Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.
Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).
Physical: A study has shown that the use of fine-mesh monofilament gill nets is a potentially viable but short term option for the control of rudd in small lakes (Neilson et al. 2004). Ruud were eliminated from a 2 ha lake using a combination of grass carp to removee weed beds and then Rotenone to remove the unwanted fish exposed by weed removal (Rowe & Champion, 1994).
Location Specific Management Information
Declared a noxious fish, except for the Auckland area where it is valued as a sport fish.
Waikato Region (North Island)
Exotic fish (including tench, rudd and Gambusia) are classified as “Potential Animal Pests” by Environment Waikato. These species have the potential to become established in the Waikato Region but more information is required to make informed decisions about their effects on the environment.
Please see definitions for hierarchy of pest designations.
1. Burrough, R. J. 1978. The biology and management of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) in Slapton Ley, Devon. PhD thesis. Exeter University, U.K.
2. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
6. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
8. Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montréal (Québec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
Summary: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with
trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001,
the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG),
a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced
the “Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.” This strategy identified responding to
threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing
invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive
Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers
who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative
process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased
trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse
impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
9. Neilson, K., Kelleher, R., Branes, G., Speirs, D., Kelly, J. 2004. Use of fine-mesh monofilament gill nets for the removal of rudd ( Scardinius erythrophthalmus) from a small lake complex in Waikato, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 38: 525-539.
Summary: An assessment of the potential of fine-mesh monofilament gill nets for controlling rudd. Conclusions were that this method appears to be a potentially viable and cost-effective option for ongoing control.
Available from: http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjmfr/2004/046.php
10. Rowe, D.K and Champion, P.D., 1994. Biomanipulation of plants and fish to restore Lake Parkinson: a case study of its implications. In Collier, K.J (eds), Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems, Science and Research Series, Department of Conservation, New Zealand.
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