Informations pour la gestion de l'espèce
Preventative: Early detection is very important to prevent establishement of populations. Detection programmes using lures and attractants and constant monitoring are required to ensure early detection. Countries which export fruit have to make sure that a comprehensive detection programme is maintained and that strict quarantine procedures are in place to prevent the spread of the pest to flyfree zones. Control options should be started early in spring when temperatures start rising and overwintering adults become active and new adults emerge from the ground (medfly can overwinter as adults, as eggs and larvae in fruit or in their pupal form in the ground).
Chemical: An important measure to be taken to ensure success of any chemical control is the disposal of unwanted and medfly infested fruit. Several methods suggested for disposal are: soaking fruit in water topped by a layer of kerosene( to cut off oxygen supply); freezing fruit for a few days; cooking or pureeing fruit. Burial is not recommended at depths of less than 18 inches as medfly can survive a burial . The two main control methods recommended are foliage baiting and cover spraying. The female medfly requires a source of protein for the maturation of her eggs which she sources from fruit juices, bacteria etc from nature. The foliage bait combines a source of protein with an insecticide and is attractive for both the male as well as the female medfly. The bait is usually applied in the morning hours and applies as a spot application aimed at the middle of the trees. Cover spraying controls all life stages through contact and penetrative action. Spraying is carried out when fruits are half or two thirds in size. Depending on the level of infestation the two methods can be used together.
Physical: Trapping is not recommended as a control option but is useful for detection. The three types of traps used are those used to trap the male medfly which consists of a parapheromone plus insecticide, a trap for the female medfly using a lure and a wet trap used for both the male and the female medfly which consists of a food source ( a sugar or protein) plus an insecticide. It is good to remember that other insects can also be caught in these traps.
Biological: A technique called the sterile insect technique (SIT) is used to contain and exclude populations of medfly. The goal of SIT is to release sterile males to mate with any introduced wild females, resulting in the production of infertile eggs. In California, the SIT program is changing from the release of both male and female sterile flies (bisexual strains) to the use of sterile flies from “male-only” strains (Jang et al. 2003).
Please follow this link for detailed information on the management of the Ceratitis capitata.
Études de cas sur la gestion
Sterile insect technique (SIT), chemical control and the use of quarantine barriers are three significant measures used in the ongoing control and eradication programes.
The Medfly Exclusion Program is a comprehensive ongoing project which inhibits medfly colonization by the release of millions of sterile males in high risk areas. The technique is called the sterile insect technique (SIT). The goal of SIT is to release sterile males to mate with any introduced wild females, resulting in the production of infertile eggs. It costs approximately $18.8 million annually. Border inspections and trapping options are used for detection of any infestation. In California, the SIT program is changing from the release of both male and female sterile flies (bisexual strains) to the use of sterile flies from “male-only” strains (Jang et al. 2003).
Ten serious infestations of Medfly were eradicated successfully in Florida using malathion-bait spray mixtures applied by ground and/or air (Clark et al. 1996 in Burns et al. 2001 ). In 1997, the detection of 749 Medflies in a five-county area in Florida led to the widespread aerial and ground application of the malathion-bait spray mixture over a heavily populated urban environment. Public complaints aginest the use of organophosphates has led to the ongoing studies on the development of alternative insecticides like the use of Phloxine B (a photoactive dye which is toxic to certain insect species) as an attractant, and a new species of actinomycetes, Saccharopolyspora spinosa which produces spinosyns A and D, (which have insecticidal properties and act as stomach and contact poisons) (Burns et al. 2001).
C. capitata was recorded in New
Zealand in 1996 and was successfully eradicated at a cost
of approximately NZ$6 million.
The Department of Agriculture, Governement of Western Australia in their advisory on managing C. capitata list out the various management options that can be used for control ((listed under management).
A study Meats et al. 2003, which examined data from 75 infestations of the medfly and 286 of the Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) that have occurred in quarantined and normally fly-free zones in Australia for a period of over 20 years, from 1974 to 2000 found that the radius of occurrence of both adult male flies and infested fruit was almost always less than 1 km. In the few cases where there was an isolated detection beyond 1 km of an epicentre it could be treated as and was most likely to be a separate introduction.
Ressources pour la gestion/Liens
1. Fisher, K. T., Hill, A. R., Sproul, A. N.
Eradication of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Carnarvon, West Australia
J. Aust. Entomol. Soc 1985 vol. 24, page 207
Résumé: Eradication study
2. Jang, Eric B., Holler, Tim, Cristofaro, Massimo, Lux, Slawomir, Raw, Andre S., Moses, Amy L., Carvalho, Lori A. 2003
Improved Attractants for Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): Responses of Sterile and Wild Flies to (-) Enantiomer of Ceralure B1. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1719-1723
4. Meats A.W; Clift A.D.; Robson M.K. 2003. Incipient founder populations of Mediterranean and Queensland fruitflies in Australia: the relation of trap catch to infestation radius and models for quarantine radius. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. Vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 397-406(10)
Résumé: Relationship between trap catch and infection radius.
7. Walker, K. 2006. Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 8/09/2006 1:46:44 PM.
Résumé: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia.
PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=652 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
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