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   Channa marulius (魚類)  English 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    移除或控制蛇頭於族群的可能性,隨棲地樣式而異。如果它在大湖泊或河流系統建立族群,相要消滅或控制,幾乎是不可能的,如果較小的水體,控制的可能性取決於植被量,水體可及性和控制方法的效率(Hoffman 2002)。
    預防措施:墨西哥灣周邊地區以及墨西哥本身的大部分地區,提供眼鱧(Channa marulius)族群合適的棲息地(Lief-Mattias 2007) 。
    美國魚類和野生生物服務部把包括眼鱧在內的,所有鳢科魚類,都列在2002年聯邦有害魚類管制名單中,這意味著他們的進口或在美國各州之間運輸,都是非法的(Hoffman 2002)。
    識別可能入侵的非本土海洋和淡水物種(魚類,無脊椎動物和兩棲動物)的決策支持工具,改編自Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) 雜草風險評估。請點擊以下鏈接訪問決策支持工具和方法
    英國淡水非本土物種風險評估,可用於評估入侵可能性,幫助資源管理者在決策過程中,擬定管理策略。
    化學方法:毒魚劑的作用機制是阻止魚類從水中得到氧氣。使用魚藤酮和類似毒素的化學控制方法,對空氣呼吸蛇頭魚,可能會是無效,並且除非是在封閉的環境,否則會傷害非目標生物。
    物理方法:電捕及網捕可以對現的族群,提供一個低水準的控制效果,但無法移除,因為只會選擇性地移除一定大小的魚。
    生物方法:蛇頭魚會被孔雀鱸和大口黑鱸獵捕(Fuller2009)。 English 


         管理資源 /鏈接

    1. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    11. Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montréal (Québec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
            摘要: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the “Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.” This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
    Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
    French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
    Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland