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   Felis catus (mammal)  français     
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         Management Information

    Cats were first domesticated in Egypt around 2000 BC (Serpell 1988, in Coleman et al. 1997, in Brickner 2003) and brought to Britain by 300AD by the Romans. European colonists introduced them around the globe (Coleman et al. 1997, in Brickner 2003). As cats are often revered as pets in our society this raises the moral dilemma of how to handle them when they have become a threat to native wildlife. Brickner (2003) suggests that animal rights organisations that condemn cat control via killing are over-looking the approximately 275 million animals killed by 9 million cats in Britain alone (Woods et al. in press). Obviously there are two quite different situations for management of the species, depending on the status of the cat: one is where a cat is a domesticated household pet and the other is when a cat has gone wild or feral and has no owner to protect and feed it.

    When a cat is a pet, there are a number of ways in which to help prevent damage caused to wildlife. Brickner (2003) suggests keeping a cat in at night, fitting it with a bell, neutering the animal when it is young and giving it toys. However, the divided results of several investigations shows that the positive outcome of such actions is uncertain. Barrette (1998) found that fitting cats with bells has no significant effect on the amount of prey caught, whereas Ruxton et al. (2002) found that equipping cats with bells reduced prey delivery rates by about 50% (in Brickner 2003). Woods, McDonald and Harris (2003) found that the number of birds and herpetofauna brought home by cats was significantly lower in households that feed birds (but the number of actual different types of bird species killed was greater in households that feed birds). The number of mammals brought home per cat was lower when cats were equipped with bells or kept indoors at night, however, the number of herpetofauna brought home was greater when cats were kept in at night. The outcome of this is that there appears to be a subjective choice to be made as to whether it is more important to protect herpetofauna or mammals. Obviously, if the mammals being caught are introduced species, such as rats and mice, this raises another dilemma.

    In the second situation, when a cat is feral and threatening wildlife, a more severe means of controlling cats appears justified. In 1992 the Australian Parliament passed the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992, which obligates the commonwealth to provide a Threat Abatement Plan (TAP) for each listed threatening process, including one for feral cats (Brickner 2003). The key objectives of the feral cat TAP are: eradicate feral cats from islands where they threaten vulnerable native animals; prevent feral cats from occupying new islands where they may be a threat to native communities; promote the recovery of species threatened by feral cats; improve the effectiveness and humaneness of cat control methods and improve the understanding of the impacts of feral cats on native animals. The use of visual lures (such as feathers and cotton wool) and attractants (such as tuna oil) are currently being tested in an effort to attract greater numbers of feral cats to traps and baits. The impact of feral cats on native wildlife is being studied in various parts of Australia in order to have it quantified (Brickner 2003).

    Predation by feral cats was listed as a Key Threatening Process under the Federal Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. A Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats was produced in 1999 and amended in 2008 to promote the recovery of vulnerable and endangered native species and threatened ecological communities (Environment Australia 1999 and DEWHA 2008). A recently published review (Denny and Dickman (2010) assesses the efficacy of the methods used to estimate relative abundance of cats; describes currently used cat control methodologies; and discusses possible future directions for the control of cats in Australia. It also includes details of the current legislative framework that exists for cat control in Australia; describes the ecology of feral and stray cats exploiting various habitats. Please follow this link to view Denny E. A & C. R. Dickman 2010. Review of cat ecology and management strategies in Australia français     



         Location Specific Management Information
    Alegranza Is.
    In 2002 two feral cats were eradicated from Alegranza Island from a 1 020 hectare area. The estimated population size was 2 (A. Martin Pers. Comm., J.L. Rodriguez-Luengo Pers. Comm., in Genovesi 2005).
    Anguilla
    The Anguillian Racer Conservation Project report (1998) recommends initiating a cat control programme in association with a public education program about the problems caused by feral cats. The 1997 Report on Conservation of Lesser Antillean Iguanas recommends that residents should be encouraged to have pet cats neutered and that a trapping program should be set up to remove feral cats in areas where iguanas occur.
    Anguilla
    The Anguillian Racer Conservation Project report (1998) recommends initiating a cat control programme in association with public education about the problems of feral cats (Dobson, 2002 in Varnham, 2006). Please see 'Endangered (EN)' Anguillian racer snake (Alsophis rijersmai in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species).
    The 1997 Report on Conservation of Lesser Antillean iguanas recommends that residents should be encouraged to have pet cats spayed or neutered and that a trapping program is set up to remove feral cats from areas where iguanas occur (Cronk, 1986 in Varnham, 2006). Please see 'Vulnerable (VU)' lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species).
    Arzanah Is.
    Cats and rats, as on Zirku Island, are now subject to a control programme.
    Ascension Is.
    An eradication project began in 2001, funded by FCO, managed by RSPB and carried out by WMIL. The project was still ongoing as of November 2003.
    Ascension Is.
    An eradication project began in 2001, funded by FCO, managed by RSPB and carried out by WMIL (George and White, 2003 in Varnham, 2006). Project is still ongoing (as of Nov 2003).
    Asuncion Is. (Northern Mariana Islands)
    Feral cats were eradicated using a combination of hunting, dogs and trapping. Hunting at night with .22 and .222 calibre rifles was found to be most effective. Hunting during the day was most effective using trained dogs, particularly Jack Russell Terriers. Victor #1½ padded leg-hold traps were used, and were particularly effective in removing the last few cats. Cubby sets (where the trap blocks the single entrance to a cave or hole with bait/scent behind the trap) and walk-through sets (where the trap is along a trail with bait/scent placed above or to the side of the trap) were used. The location of tracks and scats were used to guide placement of the traps.
    Australia
    Predation by feral cats was listed as a Key Threatening Process under the Federal Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. A Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats was produced in 1999 and amended in 2008 to promote the recovery of vulnerable and endangered native species and threatened ecological communities (Environment Australia 1999 and DEWHA 2008). A recently published review (Denny and Dickman (2010) assesses the efficacy of the methods used to estimate relative abundance of cats; describes currently used cat control methodologies; and discusses possible future directions for the control of cats in Australia. It also includes details of the current legislative framework that exists for cat control in Australia; describes the ecology of feral and stray cats exploiting various habitats. Please follow this link to view Denny E. A & C. R. Dickman 2010. Review of cat ecology and management strategies in Australia
    Baker Island
    Feral cats were eradicated from Jarvis Island in 1990, from Baker Island in the 1960s, and Howland Island in 1986. Since the eradication of feral cats and rats, many previously extirpated seabird species have returned to the islands.
    Baltra Is.
    The Galapagos National Park (GNP) with technical support from the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) has begun a three year project whose principal aim is to eradicate cats from this island and restore its natural habitat for the reapriation of the threatened land iguanas. The methodology used was a combination of traps, (Tomahawk and Victor types), poison and hunting at night using spotlights and rifles. To ensure total eradication sodium monoflouroacetate (1080) in fish baits were placed over the entire island during year one 2001. By the end of 2003 there were no signs of cats on the island. Monitoring has continued into 2004 to confirm the eradication and the establishment of the repatriated Galapagos land iguanas. The reasons for for adopting eradication as a control option were the ease of monitoring due to the size of the island < 26 sq kms, spare vegetation and large open spaces, and the small human population and hence a minimal re-introduction of cats.
    Bermuda
    There are ongoing capture-neuter-release programmes in many areas, though the ecological effects of this are unrecorded and questionable. Legislation is planned to licence cat ownership (Varnham 2006).
    Bermuda
    There is an ongoing capture-neuter-release of Felis catus program in many areas, though the ecological effects of this are unrecorded and questionable (De Silva, 2003 in Varnham, 2006;102). Legislation is planned to licence cat ownership (De Silva, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT)
    An ongoing cat eradication program in place on Diego Garcia, carried out by staff on US Military base: method used is trapping only. The recommendation is to continue the eradication program until Total eradication is achieved thereby preventing risk of cats reaching other islands (BIOT Administration, 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Catalina Is.
    An attempt to eradicate cats has been made using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. Hunting is carried out both during the day and at night, and the traps used are Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps. Eradication is not yet complete.
    Coronado Norte Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Coronados Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Curieuse Is.
    An attempt at cat eradication was made in 2000, in conjunction with a rodent eradication attempt. Three cats were found to have been killed by the aerial drop of brodifacoum intended to knock down the rodent population. A cat eradication programme was initiated one week after this, using bait stations stocked with a 1080 bait. One week following this, cat trapping began. A regime of two weeks on, two weeks off continued through 2001 until eradication was achieved. The last cat was trapped in February 2001.
    Cuvier Is.
    Felis catus was eradicated from Cuvier Island (from an area of 170 hectares) between 1960 and 1964 via trapping and shooting (Merton 1970, in Clout & Russell, 2006). Increases in population size and diversity of birds have been reported on Mangere and Cuvier Islands, New Zealand, following removal of cats (Veitch 1985, in Dickman 1996), but details are not available.
    Denis Is.
    An attempt at cat eradication was made in 2000, in conjunction with a rodent eradication attempt. At least one cat was found to have been killed by the aerial drop of brodifacoum intended to knock down the rodent population. A cat eradication programme was initiated one week after this, using bait stations stocked with a 1080 bait. One week following this, cat trapping began. A regime of two weeks on, two weeks off continued through 2001 until eradication was achieved. The last two cats were destroyed between July and September 2001.
    Diego Garcia (Chagos Archipelago)
    An ongoing cat eradication program is in place on Diego Garcia, carried out by staff on the US Military base. The programme uses trapping only. The total eradication of cats on Diego Garcia, will eliminate the risk of the cats colonising nearby islands.
    Dirk Hartog Is. (Western Australian Islands)
    An eradication attempt is to take place.
    Estanque Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Eugene
    A salmonella outbreak occurred amongst feral cats in an area of west Eugene, Oregon, in 2004, with almost two dozen feral cats having to be euthanised by authorities.
    Falkland Islands (Malvinas) (sub-Antarctic)
    There has been some local action to reduce or eliminate cats. The possibility of selective eradication at some localities needs to be considered. It is recommended to reduce cat population in or near sensitive sites.
    Faure Is. (Western Australian Islands)
    An eradication attempt is to take place.
    Flat Is. (Mauritius)
    An eradication programme was carried out in 1998, with the aim of removing ship rats, house mice and feral cats. Feral cats were not initially targeted as it was expected a number would succumb to secondary poisoning. Towards the end of the programme, leg-hold traps were used and placed where cats had been sighted or signs were present. It is likely that the cat population was only small, although there were signs they had been roaming throughout the island.
    Fregate Is.
    Feral cats were eradicated in the 1980s by C.R. Veitch and V. Laboutdallon, with local assistance.
    Grand Cayman
    Felis catus have been trapped in the QE II Botanic Park on Grand Cayman, where a restored population of 'Critically Endangered (CR)' endemic Cayman island ground iguana (see Cyclura lewisi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) is established (Burton, 2003 in Varnham, 2006). Exclusion fencing have been built around areas supporting re-established populations of C. lewisi (Burton, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    Haleakala National Park
    The National Park Service began an extensive trapping programme in 1981 to protect the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel colony in Haleakala National Park, Maui.
    Herekopare Is.
    Felis catus was eradicated from Herekopare (Stewart) Island in 1970 via trapping and dogs (Fitzgerald & Veitch 1985, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Hermite Is. (Montebello Islands)
    In 1999 the ' Montebello Renewal' project set out to eradicate feral cats from Hermite Island, using aerial baiting to remove the majority of cats, with intensive trapping to remove any remaining. The bait contained the toxin 1080, whilst the trapping technique used Victor 'softcatch' traps set in association with either a sound imitating a cat call or a blended mixture of faeces and urine as an attractant. Variations of the standard trap were used towards the end to help offset trap-shyness. The campaign was conducted during mid to late winter, when the availability of prey items was likely to be at a low. Feral cats were confirmed to be eradicated by August 2000. Further feral cat eradication programmes are planned for Faure Island, Garden Island, and Dirk Hartog Island off the Western Australian coast, and for Cocos (Keeling) Island in the Indian Ocean.
    Howland Island
    Feral cats were eradicated from Jarvis Island in 1990, from Baker Island in the 1960s, and Howland Island in 1986. Since the eradication of feral cats and rats, many previously extirpated seabird species have returned to the islands.
    Isabela Is. (Mexico)
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Israel
    In the past some municipalities killed stray cats within their jurisdiction, however, animal rights’ activists and organizations acted upon the animal welfare law, 1977 (section 491and 651) in order to protect cats. Today only the municipality veterinarian is permitted to trap and handle stray cats. The health ministry published a general procedure according to which, the municipalities are permitted to trap and destroy cats only on the basis of a citizen’s complaint regarding specific, troublesome cats. In such a case it is up to the municipality veterinarian to solve the problem accordingly to the General Procedure for the Handling of Street Cats published by the department for Veterinary Services in the Field, that specifies the procedure and methods for the capture, custody and elimination of stray cats.
    The policy of the NRNPA (Nature Reserves and National Parks Authority) is that feral cats in wild habitats are considered a pest to the natural environment and to native wildlife. NRNPA regulations allow supervisors to shoot those cats. The usage of poisons is prohibited.
    Municipality’s by-laws encourage the neutering of domestic pet cats and some animal rights encourage and help finance programs of stray cats neutering. However, Dr. Tommy Sade, the chief veterinarian of Jerusalem municipality, says that “the neutering of some 2000 out of tens of thousands of cats that roam the streets of Jerusalem or Tel Aviv does not affect the total number of cats. As Prof. Mendelssohn said, the neutering of cats is negligible in proportion to the cats’ success in reproduction. Hence, successful control of cats’ numbers depends on appropriate handling of refuse in their environment” (from a letter to Ehud Ulmert, Mayor of Jerusalem, 18/8/1998). According to Dr. Tommy Sade, in countries in which human refuse is handled and discarded off properly, the number of stray cats is significantly lower than in Israel (Brickner 2003).
    Jarvis Island
    Feral cats were eradicated from Jarvis Island in 1990, from Baker Island in the 1960s, and Howland Island in 1986. Since the eradication of feral cats and rats, many previously extirpated seabird species have returned to the islands.
    Kapiti Is.
    Felis catus was eradicated from Kapiti Island between 1923 and 1934 via shooting (Fuller 2004, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Kourarau
    The reduction of feral cats (Felis catus) in Kourarau, New Zealand, resulted in a population increase in feral rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (Gibb et al. 1978, in Dickman 1996). Ferrets (Mustela furo) were also excluded in this study at Kourarau.
    Little Barrier (Hauturu) Is. (North Island)
    Sporadic cat control was carried out on Little Barrier from 1897 to 1977. A determined eradication attempt commenced in July 1977 was completed on 23 June 1980. Cage traps, leg-hold traps, dogs and 1080 poison were used, but leg-hold traps and 1080 poison were the only effective methods. Altogether, 151 cats were known to have been killed before the eradication was declared complete. Important lessons learnt can be transferred to other feral cat eradication programmes. The responses of the bird populations are described: passerines were monitored on Little Barrier Island over 15 years (1975-89) spanning the period (1976-80) when feral cats were eradicated from the island. All birds seen and heard were recorded while walking three transects representing an altitudinal range from near sea level to approximately 550 m above sea level. Analysis of variance statistics were used to test for differences in bird numbers between transects and between years. Bird species were examined by transect to test for changes in numbers over time. Three species had increased on some transects, and two species had decreased on some transects, but it was difficult to attribute changes in bird numbers to the one cause which we were able to study: reduced cat numbers. Examination of numbers of individuals of 14 species recorded between transects showed significant differences for some individual species, but not for all species grouped together. Four species did not show any significant differences between transects. This study demonstrates different patterns in bird distributions on Little Barrier Island which cannot be understood from these data (Girardet et al. 2001).
    Conservation outcome: Following the removal (eradication) of cats from the island the stitchbird (see Notiomystis cincta in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) population increased over six fold from less than 500 individuals to 3000 in just a few years (Griffin et al. 1988, in Dickman 1996).
    Lobos Is.
    In 2001 four feral cats were removed from Lobos Island from a 430 hectare area. (A. Martin Pers. Comm., J.L. Rodriguez-Luengo Pers. Comm, in Genovesi 2005).
    Long Cay
    Cats were eradicated from Long Cay in July 1999 to prepare the island for reintroduction of iguanas. 1080 was the poison used, placed in bait stations across the island. It was thought that there were less than ten cats on the cay, and the single poisoning operation appeared to achieve eradication. In January 2000, a single cat was deliberately released on Long Cay from one of the larger islands. This cat was promptly removed by trapping. Iguanas have since been successfully introduced. The community of the South Caicos needs to be involved in order to maintain the cat-free status of Long Cay.
    Long Cay
    1995 report recommends preventing the introduction of feral animals to more islands, removing them from uninhabited islands, controlling feral animals and restricting the movement of livestock on inhabited islands, and educating the public on the destruction caused by non-natives (Gerber, 1995 in Varnham, 2006). Eradication projects have been planned, dependent on finding suitable islands (Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    A successful cat eradication project carried out on 111ha Long Cay in 1999, using 1080 poison. Public information announcements about the problems cats cause have been aired (Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Lord Howe Is.
    Feral cats were eradicated from Lord Howe Island by the 1980s.
    Macquarie Is. (sub-Antarctic)
    Felis catus was eradicated from Macquarie Island between 1997 and 2003 via poisoning, trapping and dogs (Copson & Whinam 2001, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Mangere Is. (Chatham Islands)
    Increases in population size and diversity of birds have been reported on Mangere and Cuvier Islands, New Zealand, following removal of cats (Veitch 1985, in Dickman 1996), but details are not available.
    Marion Is. (sub-Antarctic)
    Marion Island (290 km²) is the largest island from which cats have been eradicated. Four methods were used to kill cats on Marion Island over a ten year period (Woods et al. 2002): the viral disease feline panleucopaenia, shooting, cage-traps and gin traps (Bloomer and Bester 1992). The eradication of cats from Marion Island may have released mouse populations. Mice eat large numbers of an endemic moth (Pringleophaga marioni) which is important to nutrient cycling. Therefore the eradication of cats may have resulted in an increase in mouse numbers, reduced moth abundance and changed nutrient availability (Zavaleta 2002).

    Breeding success of three species of petrels on Marion Island, South Africa, increased similarly by 17 to 49 percentage points in just two years in cat-free enclosures compared with control sites (van Rensburg 1986, van Rensburg and Bester 1988, in Dickman 1996). The removal of feral cats (F. catus) from Marion Island, South Africa, resulted in increased breeding success of the great-winged petrel (see Pterodroma macroptera in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) , the white-chinned petrel (see Procellaria aequinoctialis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and Salvin's prion (see Pachyptila vittata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (van Rensburg and Bester 1988, in Dickman 1996). Removal of cats was from a small area via the use of cat-proof enclosures.

    Matakohe (Limestone) is.
    Felis catus was eradicated from Limestone (Matakohe) in 1991 via poisoning (Clapperton et al. 1992, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Mauritius
    Feral cats are controlled on Mauritius in areas where threatened endemic birds nest.
    Mayor (Tuhua) Is.
    Felis catus was eradicated from Mayor (Tuhua) between 2000 and 2002 via poisoning (Williams et al. 2000, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Mejia Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Mexico
    Feral cats were eradicated using a combination of hunting, dogs and trapping. Hunting at night with .22 and .222 calibre rifles was found to be most effective. Hunting during the day was most effective using trained dogs, particularly Jack Russell Terriers. Victor #1½ padded leg-hold traps were used, and were particularly effective in removing the last few cats. Cubby sets (where the trap blocks the single entrance to a cave or hole with bait/scent behind the trap) and walk-through sets (where the trap is along a trail with bait/scent placed above or to the side of the trap) were used. The location of tracks and scats were used to guide placement of the traps.
    Monserrate Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Mont Panié
    A three year feasibility project initiated in 2003 by pest control specialists from the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG, IUCN) has focussed on the 5000 hectare Mont Panié Botanical Reserve and has investigated the control of pest mammals in north-eastern New Caledonia. In 2004 the project control techniques focusing on feral pigs and rats were investigated. During September and October 2005 an intensive rat trapping and field trial programme was conducted at a 100 hectare site at Thoven and local people were trained in rat trapping and monitoring. Both the Black rat (Rattus rattus) and the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) were controlled at target levels. Results from the investigations and trials suggest there is potential to effectively control a range of pest mammals on Mont Panié.
