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   Cupaniopsis anacardioides (tree)     
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         Management Information

    Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Cupaniopsis anacardioides for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 6 and a recommendation of: "The species has been assessed using the WRA system; however, no assessment of risk can be provided at this time because 1) crucial information is missing from the assessment or 2) the species possesses a combination of traits and characteristics that make its likely behaviour difficult to assess using the WRA system.

    Chemical: Langeland (2003) suggests cutting down trees and treating the stumps with an approved herbicide to prevent regrowth (referred to as cut stump herbicide application). The herbicide can be poured directly from the container onto the freshly cut stump or applied with a paint brush. Brush-B-Gon and Roundup Super Concentrate are effective and available in retail stores in quantities as small as pints. Both of these herbicides are applied without diluting. Property owners with large numbers of trees can use Garlon 3A, which has the same active ingredient as Brush-B-Gon but is more concentrated and is diluted to 10% with water. Garlon 3A is only available from certain farm supply stores. Alternatively, C. anacardioides trees can be controlled without being cut down by applying certain herbicides to the bark at the base of the tree (referred to as basal bark application). Trees can be removed when dead or left in place to decay, a low-impact option sometimes used by natural area managers. Pathfinder II, which is ready-to-use, or Garlon 4 diluted to 10%-20% with special penetrating oil, can be used for basal bark applications. Pathfinder II, Garlon 4, and penetrating oils are only available at certain farm supply stores. Herbicides should always be applied according to the instructions on the label."

    Mechanical: Langeland (2003) suggests that after herbicide treatment, "Dispose of any debris that contains C. anacardioides seed in such a way that seeds will not be introduced to new areas. For example, dispose of on site where seeds can be monitored for germination and seedlings pulled and destroyed or in a landfill where they will be incinerated.    

         Location Specific Management Information
    Florida (USA)
    Preventative measures: Langeland (2003) states that, "C. anacardioides is an invasive plant species in Florida that should be removed from public and private properties to help protect the state's natural areas. It has been listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council as one of Florida's most invasive plant species since 1995 and was added to the Florida Noxious Weed List by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in 1999."

         Management Resources/Links

    1. Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
            Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
    4. Gordon, D. R. 1998. Effects of Invasive, Non-Indigenous Plant Species on Ecosystem Processes: Lessons from Florida. Ecological Applications 8(4): 975-989.
            Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
    9. Lockhart, C. S., D. F. Austin, W. E. Jones, and L. A. Downey. 1999. Invasion of carrotwood (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) in Florida natural areas (USA). Natural Areas Journal 19(3): 254-262.
            Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland