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   Psidium guajava (乔木, 灌木)  English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         管理信息

    预防措施:番石榴(Psidium guajava)的风险评估,由Kaulunani 都市森林计划与美国森林服务部赞助,Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany)执行,针对夏威夷与其它太平洋岛屿。外来植物检查系统源于Pheloung 等(1999) 小幅修正后,使用在太平洋岛屿。其结果是14分,建议如下:WRA分数很高,可能会对夏威夷和其它太平洋岛屿造成重大生态和经济损害,这是基于公布的资料来源描述物种的生物学和行为在夏威夷或世界其它地区。

    物理方法:青年植株可以使用燃烧控制,砍筏会造成断茎再生的结果(莫顿 1987)。另一方面,在加拉帕戈斯,烧,手工砍筏,甚至用推土机推倒,导致更加严重的入侵。由地下萌蘗再生,限制人工控制有效性(Cronk and Fuller 2001)。

    化学方法:可以在叶面施用绿草萣,百草敌和2,4-D的1磅/英亩,削砍面施用这些除草剂;非常有效的方法包括树皮基部施用绿草酯和2,4-D的酯在2%和4%,柴油或作物油非常有效;土壤施以丁唑隆除草剂 2磅/英亩,树皮基部施用低容量的 20%绿草酯油溶液。一个叶片小的番石榴植群似乎能容忍除草剂,但在叶面施用丁唑隆除草剂,效果敏感(PIER)。

    生物方法:山羊和绵羊可用于控制,因为它们吃草叶及树皮。山羊已成功地应用于夏威夷岛。211 English  français   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Ascension Is.
    Futile' attempts to control Psidium guajava were made around 1900 (Ashmole and Ashmole, 2000 in Varnham, 2006).
    Fiji
    mechanical means have proven most successful
    Galapagos Islands
    Psidium guajava is controlled in the Galapagos, but eradication is not considered feasible at present.
    Queensland
    Targeted for eradication, despite this not being seen as feasible.
    Raoul Is. (Kermadec Islands)
    This species has been subject to an eradication programme on Raoul Island since 1972, and is ranked Category A(i) - known to have the potential to significantly alter the vegetation of Raoul Island. Raoul Island has been divided into 13 weeding blocks for the purpose of controlling and eradicating alien plants since 1972, which make up 64% of the vascular plant flora on Raoul Island. These are divided into active plots which are searched at least twice a year, and null plots which are searched at least once every two years. Grid searching is used to examine the areas with easier access, while steep cliffs are searched using binoculars or a telescope. This is carried out when plants such as Caesalpinia decapetala are in flower (June-November). Aerial surveillance is carried out periodically which has been useful in identifying flowering trees such as Senna septemtrionalis, mature vines of Passiflora edulis or trees of Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata. The initial knockdown phase involved for most species the cutting of mature individuals and painting of stumps with herbicides, or scattering herbicide granules around them. Blanket spraying was used to treat dense, inaccessible infestations. Subsequent searches involve the removal of any seedlings or young plants found. If a mature plant is found, the fruit is removed for burning, the stem is cut and herbicide applied. Information regarding the eradication programme is stored on an Access database. Psidium guajava can resprout vigorously from cut stumps, and may require many applications of herbicide. Less than 100 individuals have been removed since 1997, and all have been removed from Denham Bay. The importation of alien plants to Raoul Island is prohibited.
    San Cristobal Is. (Ecuador)
    45% of species introduced to the Galapagos Islands have been naturalized and of those, 32 are considered aggressive and have invaded extensive areas. The invaders affect the native vegetation negatively, changing the composition of the community and threatening populations of rare species. The majority of the introduced plants are found in the humid highlands where agriculture is the major activity and the conditions are better. The most noxious of these plants are the trees and shrubs that invade the native vegetation below the highest areas. The present methods of control are limited to removal by hand and by use of herbicides. Removal by hand requires continued effort since the plants may sprout from fragments of roots or branches. Few quantitative studies have been carried out to determine the type, concentration and method of application of herbicides. A 1999 study evaluated the effectiveness of three types of herbicide (glyphosate, picloram and triclopyr) in different concentrations to determine which method of application (“hacking and spraying”, spraying the bark and fumigation) is the most effective and the least damaging to the surrounding vegetation. These experiments were carried out on trees of Cestrum auriculatum, Cinchona pubescens, Cordia alliodora, Psidium guajava and Syzygium jambos and on the shrubs Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara and Rubus niveus (Gardener et al., 1999).

    Please follow this link Rentería et al 2006 to An illustrated guide providing practical information for the effective control of the worst invasive plant species in Galapagos. Designed for farmers and other land managers, it describes manual and chemical control methods. Cedrela odorata is among 23 introduced species with descriptions and control options listed.



         管理资源 /链接

    1. Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
            摘要: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
    2. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    5. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database., Undated. Psidium guajava
            摘要: A database of Swaziland's alien plant species.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland