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   Channa argus (魚類)  English 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    預防措施:蛇頭烏鱧比其他蛇頭魚,具有較寬的緯度分佈範圍和溫度容忍範圍,這顯示它可能在美國和加拿大一些毗鄰水域的地方,建立族群(Courtenay and Williams , 2004)。Cudmore & Mandrak(2006)編輯的加拿大風險評估第一部分(水生生物生態和遺傳風險評估程序)揭示出,建立族群的機率很高”和“建立族群後風險很高”,最後評定的風險等級為”高“。同樣地在第二部分(病原菌,寄生蟲或伴同的風險評估程序)揭示出“建立族群的機率中等”和“建立族群後風險中等”,最後評定的風險等級為“中等”。
    2002年10月,美國魚類和野生動物局根據Lacy法案(NSWG 2006)禁止所有蛇頭魚進口到美國,也禁止州際運輸。在美國,垂釣者和漁民已被要求,必須殺死所有的蛇頭魚,不可以重新釋放他們,並需立即向當地的漁獵部門報告(Sea Grant 2007)。
    化學方法:在美國馬里蘭克羅夫頓池塘,使用除草劑(敵草快與草甘膦)來降低氧氣含量,然後再用魚藤酮來毒死魚(Hilton 2002) 。此次在1.8公頃的池塘之移除行動,估計共花費 110,000美元(Courtenay & Williams 2004)。河流,小溪,或較大的湖泊中的移除行動會更加複雜。
    物理方法:電捕及網捕可以對現的族群,提供一個低水準的控制效果,但無法移除,因為只會選擇性地移除一定大小的魚(NatMangPln)。
    識別可能入侵的非本土海洋和淡水物種(魚類,無脊椎動物和兩棲動物)的決策支持工具,改編自Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) 雜草風險評估。請點擊以下鏈接訪問決策支持工具和方法
    英國淡水非本土物種風險評估,可用於評估入侵可能性,幫助資源管理者在決策過程中,擬定管理策略。 English 


         管理資源 /鏈接

    1. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    4. Courtenay, W., pers. comm. May 2003.
            摘要: Additional information provided via email correspondece during review of species profile.
    8. Lazur, A., Early, S. & Jacobs, J.M. 2006. Acute toxicity of 5% rotenone to northern snakeheads. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 26(3). 628-630.
            摘要: Abstract: The confirmation of northern snakeheads Channa argus caught by an angler in a private pond in Maryland resulted in significant media attention and generated numerous resources for risk identification and the development of action plans to prevent the introduction of this normative species into state waters. Rotenone was selected as an eradication option, and a bioassay was conducted with captured northern snakehead juveniles to determine toxicity and application dose. The lowest rotenone concentration evaluated, 0.075 mg of active ingredient per liter of water, resulted in 100% mortality within 1 h. Pond treatment was highly successful; 8 adult and 834 juvenile snakeheads were recovered. Study results show that northern snakeheads are susceptible to normal doses of rotenone and that standard pond treatment techniques are effective in eradicating this invasive species./p
    10. Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montréal (Québec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
            摘要: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the “Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.” This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
    Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
    French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
    Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
    14. Rixon C.A.M., I.C. Duggan, N.M.N. Bergeron, A. Ricciardi & H.J. Macisaac. 2005. Invasion risks posed by the aquarium trade and live fish markets on the Laurentian Great Lakes. Biodiversity and Conservation Volume 14, Number 6

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland