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   Carduus nutans (草本植物)  English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         管理信息

    预防措施:飞廉(Carduus nutans)得到控制后,应再种植原生树种,以确保它不会重新拓殖。保持一个健康的植群将有助于防止或至少减缓入侵。

    物理方法:族群不多时用手拔除是有效的,但植株应弃置于堆填区,以防止种子扩散。应当注意不要干扰土壤,使种子发芽的机会减少。刈割也可以使用,但应把握时间,必须在花开处理。

    化学方法:大量族群可用除草剂处理。纽西兰牧场常用 2甲4氯和2,4-D控制它,虽然一些地区已经出线抗除草剂的植型。叶面喷洒对麝香蓟种群是有效的。使用 2% 的草甘膦溶液(如混合溶液)或绿草萣(如Garlon)0.5%水溶液,非离子型表面活性剂润湿所有的叶和茎。Chlorpyralid(如Transline)有效的浓度为 0.5% ,是选择性的,专门针对紫菀,荞麦和豌豆科植物。使用低压和粗喷雾的方式,可减少除草剂漂移,减低对非目标物种的伤害。应在莲座期或开花之前处理。草甘膦是一种非选择性的系统性(即经由植物传输)除草剂会杀死只部分接触到喷雾的非目标植物。绿草萣是有选择性的,专门针对阔叶树种,如果存在有原生草种时,是一个较好的选择。

    生物方法:瘿蝇(Urophora solstitialis),孔象鼻虫(Rhinocyllus conicus)和冠象鼻虫(Trichosirocalus horridus)已被认为能有效地大量减少种子生产。一个数学模型预测,如果65% 或以上的种子被销毁,飞廉族群将会下降。生物控制结合良好的牧场管理已经使纽西兰的族群减少。在美国,象鼻虫(象鼻虫和花环象鼻虫会吃蓟)被从欧洲引进,已经发现有些有效的控制,然而,在美国西部对原生的蓟有意料之外的冲击,引起一些是否该继续使用的争论(土地保护,纽西兰)。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Australia
    Biological control of nodding thistle in Australia started in 1987. There have been three biological control agents released. The first, thistle-head weevil Rhinocyllus conicus, has now spread on its own to most nodding thistle infestations. Whilst its impact is great in the early part of the season it does not control seed production later in the season. The remaining two agents Urophora solstitialis a gall fly and Trichosirocalus horridus a crown weevil were actively distributed and are now quite widespread.
    Iowa
    Primary Noxious Weed
    Nelson
    C. nutans has been designated as a 'Boundary control pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. A regionally co-ordinated control programme has been put into place which empowers Councils to be able to require an occupier of infested land to destroy plants an appropriate distance clear from the boundary between the two properties. The objective of the strategy is to control the spread of C. nutans from adjacent properties to land clear of C. nutans, or being cleared of C. nutans. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    New Zealand
    Three biological control agents have been released in New Zealand a gall fly (Urophora solstitialis), which damages the seeds. A receptacle weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus) which damages the seeds. A crown weevil (Trichosirocalus horridus), which attacks the rosette plants. The crown weevil kills many rosettes and any that do survive an attack are stunted, producing fewer flowering stems and fewer seeds. A mathematical model has been developed, which predicts that nodding thistle populations will decline if 65% or more of the seeds are destroyed. With biological control levels of seed predation greater than this have already been observed in New Zealand. Combined with improved pasture management, this model explains why many people report that nodding thistle is now declining throughout the country.
    Ohio
    Prohibited Noxious Weed
    Taranaki Region (North Island)
    C. nutans is classified as a 'Containment pest plant' in the The Pest Management Strategy for Taranaki. 'Containment pest plants'are pest plants that are abundant in suitable habitats in a region or part of a region and for which the long-term goal is to prevent the spread of the plant to new areas or to neighbouring properties. Each pest plant has a management programme according to its designation. These programmes are summarised in the series of bulletins 'Pest Plant Facts'. Please see Thistles: C. nutans for pest plant facts and management programmes.
    Tasman District
    C. nutans has been designated as a 'Boundary control pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. A regionally co-ordinated control programme has been put into place which empowers Councils to be able to require an occupier of infested land to destroy plants an appropriate distance clear from the boundary between the two properties. The objective of the strategy is to control the spread of C. nutans from adjacent properties to land clear of C. nutans, or being cleared of C. nutans. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    United States (USA)
    In North America proper identification of C. nutans should be determined, before any control measures are taken because many native thistle species bear a strong resemblance to the musk thistle. Weevils (thistlehead-feeding weevil and rosette weevil) introduced from Europe have been used in the United States and found somewhat effective for control, however, the unanticipated effect it has on native populations of thistle in the western U.S. has caused some debate in its continued use.
    Washington
    Class B Noxious Weed, Noxious Plant Quarantine


         管理资源 /链接

    2. Environment Waikato. 2002. Nodding Thistle (Carduus nutans) and Plumeless Thistle (Carduus acanthoides)
    9. Shea and Kelly, 1998. Estimating Biocontrol Agent Imapct with Matrix Models: Carduus nutans in New Zealand. Ecological Applications, 8(3), 1998, pp. 824–832.
            摘要: The use of matrix models to assess the impact of biological control and other pest management strategies with a case study of Carduus nutans (nodding thistle) in New Zealand.
    10. Taranaki Regional Council. 2003. Thistles. The Pest Plant Management Section.
    11. Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland