Ligustrum sinense (乔木, 灌木)
In Alabama, annual burning was effective in controlling L. sinense. Furthermore, cutting is also effective if done when conditions are dry (Carlen Emanuel, in Batcher, 2000).
In Arkansas, burning only top-kills L. sinense, but will eventually eliminate the plants over time if burns are repeated. Burning is not effective however, in moist bottomland areas (Scott Simon, in Batcher, 2000).
In Florida, annual burning was effective in controlling L. sinense. Furthermore, cutting is also effective if done when conditions are dry (Greg Seamon, in Batcher, 2000).
Ligustrum sinese is ranked among the top 10 exotic pest plants of Georgia (Harrington & Miller, 2005).
Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve (Sydney)
A habitat restoration project was undertaken with the primary aim of providing a self-perpetuating indigenous roosting habitat for the colony. A secondary aim was to retain the diversity of native fauna and flora within the Reserve and keep the regenerated vegetation compatible with native bushland in northern Sydney. The project was undertaken in three phases extending from 1987 to 2000. An evaluation of results after this period shows that native plants were regenerating and level of weed maintainence required was on the decrease.
Weed control treatments included manual removal, precision herbicide spraying ‘cut and paint’ and stem injection herbicide treatments for larger woody weeds and climbers. Supplemental planting of endemic species was also undertaken. Privets were injected with herbicide upto a year earlier than herbaceous weed treatment to prevent recruitment of a new crop of privet seedlings establishing themselves while the old batch rotted amongst the herbaceous weed.
L. sinense is one of the worst weeds on Louisiana preserves, and the application of Garlon 4 (triclopyr) has produced excellent control results, but RoundUp (glyphosate) did not provide good results (Richard Martin, in Batcher, 2000) .
In Mississippi, a combination of pulling and burning provided good control of L. sinense (George Ramseur Jr., in Batcher, 2000).
Motutapu Is. (North Island)
Chinese privet is controlled on Motutapu Island.
In North Carolina, RoundUp was useful in controlling large infested areas of L. sinense. Additionally, cutting was very effective if coupled with the use of Arsenal (imazapyr) on cut stumps (Robert Merriam, in Batcher, 2000) .
Rangitoto Is. (North Island)
In 1995, a weed control programme was initiated on Rangitoto Island, with 72 weed species identified. These were split into three priority classes, each with a management objective. The long term aim for this species is control to zero density (no adult plants).
Ligustrum sinese is considered a "Rank 1, Severe Threat" species by the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council in 2001 (Drake et al, 2003).
3. Brown, Christopher E.; Pezeshki, S. Reza, 2000. A study on waterlogging as a potential tool to control Ligustrum sinense populations in western Tennessee. Wetlands. 20(3). September, 2000. 429-437.
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摘要： A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
8. Ding, Jianqing; Reardon, Richard; Wu, Yun; Zheng, Hao; Fu, Weidong, 2006. Biological control of invasive plants through collaboration between China and the United States of America: a perspective. Biological Invasions. 8(7). OCT 2006. 1439-1450
10. Environment Waikato. 2002. Privet (Ligustrum spp.)
13. Harrington, Timothy B.; Miller, James H., 2005. Effects of application rate, timing, and formulation of glyphosate and triclopyr on control of Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense). Weed Technology. 19(1). JAN-MAR 2005. 47-54.
14. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
摘要： The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
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摘要： This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
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22. Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve, Habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1(1):10 April 2000.
摘要： Discusses impacts species has had on a Reserve in Australia. Examines chemical and physical control methods and how control has been reached.
25. Swarbrick, J.T., S.M. Timmins, and K.M. Bullen. 1999. The biology of Australian weeds. 36. Ligustrum lucidum Aiton and Ligustrum sinense Lour. Plant Protection Quarterly 14:
26. Thetford, Mack; Berry, James B., 2000. Response of five woody landscape plants to Primo and pruning. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 18(3). September, 2000. 132-136.
28. Ulyshen, Michael D.; Scott Horn and James L. Hanula, 2009. Response of beetles (Coleoptera) at three heights to the experimental removal of an invasive shrub, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), from floodplain forests. Biological Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-009-9569-2
30. Vidra, Rebecca L.; Shear, Theodore H.; Stucky, Jon M., 2007. Effects of vegetation removal on native understory recovery in an exotic-rich urban forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 134(3). JUL-SEP 2007. 410-419.
32. Williams, Peter A.; Karl, Brian J.; Bannister, Peter; Lee, William G., 2000. Small mammals as potential seed dispersers in New Zealand. Austral Ecology. 25(5). October, 2000. 523-532.
34. Wirth, Ferdinand F.; Davis, Kathy J.; Wilson, Sandra B., 2004. Florida nursery sales and economic impacts of 14 potentially invasive landscape plant species. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 22(1). March 2004. 12-16
36. Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Hanula, James L.; Sun, Jiang-Hua, 2008. Survey for potential insect biological control agents of Ligustrum sinense (Scrophulariales : Oleaceae) in China. Florida Entomologist. 91(3). SEP 2008. 372-382.
37. Zhang, Yanzhuo; Sun, Jianghua; Hanula, James L., 2009. Biology and Life History of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China, a Promising Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 102(3). MAY 2009. 508-516