Interim profile, incomplete information
The mymarid solitary-egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens, an Australian native, has been used as a successful biocontrol agent against G. scutellatus in several countries. These include Brazil, Chile, Mauritius, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain and the United States. A. nitens larvae feed directly on and from within G. scutellatus host eggs. (Hanks et al. 2000; Santolamazza-Carbone et al. 2009; Wilcken et al. 2008; Williams et al. 1951; Withers 2001).
Chemical methods are not recommended for control of G. scutellatus as honey bees are frequent visitors of Eucalyptus spp. during its long flowering season. (EPPO 2005).
G. scutellatus is listed as an A2 quarantine pest for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO), and it is regulated by most EPPO countries, particularly the EU. Eucalyptus species introduced into endangered countries in form of plant or cuttings must originate from a pest-free area, or the plants must be free of soil, and treated for G. scutellatus. (EPPO 2005).
Location Specific Management Information
Anaphes nitens was introduced into south-western Australia from eastern Australia, and it has shown to be a successful biological control agent. Parasitism rates have been as high as almost 100% (summer). Tachnid flies also parasitise G. scutellatus larvae.
The biocontrol agent Anaphes nitens is present in souther Brazil, where there are sporadic outbreaks of G. scutellatus.
The egg parisitoid Anaphes nitens was introduced as a biocontrol agent in 1994, where it became well-established by 1997 in southern California. It is thought to be approximately 95% effective at killing G. scutellatus eggs, with the exception of areas where insecticides were being used. While A. nitens has been a successful control agent, G. scutellatus continues to spread in California. However, the spread of A. nitens has been mirroring that of its host. (Hanks et al. 2000; Paine & Millar 2002).
Anaphes nitens has been introduced as a successful biocontrol agent in Chile. (Wilcken et al. 2008).
The egg parisitoid Anaphes nitens was introduced in several shipments between 1927 and 1930. A. nitens successfully controls G. scutellatus throughout New Zealand.
Anaphes nitens, an egg parasitoid, was introduced to South Africa in 1926 as a biocontrol agent for G. scutellatus. A. nitens is successful in controlling G. scutellatus in all areas except for those at high elevation with cold temperatures. It was found that A. nitens was more successful during spring in winter rainfall areas. Parasitism rates of up to 96% have been recorded (Cape Town).
2. Hanks, L. M.; Millar, J. G.; Paine, T. D.; Campbell, C. D., 2000. Classical biological control of the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California. Environmental Entomology. 29(2). April, 2000. 369-375.
3. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
4. Paine, T. D.; Millar, J. G., 2002. Insect pests of eucalypts in California: Implications of managing invasive species. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 92(2). April, 2002. 147-151.
5. Santolamazza-Carbone, Serena; Pestana Nieto, Montserrat; Perez Otero, Rosa; Mansilla Vazquez, Pedro; Cordero Rivera, Adolfo, 2009. Winter and spring ecology of Anaphes nitens, a solitary egg-parasitoid of the Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus. BioControl (Dordrecht). 54(2). APR 2009. 195-209.
6. Tribe, G. D. 2005. 'The present status of Anaphes nitens (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of the Eucalyptus snout beetle Gonipterus scutellatus, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa', The Southern African Forestry Journal, 203: 1, 49 — 54
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