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         Management Information

    The USDA Forest Service has produced a handbook which summarises current scientific knowledge of the impact of Adelges tsugae on eastern hemlock forests. It is designed to help resource managers make informed decisions in preparing management plans to deal with the hemlock woolly adelgid. For more details on management of Adelges tsugae, please follow this link Adelges tsugae management compiled by the ISSG  


         Location Specific Management Information
    Connecticut
    Connecticut's eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands have shown remarkable recovery from a period of decline and damage in the mid-late 1990s. This trend is correlated with the release of the introduced Sasajiscymnus (Pseudoscymnus) tsugae as a biological control agent. The improvement in hemlock health has also occurred at a greater rate at S. tsugae release sites than at non-release sites (Cheah et al. 2005).
    The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released on sites in Fairfield, Hartford, Litchfield, Middlesex, New Haven, New London, Tolland, Windham counties for the biological control of adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    Georgia (USA)
    Three biological control agents have been released in Rabun county - the lady beetles Sasajiscymnus tsugae (=Pseudoscymnus tsugae) and Scymnus sinuanodulus, and Laricobius nigrinus (Asaro et al. 2005).
    Great Smoky Mountains National Park
    In 2004, 900 acres of hemlock were treated for Adelges tsugae in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, using insecticides (Johnson et al. 2005).
    Maryland (USA)
    Details of the Maryland Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Management Plan are available in Rabaglia (2005).
    300 Laricobius nigrinus beetles were released in Maryland between 2003 and 2004 (USDA, 2004).
    The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been release at one site in Harford (10,000 beetles) (Onken, 2002).
    Massachusetts
    The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at sites in Norfolk, Middlesex, Hampden and Essex for the biological control of the adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    Michigan
    The state of Michigan imposes strict quarantine regulations to prevent the arrival of A. tsugae.
    New Hampshire
    The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at one site in Rockingham (2950 beetles) (Onken, 2002).

    The state of New Hampshire has imposed quarantine regulations to prevent the further spread of A. tsugae (Ward et al. 2004).

    New Jersey
    The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at sites in Hunterdon, Mercer, Monmouth, Morris, Passaic, Sussex, Warren for the biological control of the adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    New York
    The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at sites in Columbia, Greene, Putnam, Ulster, Westchester for the biological control of the adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    North Carolina
    300 Laricobius nigrinus beetles were released in North Carolina between 2003 and 2004 (USDA, 2004). The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at sites in Stokes, Watagua, Graham for the biological control of the adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    Pennsylvania
    600 Laricobius nigrinus beetles have been released in Pennsylvania between 2003 and 2004 (USDA, 2004). The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at sites in Wayne, Snyder, Pike, Perry, Northampton, Franklin, for the biological control of the adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    Rhode Island
    The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at two sites in Providence (15,000 beetles) for the biological control of the adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    Tennessee
    300 Laricobius nigrinus were released in Tennessee between 2003 and 2004 for the biological control of this adelgid (USDA, 2004).
    Vermont
    The state of Vermont imposes quarantine regulations to prevent the spread of A. tsugae (Ward et al. 2004).
    Virginia
    1452 Laricobius nigrinus beetles were released in Virginia between 2003 and 2004 (USDA, 2004). The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at sites in Albemarle, Giles, Grayson, Highland and Nelson for the biological control of the adelgid (Onken, 2002).
    West Virginia
    1200 Laricobius nigrinus beetles were released in West Virginia between 2003 and 2004 (USDA, 2004). The ladybird beetle (Pseudoscymnus tsugae) has been released at sites in Berkeley, Hampshire, Hardy, Pendleton (Onken, 2002).


         Management Resources/Links

    1. Asaro, C., Berisford, C.W., Montgomery, M.E., Rhea, J. and Hanula, J. 2005. Biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid in the Southern Appalachians. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    2. Cheah, C.A.S-J., Mayer, M.A., Palmer, D., Scudder, T. and Chianese, R. 2005. Assessments of biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid with Sasajiscymnus tsugae in Connecticut and New Jersey. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    3. Conway, H., Culin, J.D. and Hedden, R. 2004. Introduced biological control agents for hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). Clemson University Entomology Insect Information Series.
            Summary: This fact sheet provides information about the biological control agents used for A. tsugae in the USA.
    4. Cowles, R.S. Soil application of imidacloprid to control hemlock woolly adelgid: best management practices. USDA Forest Service, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid website: Chemical control.
    5. Cowles, R.S., Cheah, C. S-J. and Montgomery, M.E. 2005. Comparing systemic imidacloprid application methods for controlling hemlock woolly adelgid. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    6. Evans, R.A. 2002. Hemlock ecosystems and Hemlock Woolly Adlegid at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.
    7. Felton, K. and Onken, B. 2006. Life stages of the hemlock woolly adelgid in the northern range. Prepared by USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Morgantown, West Virginia.
    8. Havill, N.P. 2005. Using mitochondrial DNA to determine the native range of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    9. Jefts, S. and Orwig, D. 2005. The effects of HWA outbreaks on ecosystem level changes in Southern New England. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    10. Johnson, K., Taylor, G. and Remaley, T. 2005. Managing hemlock woolly adelgid and balsam woolly adelgid at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In:Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    11. Mark S. McClure. 1998. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand), The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
            Summary: Detailed report on description, distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, and control.
    12. Mark S. McClure. Managing Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, City Trees - The Journal of The Society of Municipal Arborists, Vol 33, Number 6 November/December 1997.
            Summary: Detailed report on description, distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, and control.
    13. McClure, M., Salom, S., Shields, K. 2001. Hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2001-03.
            Summary: Includes information on native range of hemlock, and range of hemlock woolly adelgid, the importance of hemlocks in eastern forest ecosystems, and on hosts, life cycle, control and population trends of the hemlock woolly adelgid.
    14. McClure, M.S. 1997."Managing Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. City Trees - The Journal of The Society of Municipal Arborists. 33 (6) November/December 1997.
            Summary: Detailed report on description, distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, and control.
    15. McClure, M.S. Undated. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand). The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
            Summary: Detailed report on description, distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, and control.
    17. Morisawa, T. 22 March 2000. "Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: Adelges tsugae Annand", University of California, Davis, The Nature Conservancy.
            Summary: Detailed report on description and management of the pest.
    18. Morisawa, T., 2003, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: Adelges tsugae Annand, University of California, Davis, The Nature Conservancy.
            Summary: Detailed report on description and management of the pest.
    19. New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands. 2001. Hemlock Wooly Adelgid. Concord, New Hampshire: Department of Resources and Economic Development.
            Summary: Brief report on description, distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, and control.
    20. New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands. 2001. Hemlock Wooly Adelgid. Concord, New Hampshire: Department of Resources and Economic Development.
            Summary: Brief report on description, distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, and control.
    21. Onken, B.P. 2002. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid - a race in time. USDA Forest Service.
    22. Orwig, D.A. and Kittredge, D. 2005. Silvicultural options for managing hemlock forests threatened by hemlock woolly adelgid. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    23. Pais, R.C. and Polster, K.M. Undated. Strategies for Managing Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in Forests. EcoScientific Solutions LLC, 930 Meadow Avenue, Suite 2B, Scranton, PA 18505.
            Summary: A detailed report on methods and management strategies.
    24. Plant Pest Surveillance Unit. 2005. Canadian Food Inspection Agency website. Adelges tsugae (Annand) - hemlock woolly adelgid.
    25. Rabaglia, R.J. 2005. The Maryland hemlock woolly adelgid management plan. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005
    26. Salom, S. M., 1999. Virginia Tech Department of Entomology. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: A Major Threat to Eastern Hemlock, Virginia Forest Landowner Update. Spring 1999 -- Volume 13, No. 2 .
            Summary: Report on description, hosts and distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, life history and behavior, and control.
    27. Salom, S.M. 1999. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: A Major Threat to Eastern Hemlock. Virginia Forest Landowner Update. Spring 1999. 13 (2). Virginia Tech Department of Entomology.
            Summary: Report on description, hosts and distribution, symptoms of attack, effect on the host, life history and behavior, and control.
    28. Snyder, C.D., Young, J.A., Ross, R.M. and Smith, D.R. 2005. Long-term effects of hemlock forest decline on headwater stream communities. In: Onken, B. and Reardon, R. (Compilers). 2005. Third Symposium on Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Asheville, North Carolina. February 1-3, 2005.
    29. Strategies for Managing Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in Forests Richard C. Pais and Kathleen M. Polster EcoScientific Solutions LLC 930 Meadow Avenue, Suite 2B, Scranton, PA 18505
            Summary: A detailed report on methods and management strategies.
    32. USDA Forest Service. 2004. Number of beetles released and release sites by state.
    33. USDA Forest Service. 2006. List of state and counties with known Hemlock Woolly Adelgid infestations. Prepared by USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Morgantown, West Virginia.
    36. USDA. 3 June 2002, " Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Management ", USDA Forest Service - Northeastern Area.
            Summary: Brief report on key issues and budget history of management strategies.
    37. Ward, J.S., Montgomery, M.E., Cheah, C.A.S-J., Onken, B.P. and Cowles, R.S. 2004. Eastern hemlock forests: Guidelines to minimize the impacts of hemlock woolly adelgid. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Morgantown, West Virginia.
    38. Webb, R.E., Frank, J.R. and Raupp, M.J. 2003. Eastern hemlock recovery from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid damage following imidacloprid therapy. Journal of Arboriculture. 29 (5): 298-302.

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