Global Invasive Species Database 100 of the worst Donations home
Standard Search Standard Search Taxonomic Search   Index Search

   Oryctes rhinoceros (insecte)  English   
Écologie Distribution Gestion Impacts Références
et liens

         Études de cas sur la gestion
    American Samoa
    A combination of field sanitation techniques and the use of a virus that attacks larvae and adults has been highly successful in reducing beetle populations in the South Pacific region. Field sanitation, includes clearing away rubbish, stumps and standing coconut logs which are potential breeding sites. The use of a groundcover Pueraria phaseoloides has been suggested. Replacement of old coconut trees has also been suggested so that an even stand can be maintained avoiding isolated old trees which are likely breeding sites.The ADAP (Agricultural Development in the American Pacific) provides this information in its Agricultural Pests of the Pacific factsheet on the Coconut Rhinoceros beetle.
    Natuvu village in Savusavu, Fiji, depends mainly on coconut for the livelihood of the rural community. Making copra is a major activity to generate income. However, coconut logs left on the ground have created ideal breeding sites for the coconut rhinoceros beetle to lay its eggs. There appears to be an increase in beetle damage. To help the village remove beetle breeding sites, the Plant Protection Service sent in a team of three staff from Koronivia Research Station to demonstrate proper method of disposing of coconut wood. They also put up pheromone traps around the village to kill the beetles. The village chief was shown the extensive damage caused by the beetle and the need to remove beetle breeding sites. After being shown beetle larvae found in decaying coconut wood and realising the seriousness of the situation, he decreed every Monday dedicated to removing decaying wood and cleaning around village plantations (Pacific Pest Info No. 54, Nov/Dec. 2004).
    Integrated control measures adopted on a community basis are essential to bring an effective control of an Oryctes population. The major components of the IPM package consist of mechanical, chemical and biological methods. Mechanical methods consist of examing trees for infestation and removing the beetle physically. Prophylactic methods (preventive measures) include the use of pesticides, napthalene balls etc. to repel the beetles. Oil cakes of neem and marotti (Hydnocarpus wightiana) have also provided good results. Biological control of the beetle is the most important component of the IPM package. The green Muscardine fungus Metarhizium anisopliae M. is a pathogen which kills the pest in conditions of low temperature and high humidity.The viral pathogen Baculovirus of Oryctes (OBV) is very effective and kills the grub in 15-20 days of infestation and it affects the longevity and fecundity of adult beetles. Insect predators are frequently observed in the natural breeding grounds of the beetle, which feed on the eggs and early instar larvae of the beetle. The important predators are Santalus parallelus Payk., Pheropsophus occipitalis Macleay, P. lissoderus, Chelisoches morio (Fab.) and species of Scarites, Harpalus and Agrypnus. As these predators help in the natural check of the pest population, conservation of the predator fauna is essential. Restricting and managing the breeding sites could check the proliferation of the pest. Proper disposal of breeding grounds and field sanitation are important steps in IPM of Oryctes. An effective trapping method with rotting castor cake slurry kept in mud pots has been developed for rhinoceros beetle.
    More details are available from the pdf.
    The entomopathogenic Oryctes rhinoceros virus was discovered 40 years ago in Malaysia. It was then successfully introduced into many South Pacific countries to control O. rhinoceros on coconut. In Malaysia, the infection of Oryctes virus is common on adults and less frequent on larvae. Infected adult has a swollen gut and an infected larva becomes transparent when viewed against light. Three strains of the virus has been identified as A, B and C strains. Studies by Ramle et al (2003) show that strain B is the most virulent compared to strains A or C. It caused 65% mortality on the larvae and 86.7% on the adults.It is hoped that the successful control of Oryctes by virus could reduce the use of pesticides.
    Rhinoceros beetle management in Palau: Training on pheromone trapping of the beetle was provided and virus inoculation and field releases of the beetle demonstrated. The Secretariat of the Pacific Community specialists surveyed the extent of rhinoceros beetle damage in Palau (Pacific Pest Info No. 54, Nov/Dec. 2004).
    A combination of field sanitation techniques and the use of a virus that attacks larvae and adults has been highly successful in reducing beetle populations in the South Pacific region. Field sanitation, includes clearing away rubbish, stumps and standing coconut logs which are potential breeding sites. The use of a groundcover Pueraria phaseoloides has been suggested. Replacement of old coconut trees has also been suggested so that an even stand can be maintained avoiding isolated old trees which are likely breeding sites.The ADAP (Agricultural Development in the American Pacific) provides this information in its Agricultural Pests of the Pacific factsheet on the Coconut Rhinoceros beetle.
    Papua New Guinea
    Bedford (1976b) described the spread of Oryctes rhinoceros in Papua New Guinea (PNG), O. rhinoceros "reached New Britain about 1942, and subsequently was reported from New Ireland (l952), West Irian (date unknown), Pak Is. (1960) (Catley 1969), and Manus Is. (1970). In New Britain it is apparently restricted to the Gazelle Peninsula, and has not been found in the West New Britain area (Cape Hoskins-Stettin Bay- Talasea). Neither has it spread to the New Guinea or Papua mainland, Bougainville or the Solomon Islands". The author observes that despite favourable conditions for the spread of the pest in PNG, the rate of spread was slow compared to its rapid spread in Fiji.
    Reunion (La Reunion) English 
    Une des méthodes consiste à piéger les mâles et les femelles d’Oryctes à l’aide d’un piège muni d’une phéromone. La phéromone est renouvelée chaque mois pour garantir une efficacité de la lutte en continu. Une densité de 4 pièges par hectare est conseillée, afin de garantir l’efficacité de la lutte. Selon les niveaux de population de l’Oryctes sur la parcelle, on peut capturer de 1 à 27 Oryctes par piège et par mois (FDGDON Réunion).
    The first attempts to introduce Rhabdionvirus oryctes (which was first discovered and described in 1963), began in 1967 in Samoa (Marschall, 1970). Please follow this link Marschall, 1970 for more details on this biocontrol management action.
    Wallis and Futuna
    Rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) continues to be a menace to coconut plantations in Wallis and Futuna and the Secretariate of the Pacific Community (SPC) is actively involved in the fight against it. Fereti Atu, Land Resources Division Taro Beetle Technician, recently visited Wallis and Futuna as part of efforts to manage the pest. He worked with local Wallisian technician, Aloi, to improve his skills in rhinoceros beetle management. In April, Aloi received pest management training at the SPC Biocontrol Workshop along with other technicians from the Pacific and he will now train others to apply the techniques he has learnt. Proper field sanitation, monitoring using pheromone traps, and preparing beetle traps are among the skills required for good pest management. The training in rhinoceros beetle management was carried out at the village of Lotolahi. New stocks of materials to service current pheromone traps were supplied and the importance of recording data collected at trap sites was emphasised to local staff (Pacific Pest Info No. 60, June-July 2005).

         Ressources pour la gestion/Liens

    1. Anonymous. 1952. Insect Consultants Committee for Micronesia (ICCM). Annual Report of the Pacific Science Board, 6: 28–36.
    2. Anonymous. 1953. Insect Consultants Committee for Micronesia (ICCM). Annual Report of the Pacific Science Board, 7: 21–28.
    3. Antony, J. and Kurian, C. 1966. Biology of the histerid beetle Hister (Santalus) orientalis Payk. A predator of Oryctes. Proc. 53rd Indian Science Congress Part III p. 362.
    4. Antony, J. and Kurian, C. 1975. Physical and biotic factors which exert a check on the population density of Oryctes rhinoceros Linn. in India . Paper presented at the fourth session of the FAO Tech. Working party on coconut production, Protection and processing, Kingston, Jamaica. 14-25 Sept.1975
    5. Bedford, G.O. 1976a. Use of a virus against the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle in Fiji. PANS 22:11-25
    6. Bedford, G.O. 1980. Biology, Ecology and control of palm Rhinoceros beetle. Ann. Rev. Entomol, 26, 213.
    7. Bedford, G.O., 1976b. Observations on the biology and ecology of Orcytes rhinoceros and Scapenes australis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae): pests of coconut palms in Melanesia. J. Aust. ent. Soc., 1976, 15: 241-251
    8. Biju, B., Sudhadevi, K., Danger, T.K. and Sathiamma, B. 1995. Biological suppression of Oryctes rhinoceros by re-releases of Baculovirus oryctes in an infected contiguous area. J. Plantn Crops 23: 62 – 63.
    9. Chandrika, M. and Nair, C.P.R. 2000. Effect of Clerodendron infortunatum on grubs of coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros . Recent advances in Plantation Crops Research 2000, pp. 297-299. (Eds) N. Muraleedharan and R. Rajkumar. Allied Publishers Ltd, New Delhi.
    10. Chandrika, M., Nair, C.P.R. and Rajan, P. 2001. Scope of botanical pesticides in the management of Oryctes rhinoceros L. and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. Affecting coconut palm. Entomon 26 (spl. Issue): 47-51.
    11. Dangar, T. K., Geetha, L., Jayapal, S.P. and Pillai, G.B. 1991. Mass production of entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae in coconut water wasted from copra making industry. J. Plantn Crops 19(1): 54 – 69.
    13. Gopal, M., Gupta, A., Sathiamma, B. and Radhakrishnan Nair, C. P. 2001. Review Article - Control of the Coconut Pest Oryctes rhinoceros L. Using the Oryctes Virus. Insect Science and its Application 21(2): 93-101.
            Résumé: The coconut palm is an important plantation crop in India, where it is cultivated on 1.796 million hectares. The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a serious pest of coconut throughout India and southeast Asia, causing an estimated 10% yield loss in the crop. Successful biological control of this pest could be achieved using the non-occluded Oryctes virus (syn. Baculovirus oryctes or Oryctes baculovirus). This review provides an account of this microbial agent, its biology, effects and impact, production and maintenance and alternative hosts, particularly in the context of the Indian situation. It also proposes future areas for investigation on the virus, in order to achieve its commercial viability and more widespread use.
    14. Gorick, B.D. 1980. Release and establishment of the Baculovirus disease of Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Papua New Guinea. Bull. Ent. Res. 70 (3): 445-453.
    15. Gurmit Singh 1987. Naphthalene balls for the protection of coconut and oil palm against Oryctes rhinoceros L. Planter 63 (2): 286-92.
    16. Hallet, R.H., Perez, A.L., Gries, G., Gries, R., Pierce, H.D. Jr., Yue-JunMing, Oehlschlager, A.C., Gonzalez, L. M., Borden, J.H. and Yue, J.M. 1995. Aggregation pheromone on coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L. (Coleoptera: Scrabaeidae) .J. Chemical Ecology 21(10): 1549-1570.
    17. Huger, A.M. 1966. A virus disease of the Indian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (Linaeus) , caused by a new type of insect virus, Rhaddionvirus oryctes gen.n. sp.n. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 8: 38-41.
    18. Jacob, T.K. 1996. Introduction and establishment of Baculovirus for the control of rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the Andaman Islands (India). Bull. Ent. Res. 86: 257-262.
    19. Jayaraman,V. 1985. Study on repellant action of phorate against rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros Linn. In: Behavioural and physiological approaches in pest management. A, Reghupathy and S. Jayaraj. (Eds) TNAU Coimbatore. pp. 116-119.
    20. Kurian, C., Pillai, G.B., Antony, J., Abraham, V.A. and Natarajan, P. 1983. Biological control of insect pest of coconut. In. Coconut Research and Development. Proc. of the International Symposium I. CPCRI, Kasaragod. Dec 27-31, 1976. (ed. N.M. Nair) Wiley Eastern. New Delhi p.361-375.
    21. Lomer, C.J. A.D. 1986. Release of Baculovirus Oryctes into Oryctes monoceros population in the Seychelles. J. Invertebr.Pathol. 47(3): 237-246.
    24. Mohan, K.S. and Pillai, G.B. 1982. A method for lab. scale mass cultivation of Metarhizium anisopliae . Folia Microbiol. 27: 281-283.
    25. Mohan, K.S. and Pillai, G.B. 1993. Biological control of Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) using an Indian isolate of Oryctes baculovirus. Insect Sci. Applic.14 (5-6): 551-558.
    26. Mohan, K.S., Jayapal, S.P. and Pillai, G.B. 1983. Baculovirus disease in Oryctes rhinoceros population in Kerala. J. Plantn Crops 11 (2): 154-161.
    27. Mohan, K.S., Jayapal, S.P. and Pillai, G.B. 1985a. Response of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae to infection by Oryctes baculovirus. J. Plantn Crops 13 (2): 116-124.
    28. Mohan, K.S., Jayapal, S.P. and Pillai, G.B. 1985b. Diagnosis of baculovirus infection in coconut rhinoceros beetles by examination of excreta. Z. Pflkranh. Pflschutz. 93 (4): 379-383.
    29. Mohan, K.S., Jayapal, S.P. and Pillai, G.B. 1989. Biological suppression of coconut rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) in Minicoy, Lakshadweep by Oryctes baculovirus - impact on pest population and damage. J. Plantn Crops 16 (Suppl.): 163-170
    30. Monty, J. 1978. The coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L. (Col., Dynastidae) in Mauritius and its control. Revue Agricole et Sucriere de I’lle Maurice. 57 (2): 60-76.
    31. Nair, C.P.R., Daniel,M. and Ponnamma, K.N. 1997. Integrated Pest Management in palms; Eds. Nambiar, K.K.N and Nair, M.K. Coconut Development Board, Kochi, India. pp. 30.
    32. Nirula, K.K., Radha, K. and Menon, K.P.V. 1955. The green muscardine disease of Oryctes rhinoceros L. I. Symptomatology, epizootology and economic importance. Ind. Cocon. J. 9: 3-10.
    33. Nirula, K.K., Radha, K. and Menon, K.P.V. 1956. The green muscardine disease of Oryctes rhinoceros L. II. The causal organism. Ind. Cocon. J. 9 (2): 83-89.
    35. Pacific Pest Info Newsletter. Published by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Plant Protection Service, Private Mail Bag, Suva, Fiji Islands. Tel: (679) 3370-733; Fax: (679) 3370-021.
    38. PaDIL (Pest and Diseases Image Library), 2005. Coconut rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)
            Résumé: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from :, this page is available from: [Accessed 6 October 2006]
    39. Pillai, G.B., Sathiamma, B. and Danger, T.K. 1993. Integrated control of rhinoceros beetle. Pp 455 – 463. In Advances in coconut research and development (Eds.) Nair, M.K., Khan, H.H., Gopalasundaram, P and Bhaskara Rao, E.V.V. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
    40. Purrini, K. 1989. Baculovirus oryctes release into Oryctes monoceros population in Tanzania , with special reference to the interaction of virus isolates used in our laboratory infection experiments. J. Invertebrate Pathology 53(3) :285-300.
    41. Rajamanickam, K., Kennedy, F.J.S., Lourdurai, A.C. and Raveendran, T.S. 1992. Attractants – an aid in rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinocerosL.) management. Ind. Cocon. J. 23 (1) : 6-7
    42. Ramachandran, C.P., Kurien, C. and Mathew, J. 1963 . Assessment of damage to coconut due to Oryctes rhinoceros L. Nature and damage caused by the beetle and factors involved in the estimation of loss. Indian Cocon J. 17 : 3-12.
    44. Sadakathulla, S. and Ramachandran, T.K. 1990. Efficacy of naphthalene balls in the control of rhinoceros beetle attacks in coconut. Cocos 8:23-25.
    45. Swaine ,G.. 1966. Fiji’s campaign against the coconut rhinoceros beetle. Int. Pest Control. 8 : 6-9 .
    46. Swan, D. I. 1974. A review of the work on predators, parasites and pathogens for the control of Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: carabaeidae) in the Pacific area. Commonwealth Agriculture Bureaux Miscellanous Publication no. 7, 64pp.
    47. Ton-That-Trinh, 1973. La situation des cultures oleagineuses au sud Vietnam. Oleagineux 28 :185-88
    49. Wood, B.J. 1968. Pests of oil palm in Malaysia and their control .Kuala Lumpur : Inc.Soc.Planters 204 pp.
    50. Young, E.C. 1974. The epizootiology of two pathogens of the coconut palm Rhinoceros beetle. J. Inverbrt. Pathol. 24:82-92.
    51. Zelazny, B. 1975. Behaviour of young rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros Entomol. Exp. Appl. 18 :135-40
    52. Zelazny, B. 1977. Oryctes rhinoceros populations and behaviour influenced by a baculovirus . J. Invertebr. Pathol. 29 : 210-15
    53. Zelazny, B. 1981. India- presence of Baculovirus of Oryctes rhinoceros FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 29 (3/4): 77-78.

         Page de résultats: 1  

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland