"A Risk Assessment of Schinus terebinthifolius for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany). The result is a score of 19 and a recommendation of: ""Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.""
When developing a management strategy it is important to consider the following biological traits of S. terebinthifolius: Its seeds are generally not viable after five months following dispersal. Water availability, especially rapid changes in water level, determines to a great extent seedling success. Its lack of success in California has been attributed to the short period of sufficient soil moisture needed for germination and root establishment. Seedlings grow very slowly and can survive in dense shade, exhibiting vigorous growth if the canopy is cleared (growing at rates of .03 to .05 metres per year (Ferriter 1997). The creation of open habitat influences and increases the rate of spread of S. terebinthifolius. When S. terebinthifolius occurs in these open disturbed areas it provides a reservoir for the plant to spread to natural environments. This means that the restoration of disturbed ecosystems back to their natural state may control the spread of the weed to native ecosystems, as well as providing an opportunity to regain native environments. The plant is capable of resprouting from above-ground stems and root crowns and resprouting is also often profuse, with new growth originating from dormant and adventitious buds. The characteristics that make the Brazilian pepper plant a successful weed include (1) fast growth, (2) prolific seed production, (3) continuous shoot extension, (4) vigorous resprouting and (5) tolerance of a wide range of growing conditions (Ewel 1979, in Ferriter 1997).
Preventative measures: Prohibiting the sale of Schinus terebinthifolius in nursery trade is an important method of slowing its spread. Florida has established a state law prohibiting the sale, cultivation, and transportation of it passed by the Florida legislature in 1990 (Cuda et al, 2006). Cooperation among public and private agencies as well as from neighboring states to reduce or prohibit its use as an ornamental and manage existing populations is highly beneficial (Elfers, 2001).Chemical: The use of herbicides is the most commonly used and cost-effective method for controlling S. terebinithifolius. S. terebinthifolius is sensitive to foliar applications of imazapyr, to foliar and cut surface applications of triclopyr, dicamba and glyphosate, to basal bark applications of triclopyr, and to soil application of tebuthiuron and hexazinone. It is not sensitive to 2,4-D (Matooka et al, 2003 in PIER, 2010). Cut-stump treatment and basal bark treatment of triclopyr will effectively control it (Langland & Stocker, 2001 in Cuda et al, 2006). Foliar application of imazapyr and triclopyr is also effective and was found to achieve greater than 90% control. However, foliar application will effect non-target vegetation. Imazapyr has also been used in an application referred to as lacing which involves treating only half the foliage with a low volume back pack sprayer that has reportedly yielded 98% control (Phil Waller, BASF, pers. Comm. in Cuda et al, 2006). Basal soil applications of both hexazinone and tebuthiuron were also effective and resulted in 80-90% control (Laroche and Baker, 1994 in Cuda et al, 2006). Other treatments including basal bark application of a mixture of imazapyr and triclopyr are effective in an oil-based solution (BASF, 2005 in Cuda et al, 2001). Excellent control was reported with triclopyr ester/oil applied basal bark at 10% of product, triclopyr amine at 50% of product in water applied to cut surfaces, and imazapyr at 1% of product in water applied as foliar sprays (Matooka et al, 2003 in PIER, 2010).
Karmex is recommended when the only objective is to kill S. terebinthifolius seedlings. It is, compared to Hyvar or Velpar, less easily leached, making shallow rooted plants, like seedlings, more susceptible than deeper rooted ones. However, on many south Florida sites, feeder roots of established desirable plants may also be very close to the surface and may be affected. Hyvar and Velpar are as effective on seedlings as Karmex, but are recommended only where larger trees are involved. Where soil characteristics or root distributions preclude soil herbicides, Tordon is recommended as a foliar spray (Woodall 1982 in Elfers, 2001).
Biological: A variety of biological control agents have been investigated or released to control S. terebinthifolius. The most important include the Brazilian pepper thrip (Pseudophilothrips ichini), the Brazilian pepper leafroller (Episimus utilis), the Brazilian pepper sawfly (Heteroperreyia hubrichi), torymid wasp Megastigmus transvaalensis, and a variety of fungal pathogens (Cleary, 2003; Wheeler et al, 2001 in Cuda et al, 2006).
A few biological control agents from southern South America that were been screened and released in Hawaii in the 1950s and 1960s include E. utilis, Lithraeus atronotatus, and Crasimorpha infuscate. Of them two established but had little effect on Brazilian peppertree (Julian and Grifiiths, 1998 in Cuda et al, 2006).
E. utilis whose larval stages defoliate S. terebinthifolius, was released in Hawaii in the 1950s but did not yield effective control due to unsuitable biotic and abiotic conditions. It is being evaluated for use in other locations and results imply that it may be more successful (Manrique et al, 2008a; Manrique et al, 2008b; Manrique et al, 2009a).
The torymid wasp M. transvaalensis attacks the drupes or seeds of S. terebinthifolius and damages them so they do not germinate. A study in Florida found that it damaged up to 31% of drupes in the major winter fruiting period and 76% in the minor spring fruiting phase. M. transvaalensis represents a potential biological control (Wheeler et al, 2001 in Cuda et al, 2006).
Fungi Sphaeropsis tumefaciens, Rhizoctonia solani and Chrondostereum purpureum are all known to infect S. terebinthifolius in different capacities and may also prove to be useful biological controls (Cuda et al, 2006).
Physical: The physical techniques for controlling S. terebinthifolius include soil removal, prescribed burning, and flooding. Soil removal can be effective for eliminating Brazilian peppertree and preventing its reestablishment but this method is labor intensive and costly. Prescribed burns have been used to control Brazilian peppertree with mixed results. The seeds fail to germinate following exposure to fire but plants readily resprout from crown and roots (Randall, 200 in Cuda et al, 2006). Repeated fires at 3 to 7 year intervals were found to slow its invasion but did not completely prevent re-establishment (Doren et al, 1991 in Cuda et al, 2006).
Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. This was found to reduce but not eliminate adult S. terebintifolius but did successfully eliminate seedlings. Native plants should be planted following hydro leveling to promote native recolonization (Smith et al, 2007).
Mechanical control: Once the Brazilian peppertree reaches heights of several feet, heavy equipment including bulldozers, front end loaders, and root rakes are necessary for the removal of it and its root system to prevent re-sprouting (Cuda et al, 2006; Elfers et al, 2001).
Integrated management: An integrated, site specific management plan should be developed for the management of S. terebinthifolius following guidelines provided by (Cuda, 2006).
Cut-stump treatment with 50% Garlon 3A, 10% Garlon 4 or a basal bark application of 10% Garlon 4. Foliar application of Garlon 4, Garlon 3A, Roundup Pro, Rounup Super Concentrate, or Rodeo, according label directions may be used where appropriate. Glyphosate products are less effective when used alone in spring and early summer. Use Rodeo or cut stump application of 50% Arsenal where plants are growing in aquatic sites (Langland & Stocker, undated).
Additionally, Schinus terebinthifolius infestations may be detected with hyperspecteral instrumentation or high resolution imagery by aerial observation to evaluate its infestation in inaccessible locations and aid in management program development (Lass & Prather, 2004; Pearlstine et al, 2005)."
Location Specific Management Information
L' arrêté n°65 CM du 23 janvier 2006 dresse une liste de 35 plantes envahissantes déclarées "espèces menaçant la biodiversité". Ces plantes font l'objet de mesures d'interdiction d'importation nouvelle, de multiplication et de plantation, d'interdiction de transfert d'une île à l'autre de tout plant entier, fragment de plant, bouture, fruit et graine. Leur destruction est autorisée.
S. terebinthifolius is listed as a pest plant in New Zealand; commercial sale and/or distribution of the plant is not allowed. National Pest Plant Accord, New Zealand
S. terebinthifolius has been included in the Auckland Regional Councils pest plant list.
S. terebinthifolius has been removed from Nonsuch Island for the past twenty years, but as many as 500 000 seedlings need to be removed annually in order to control this species.
Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge
The suggested management option is to occasionally remove moon vine and Brazilian pepper (up to 10 acres/annually), and to continue the 2001 barrier island restoration project to mimic historic conditions (USDI 2005).
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