预防措施：桉叶藤(Cryptostegia grandiflora)的风险评估，由澳大利亚太平洋岛屿生态系统风险评估计划执行(PIER)，使用澳大利亚风险评估标准(Pheloung, 1995)。其结果是16分，建议如下：应禁止进口此植物(澳大利亚)或此植物可能是有害的(太平洋)。
Because of its weed potential and the increase in tourist traffic across the north of the country, rubber vine has been gazetted a declared plant (noxious weed) in Western Australia. It may not be imported into, or grown in the state and any plants present must be destroyed by the owner or occupier of land on which they are growing.
Biological control: Two agents are successfully established, and their impact depends on abundance. Both agents cause abnormal defoliation, creating an ‘energy sink’, which appears to reduce seed production. These agents do not kill established rubber vine plants.
Diseases: Rubber vine rust Maravalia cryptostegiae is established over a wide area. Yellow spores are formed under the leaves and are spread mainly by the wind. It is most active over summer, abundance being directly related to leaf wetness which is dependant on rainfall and dew. Over summer a generation is completed every seven days. Rust activity is
reduced over the dry season. Continued heavy infection causes defoliation, appears to reduce seed production, can kill small seedlings and causes dieback of the whip-like
stems. Established plants are not killed.
Insects: Also established is the moth Euclasta whalleyi, whose larvae are leaf feeders. Observation indicates the moth prefers stressed plants, either from limited soil moisture or high levels of rust infection. The moth’s period of activity is the dry season.
Defoliation reduces the smothering effect on other vegetation and causes an increase in leaf litter and promotes increased grass growth amongst rubber vine, increasing fuel loads required for fire management. Decreased flower and pod production should reduce the ability of rubber vine to spread. Biological control is also important because it impacts on other control methods.
Chemical control: The following are methods of chemical control; Foliar spraying with ground equipment, Basal bark spraying; Cut stump method; Root application and aerial application.
Fire: Rubber vine infestations can be controlled by burning. It is recommended that two successive annual burns be employed.
Santa Cruz Is. (Ecuador)
Control of Cryptostegia grandiflora was carried out in 2006 using picloram and metsulfuron-methyl at 5%. The sites were revisited in 2007 when resprouting was controlled. It is estimated that this species could be eradicated in two years at a cost of 414 USD (Rachel Atkinson., pers.comm., July 2008).
Rentería et al. (2007) documents costed eradication plans for 21 invasive species including Cryptostegia grandiflora in Galapagos. The plans were developed as part of a GEF funded project ECU/00/G31 'Control of Invasive species in the Galapagos Archipelago'.
The management plans report projects at different stages of development and for species that have invaded to different extents. Three of the projects have already been finished successfully, 5 have yet to be started, and for the rest the projects have been running for between 1 and 6 years. The cost and time needed for eradication varies considerably by species and demonstrates the importance of species eradication as soon as possible after detection.
Please follow this link Rentería et al. 2006 to an illustrated guide providing practical information for the effective control of the worst invasive plant species in Galapagos. Designed for farmers and other land managers, it describes manual and chemical control methods. Cryptostegia grandiflora is among 23 introduced species with descriptions and control options listed.
2. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 2001. Rubbervine. © Copyright 1999 - 2000, CSIRO Australia.
5. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
摘要： This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
6. Kriticos, D.J.; R.W. Sutherst; J.R. Brown; S.W. Adkins and G.F. Maywald, 2003. Climate change and biotic invasions: a case history of a tropical woody vine. Biological Invasions 5: 145–165, 2003.
9. Rentería, Jorge Luis; Rachel Atkinson & Chris Buddenhagen., 2007. Estrategias para la erradicación de 21 especies de plantas. Fundación Charles Darwin, Departamento de Botánica. Programa de Especies Invasoras en Galápagos
potencialmente invasoras en Galápagos.
摘要： This document comprises costed eradication plans for 21 invasive species in Galapagos. The plans were developed as part of a GEF funded project
ECU/00/G31 ¨Control of Invasive species in the Galapagos Archipelago¨. The management plans report projects at different stages of development and for species that have invaded to different extents. Three of the projects have already been finished successfully, 5 have yet to be started, and for the rest the projects have been running for between 1 and 6 years. The cost and time needed for eradication varies considerably by species and demonstrates the importance of species eradication as soon as possible after detection
El presente documento proporciona planes de manejo y el costo para la erradicación de 21 especies que se encuentran presentes en Galápagos. Los planes fueron desarrollados como parte del proyecto ECU/00/G31 "Control de las especies invasoras en el Archipiélago de las Galápagos", suscrito por el Gobierno Ecuatoriano, representado por el Ministerio del Ambiente, con el Fondo para el Medio Ambiente Mundial (GEF). El Proyecto es implementado por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (UNDP), tiene como instituciones ejecutoras al Servicio Parque Nacional Galápagos (SPNG), Instituto Nacional Galápagos (INGALA), Servicio Ecuatoriano de Sanidad Agropecuaria-Galápagos (SESA-Galápagos), y Fundación Charles Darwin (FCD). Los planes de manejo representan proyectos en diferentes estados de desarrollo y dimensión. Tres de estos proyectos ya han sido desarrollados completamente, trece están en proceso y cinco aún no se han iniciado. El costo y tiempo para la erradicación varia considerablemente según la especie y se muestra la importancia económica que implica desarrollar proyectos de erradicación tan pronto las especies son detectadas.