1. Bean, T. 2002. Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Introduced Species Summary Project [Online Database].
摘要： Species fact sheet reporting common name, scientific name, classification, identification, original distribution, current distribution, site and date of introduction, modes of introduction, reasons why it has become established, ecological role, benefits, threats, control level diagnosis, and control method.
Available from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/alewife.html [Accessed 28 September 2003]
2. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
摘要： The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
5. Krueger, C. C., D. L. Perkins, E. L. Mills, and J. E. Marsden. 1995. Predation by alewives on lake trout fry in Lake Ontario: role of an exotic species in preventing restoration of a native species. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21(Supplement 1):458-469.
7. O'Gorman R., and C. P. Schneider. 1986. Dynamics of alewives in Lake Ontario following a mass mortality. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115:1-14.
8. O'Gorman, R., and T. J. Stewart. 1999. Ascent, dominance, and decline of the alewife in the Great Lakes: food web interactions and management strategies. Pages 489-514, in W. W. Taylor and P. Ferreri (eds.), Great Lakes Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. Michigan State University Press.
9. O'Gorman, R., B. F. Lantry, and C. P. Schneider. 2004. Effect of stock size, climate, predation, and trophic status on recruitment of alewives in Lake Ontario, 1978-2000. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 855-867.
11. Wells, L., and A. L. McLain. 1973. Lake Michigan--man’s effects on native fish stocks and other biota. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Technical Report 20, Ann Arbor, Michigan