrels and level of land owner support.
The best illustration of conservation action being taken is the work underway in the North of England to define Reserves where action on protecting the red squirrel will be directed. Priority sites for red squirrels have been identified, and a landscape level strategy and plan with full community involvement/ownership agreed. There have been considerable - and successful – attempts to raise public awareness and secure support. A review of current methods of surveillance for both squirrel species is currently taking place with the aim of producing a protocol for a national monitoring scheme that will allow us to assess regional population trends and the effects of interaction between the squirrel species. This scheme should also allow us to assess the efficacy of conservation management on local red squirrel populations. Other research priorities include; the impact of grey squirrels on woodland birds, silvicultural approaches to minimise damage, research to identify squirrel pox virus disease in the environment and modes of transmission, and fertility control to limit rates of population expansion and damage impacts. The high risk/high cast nature of the research needed for the
last two items, and the lack of available funding, is hampering progress (Mayle, B. and Smith,
L., in press).
The Forestry Commission, in the United Kingdom, have a research programme that includes investigating the impact of grey squirrels on woodland biodiversity & identifying efficient control strategies, developing cost effective methods of managing impacts on timber production, developing a decision-support system for woodland managers on targeting grey squirrel control to support sustainable forest management, and promoting and supporting best practice management for the control of grey squirrels and their impacts. Please follow this link for an annual summary of their research.
3. Genovesi, P. and Bertolino, S., 2001. Human dimension aspects in invasive alien species issues: the case of the failure of the grey squirrel eradication
project in Italy. In: McNeely, J.A. (Ed.), The Great Reshuffling: Human Dimensions of Invasive Alien Species. IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, pp.
5. Koprowski, J.L. 1994. Sciurius carolinensis. Mammalian Species 480: 1-9.
摘要： In depth information about the species covereing anatomy, breeding, ecology etc
6. Mayle, Brenda and Smith, Linda (in press). Non-Native Invasive Species - the Grey Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis. A particular example of the threat
posed to European Biodiversity. From a presentation at the 6th Meeting of the Group of Experts on Invasive Alien Species (Palma de Majorca, 9-11 June 2005)
to be published by the Council of Europe.
8. The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT)., 2003. Annotated Bibliographies on the Ecology and Management of Sciurus carolinensis