Caesalpinia decapetala (arbre, arbuste)
Études de cas sur la gestion
Three fungi and five arthropods are reported to be associated with Caesalpinia. In China, the fungus Phyllactinia caesalpiniae Yu, also known as Phyllactinia corylea (Pers) Karst., infects C. decapetala. Five arthropod species are known to damage cat’s claw.
East Maui (Maui Is.)
With sharp thorns all the way to the ground, controlling C. decapetala in this steep gulch in Halehaku would be difficult. At this location, C. decapetala may not be a feasible target for eradication, but through delineation of the area and education, it may be possible to keep it from invading throughout the watershed.
Krueger (Kruger) National Park
General clearing activities are taking place in the KNP and upstream through the "Working for Water" programme. The most problematic species recorded in these areas include Lantana camara, Chromolaena odorata, Caesalpinia decapetala, Senna spp., Mimosa pigra, Ricinus communis, Nicotiana glauca, a wide array of annual species (e.g. Argemone, Datura and Xanthium), Cardiospermum halicacabum and also Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Melia azedarach, Sesbania punicea, Solanum mauritianum and Solanum seaforthianum.
Please report any infestations of Caesalpinia decapetala in and adjacent to the Kruger National Park to:
Alien Biota Section
Private Bag X402
Tel: (013) 735 4114
Fax: (013) 735 4051
New South Wales
The New South Wales North Coast Weed Advisory Committee proposes a Regional Weed Management Plan for C. decapetala which aims to control current infestations and prevent the future spread of the weed and has the following objectives:
The main opportunity existing with C. decapetala is its current isolated distribution in the north coast region. It is more efficient and easier to control these infestations at this early stage.
- To completely restrict human spread of C. decapetala by 2009;
- To eradicate all isolated and scattered infestations by June 2011; and
- To reduce all core infestations by 60% by 2013.
Legislative: C. decapetala is currently declared a Class 3 noxious weed for the whole of the area covered by the North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee. Where the weed is present on private or public lands, enforcement would be in accordance with provisions under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993.
Chemical: Metsulfuron methyl-based herbicides are currently registered for the control of C. decapetala in Australia. A permit has been approved for the use of glyphosate-based herbicides on the plant. These herbicides have shown some success controlling the plant. The main issue
regarding control of the plant is poor access. Most success has been found by controlling the edges of the plant and gradually working towards the middle over time.
Great care is required in controlling infestations in riparian zones, wetlands and other significant environments in order to minimise any adverse environmental impacts such as off-target damage to native plants and aquatic fauna species such as frogs from herbicides.
Biocontrol: No biological control agents are currently available in Australia for the control of C. decapetala. Due to the restricted current distribution of the plant it is more economical to eradicate the plants using a range of other methods rather than biocontrol.
Integrated Pest Management: The Catchment Action Plan (CAP) for the Northern Rivers Catchment Management Authority recommends that resources be directed to restoring significant habitats such as riparian zones. As C. decapetala could potentially have a severe impact on these areas, there may be opportunities for funding and improved coordination and involvement from a range of stakeholders. In some situations there are opportunities for environmental restoration projects using Green Corps, Work-for-the-dole and / or Conservation Volunteers Australia participants. Green Corps workers have already been involved in control programs on some C. decapetala infestations.
Some environmentally aware members of the community are aware of this plant. This is evidenced by the small number of infestations present, but the large number of people / groups acknowledging the potential impact of the species. The potential of this weed has been noted and DECC - NPWS, bush regenerators, Landcare groups and green corps participants have been undertaking some control for a number of years. There has been some success but community groups need more support and a more coordinated approach
Future educational extension programs highlighting the threat posed by the weed and its identification include the following:
- Field days;
- Identification brochures;
- Media releases;
- Training days for community groups etc. on control options, and;
- Control trials.
Raoul Is. (Kermadec Islands)
A concerted effort has been made to control Mysore thorn on Raoul Island, and it is now uncommon, although it is not possible to inspect disturbed cliff sites (Timmins and Braithwaite, 2002). This species is subject to an eradication programme on Raoul Island, and is ranked Category A(i) - known to have the potential to significantly alter the vegetation of Raoul Island. Eradication commenced in 1974. Raoul Island has been divided into 13 weeding blocks for the purpose of controlling and eradicating alien plants since 1972, which make up 64% of the vascular plant flora on Raoul Island. These are divided into active plots which are searched at least twice a year, and null plots which are searched at least once every two years. Grid searching is used to examine the areas with easier access, while steep cliffs are searched using binoculars or a telescope. This is carried out when plants such as C. decapetala are in flower (June-November). Aerial surveillance is carried out periodically which has been useful in identifying flowering trees such as Senna septemtrionalis, mature vines of Passiflora edulis or trees of Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata. The initial knockdown phase involved for most species the cutting of mature individuals and painting of stumps with herbicides, or scattering herbicide granules around them. Blanket spraying was used to treat dense, inaccessible infestations. Subsequent searches involve the removal of any seedlings or young plants found. If a mature plant is found, the fruit is removed for burning, the stem is cut and herbicide applied. Information regarding the eradication programme is stored on an Access database. Helicopter application of herbicide was used in the case of C. decapetala. Areas of C. decapetala vines were burned and cleared, to hasten the decline of seeds in the seedbank. This species once occupied 22 ha of Denham Bay, but since 2000 only 600-700 plants have been removed, the majority of which were seedlings. Between 1997 and 2000, 44,877 individual plants were removed. The importation of alien plants to Raoul Island is prohibited.
Manual: Seedlings can be uprooted. When larger plants are slashed care should be taken to remove the entire root system as Mysore thorn coppices easily.
Chemical: It is also recommended to apply a herbicide after cutting (Stalk Immersion: try Garlon 4 50ml/10l water; Foliar spray: use Garlon 4 50ml, Roundup, etc 300ml or Muster 150ml/10l water).
Integrated Pest Management: Mysore thorn is a declared noxious weed in South Africa. Indigenous species suggested as alternatives to this invasive are coast climbing thorn (Acacia kraussiana), spiny splinter bean (Adenopodia spicata) and grey nickernut creeper (Caesalpinia bonduc).
Biocontrol (Hill Klein & Williams 2002; Kalibbala 2009): Several surveys have been conducted in India and Malaysia for phytophagous insects. Two species have been evaluated for biological control, a leaf-mining gracillariid moth (Acrocercops hyphantica), which was rejected because it was not host specific, and the seed-eating weevil (Sulcobruchus subsuturalis) which was released in South Africa in 1999. The female weevil lays her eggs on the mature seeds that have already fallen from the pods, and the larvae develop inside the seeds. This biological control agent is extremely easy to mass rear, and well over 100 000 have been released by dispersing seeds containing larvae in infested areas. Most of the releases have been made in the Limpopo Province, and establishment has been confirmed. It was anticipated that the weevils would reduce the number of seeds available for the regeneration of C. decapetala after clearing operations (Hill Klein & Williams 2002).
Ressources pour la gestion/Liens
1. Alien Invader Plants, 2004
Résumé: Notes on Mysore thorn in South Africa, includes information on common names, management, dispersal and alternative species to use.
Available from: http://www.geocities.com/wessaaliens/species/mthorn.htm [Accessed 17 June 2003].
3. Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Résumé: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
7. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Résumé: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
9. National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Résumé: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
14. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database., Undated. Caesalpinia decapetala
Résumé: A database of Swaziland's alien plant species.
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