    Motuihe Is. (North Island)
    Felis catus was eradicated from Motuihe Island between 2002 and 2004 via trapping and shooting (P. Keeling Pers. Comm., in Clout & Russell, 2006). An incomplete attempt to remove cats from the island was initiated in 1997, via poisoning (Veitch 2000b, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Natividad Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Nelson
    Feral cats (Felis catus) are designated as 'Regional surveillance pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The objective of the strategy is to promote the control of feral cats and improve the public understanding of their impact.
    North West Is.
    The removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on North West Island, Qeensland, resulted in a population increases in the Banded rail (Rallus philippensis) and the silvereye (see Zosterops lateralis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Domm and Messersmith 1990, in Dickman 1996). Removal of cats was from a small area via the use of cat-proof enclosures (Dickman 1996).
    Otago Region (South Island)
    Grassland around the coastal Otago breeding sites of the yellow-eyed penguin (see Megadyptes antipodes in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (hoiho) has been turned into 'vegetation buffers' (from grazing land) intended to reduce the presence of introduced mammalian predators. However, the results of this radio-tracking study show that the 'vegetation buffers' had the opposite effect, attracting cats (Felis catus, stoats Mustela erminea and ferrets Mustela furo). This research highlights the need for rigorous testing of habitat modification before implementing such strategies.
    Partida South Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Phoenix Is.
    A PII (Pacific Invasives Initiative) supported project was organised to determine the status and distribution of invasive alien species on selected islands in the Phoenix Island Group. Methods used to assess invasive species numbers included rodent and cat trapping, observation of potential invasives, (eg. mynas) and collection of exotic ants and plants. As a result of this survey priorities have been identified for eradication of the invasive mammals.
    Pine Cay (Caicos Is.)
    1995 report recommends preventing the introduction of feral animals to more islands, removing them from uninhabited islands, controlling feral animals and restricting the movement of livestock on inhabited islands, and educating the public on the destruction caused by non-natives (Gerber, 1995 in Varnham, 2006). Eradication projects have been planned, dependent on finding suitable islands (Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Quail Is.
    Felis catus was eradicated from Quail Island in 1998 via trapping and shooting (D. Brown Pers. Comm., in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Raoul Is. (Kermadec Islands)
    Felis catus was eradicated from Raoul Island (Kermadecs) between 2002 and 2004 via poisoning, trapping and dogs (M. Ambrose Pers. Comm., in Clout & Russell, 2006). An incomplete attempt to remove cats from the island was initiated in 1972, via trapping (Fitzgerald et al. 1991, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Saint Helena
    Some trapping around settlements has been carried out by the Public Health Department since 1989. It is believed they have declined in numbers since trapping began.
    Saint Helena
    Some trapping of animals has been carried out by Public Health Department (since 1989), but almost all around settlements (McCulloch and Norris, undated in Varnham, 2006).
    San Francisco Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    San Geronimo Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    San Martin Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    San Roque Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Santa Barbara (California)
    An eradication programme reduced the cat population in the 1950s and the last cat was removed from Santa Barbara Island in 1978.
    Socorro (Islas Revillagigedo)
    In 1994, the Revillagigedo Islands were declared a biosphere reserve. There are plans to eradicate introduced mammals and conduct surveys on Clarión and Socorro.
    Stephens (Takapourewa) Is.
    Felis catus was eradicated from Raoul Island (Kermadecs) between 2002 and 2004 via poisoning, trapping and dogs (M. Ambrose Pers. Comm., in Clout & Russell, 2006). An incomplete attempt to remove cats from the island was initiated in 1972, via trapping (Fitzgerald et al. 1991, in Clout & Russell, 2006).
    Stewart Is.
    A cat control programme began in 1992, initiated to halt the decline of the southern subspecies of New Zealand dotterel (see Charadrius obscurus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ), which was attributed primarily to predation by F. catus. A perimeter of bait stations was set up around the bushline, and poison baits were set during spring and summer, when the dotterels were nesting. Dotterel numbers had expanded from 65 to 170 individuals by 2000. Further research into the habitat preference of F. catus is continuing in order to achieve a more efficient use of resources for ongoing control of feral cats.
    Tasman District
    Feral cats (F. catus) are designated as 'Regional surveillance pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The objective of the strategy is to promote the control of feral cats and improve the public understanding of their impact.
    Todos Santos Norte Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Todos Santos Sur Is.
    Cats were eradicated using a combination of environmental education and hunting and/or trapping. They were hunted both day and night, and trapped using Victor no. 1½ padded leg hold traps.
    Trounson Kauri Park
    Pest control at Trounson Kauri Park included trapping cats around the forest boundaries and key localities within the park.
    Turks and Caicos Islands
    1995 report recommends preventing the introduction of feral animals to more islands, removing them from uninhabited islands, controlling feral animals and restricting the movement of livestock on inhabited islands, and educating the public on the destruction caused by non-natives (Gerber, 1995 in Varnham, 2006). Eradication projects have been planned, dependent on finding suitable islands (Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    United Kingdom (UK)
    A questionnaire survey of the numbers of animals brought home by domestic cats (Felis catus) was conducted between 1 April and 31 August 1997. The number of birds and herpetofauna brought home per cat was significantly lower in households that provided food for birds. The number of bird species brought home was greater in households providing bird food. The number of birds and herpetofauna brought home per cat was negatively related to the age and condition of the cat. The number of mammals brought home per cat was significantly lower when cats were equipped with bells and when they were kept indoors at night. The number of herpetofauna brought home was significantly greater when cats were kept in at night.
    United States (USA)
    Domestic cat advocates in the USA have formed coalitions to promote nonlethal methods of cat control, involving trapping, neutering and releasing cats into supervised cat colonies. Castillo and Clarke (2003) suggest that this method is ineffective at controlling numbers as it encourages the illegal dumping of cats, and suggests that these groups instead address the underlying problems of irresponsible cat owners.
    Viwa Is.
    There is a proposal to eradicate cane toads (Bufo marinus) and invasive mammals (rats, cats and dogs) from Viwa Island (60 ha), in Fiji to protect (among other native wildlife) the endangered Fijian ground frog (see Platymantis vitiana in IUCN Red List of Threatened species).
    The removal of these invasive species from Viwa Island would benefit a range of other native species, including the banded iguana (Brachylophus fasciatus), Pacific boa (Candoia bibroni), and several species of gecko and skink. In addition to the biodiversity benefits, this project is expected to have several socio-economic benefits to the people on Viwa. These include an increased agricultural harvest, improved health and sanitation (domestic water supply and disposal), ecotourism and employment opportunities, and finally cultural pride for the Viwa Island people (104 people live on the island).
    The University of the South Pacific is implementing this project with Joape Kuruyawa as the full-time project manager and funding by the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund (CEPF), the Australian Regional Natural Heritage Programme (RNHP) and the New Zealand International Aid & Development Agency (NZAID).
    Wenderholm Regional Park
    Feral cats have been controlled in Wenderholm by shooting and cage trapping as necessary. Between February 1999 and February 2001, two cats, one of which was tame, have been caught.
    Zirku Is.
    Cats and rats, as on Arzanah Island, are now subject to a control programme.


         Management Resources/Links

    2. Alterio, N., Moller, H. and Ratz, H. 1998. Movements and habitat use of feral house cats Felis catus, Stoats Mustela erminea and ferrets Mustela furo, in grassland surrounding yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes breeding areas in spring, Biological Conservation 83(2): 187-194.
    4. Baker-Gabb D. 2004. National Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor multicolor and the Norfolk Island Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis xanthroprocta. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
    5. Barratt, D.G. 1997. Home range size, habitat utilisation and movement patterns of suburban and farm cats Felis catus. Ecography. 20: 271-280.
    6. Barratt, D.G. 1997. Predation by House Cats, Felis catus (L.), in Canberra, Australia. I. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research. 24 (3): 263-277.
            Summary: This paper presents the results of a study into the prey composition for house cats in Canberra, Australia.
    11. Burbidge, A.A., 2004. Montebello Renewal: Western Shield review—February 2003. Conservation Science Western Australia 5(2), 194-201.
    13. Castillo, D. and Clarke, A.L. 2003. Trap/neuter/release methods ineffective in controlling domestic cat "colonies" on public lands. Natural Areas Journal. 23 (3): 247-253.
            Summary: This paper looks at the effectiveness of the trap/neuter/release methods used to control domestic cat colonies in the USA.
    14. Clarke, A.L. and Pacin, T. 2002. Domestic cat "colonies" in natural areas: A growing exotic species threat. Natural Areas Journal. 22 (2): 154-159.
            Summary: This paper considers the problem of domestic cat populations in natural areas in the USA.
    15. Clout, M.N. and J.C. Russell, 2006. The eradication of mammals from New Zealand islands Pages 127-141. In Koike, F., Clout, M.N., Kawamichi, M., De Poorter, M. and Iwatsuki, K. (eds.), Assessment and Control of Biological Invasion Risks. Shoukadoh Book Sellers, Kyoto, Japan and the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland, 2006.
    16. Cooper, J., Marais, A. V. N., Bloomer, J. P. and Bester, M. N. 1995. A success story: Breeding of Burrowing petrels (Procellaridae) before and after the eradication of feral cats Felis catus at subantartic Marion Island. Marine Ornithology 23: 33-37.
    19. Daniels, M.J., Beaumont, M.A., Johnson, P.J., Balharry, D., Macdonald, D.W. and Barratt, E. 2001. Ecology and genetics of wild-living cats in the north-east of Scotland and the implications for the conservation of the wildcat. Journal of Applied Ecology. 38 (1): 146-161.
            Summary: This paper discusses the interaction between wildcats and domestic cats in Scotland, and suggests management measures.
    21. Dickman, C. R. 1996. Overview of the impacts of feral cats on Australian native fauna. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency.
    23. Duffy, D. C., and Capece, P., 2012. Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 7. The Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Pacific Science 66(2):173-212. 2012
    24. Edwards, G.P., De Preu, N., Shakeshaft, B.J., Crealy, I.V. and Paltridge, R.M. 2001. Home range and movements of male feral cats (Felis catus) in a semiarid woodland environment in central Australia. Austral Ecology. 26 (1): 93.
    26. Genovesi, P. 2005. Eradications of invasive alien species in Europe: a review. Biological Invasions. 7 (1): 127-133.
            Summary: This paper gives details of the eradications of introduced species in Europe, including the eradication of M. vison from Hiimaa Island in Estonia.
    27. Girardet, S. A. B., Veitch, C. R., Craig, J. L. 2001. Bird and rat numbers on Little Barrier Island, New Zealand, over the period of cat eradication 1976-80. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 13-29.
    29. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
            Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
    Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
    30. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    31. Konecny, M.J. 1987. Home range and activity patterns of feral house cats in the Galapagos Islands. Oikos. 50 (1): 17-23.
    35. Nogales, M.; A. Martin, B. Tershy, C.J Donlan, D. Veitch, N. Puerta, B. Wood and J. Alonso., 2004. A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands.
            Summary: A review of feral cat eradication programmes on islands.
    39. Phillips, R. B., Cooke, B. D., Campbell, K., Carrion, V., Marquez, C., and Snell, H. L.. 2005. Eradicating feral cats to protect Galapagos Land Iguanas: methods and strategies. Pacific Conservation Biology 11:257-267.
    40. Rauzon, M. J. 1982. Feral cat eradication on Jarvis Island. Bulletin of the Pacific Seabird Group 9: 75.
    41. Rauzon, M. J. 1985. Feral cats on Jarvis Island; their effects and their eradication. Atoll Research Bulletin 282–292 (282). 32pp.
    43. Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
    46. Twyford, K. L., Humphrey, P. G., Nunn, R. P. and Willoughby, L. 2000. Eradication of feral cats (Felis catus) from Gabo Island, southeast Victoria. Ecological Management 1: 42-49.
    48. Veitch, C. R. 1985. Methods of eradicating feral cats from offshore islands in New Zealand. In Moors, P. J. (ed.) Conservation of island birds. International Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication No. 3, Cambridge.
    49. Veitch, C. R. 2001. The eradication of feral cats (Felis catus) from Little Barrier Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 1-12.
    53. Woods, M., McDonald, R.A. and Harris, S. 2003. Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain. Mammal Review. 33 (2): 174-188.
            Summary: This paper examines the impact of predation by domestic cats on wildlife in Great Britain.

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