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   Hieracium pilosella (herb)
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         Interim profile, incomplete information
         Management Information

    Preventative measures: Predicting Distribution- Ecological niche modelling (ENM) is a way of assessing potential spread of non-native organisms ENM was carried out on Hieracium pilosella using just native range data versus entire range (invasive and native) showed that climatic niches of invasive populations differed substantially from their native ranges. A number of populations were shown to exist in areas where there is no current climate analogue in its native European range. In eastern North America H. pilosella invasive regions it inhabits tend to be wetter than in its native range. In western North America it occupies a subset of its native range, and in Australia and New Zealand populations occupy a climatic niche more similar to their native range than those of North American populations. Modelling using only native range data or only invasive range data is not sufficient to accurately predict distributions, and failed to capture known distributions in North America, New Zealand and Australia. Entire range data was more effective at predicting current distributions. These differences are likely to occur due to release from biotic constraints in invasive range, allowing species to fulfil their entire fundamental niche (Beaumont et al., 2009a).

    For example, in Europe Hieracium has several insects which are specialist feeders and cause significant damage, whereas specialist herbivores are less common in its invasive range and do not cause significant damage (Sárospataki, 1999 in Beaumont et al. 2009a; Syrett & Smith, 1998 in Beaumont et al., 2009a). In its native range geographical barriers may also limit Hieracium spread; little is known about limiting range margins in its introduced range. Populations of H. pilosella in New Zealand have a high degree of genetic and genome size variation due to interspecific hybridisation, which may have contributed to its invasive success in New Zealand (Morgan-Richards et al., 2004 in Beaumont et al., 2009a).

    Biological control In New Zealand a biological control project was initiated in the 1990s. Five insect species associated with H. pilosella in central Europe were selected for introduction into New Zealand that were chosen. The insects were chosen as they have narrow host ranges and are damaging to the plant (Syrett et al., 2001 in Klöppel et al., 2003). There were: Oxyptilus pilosellae, a plume moth feeding on the above-ground plant parts, Aulacidea subterminalis, a gall wasp causing galls at stolon tips, Macrolabis pilosellae, a gall midge attacking the stolon tips and rosette centres, and Cheilosia urbana and Cheilosia psilophthalma, hoverfly species which feed externally on the roots and on the above-ground plant parts, respectively. All five insect species were released in New Zealand, and the two gall-forming insects established in the field (CABI, 2010).

    Laboratory trials of the gall wasp A. subterminalis were conducted on stressed (water, nutrient and plant competition) and non-stressed plants. The authors concluded that galling by the wasp is likely to reduce vegetative reproduction of H. pilosella whether or not the plants are stressed, indicating that the wasp may be a successful biocontrol agent (Klöppel et al., 2003).

    Grazing: Grazing by sheep has been suggested as a low-cost method of removing H. pilosella inflorescences in order to reduce seedling establishment. Three studies in New Zealand have provided evidence that sheep grazing can reduce the percentage of plants with flowers (Norton & Reid, 2009 and references therein). However there is evidence that grazing of inflorescences can result in increased stolon production. Further research is necessary to confirm whether grazing is an effective management tool as suggested by Espie (2001 in Norton & Reid, 2009).



         Location Specific Management Information
    Falkland Islands (Malvinas) (sub-Antarctic)
    A risk assessment procedure conducted for the Falklands, resulted in 22 introduced plants scoring above 15. These species are considered 'invasive' in the Falkland Islands because they out-compete local flora species and reduce agricultural productivity (Whitehead 2008). Mouseear hawkweed Hieracium pilosella and orange hawkweed Hieracium aurantiacum are included in this list.
    New Zealand
    Ecological niche modelling (ENM) is a way of assessing potential spread of non-native organisms. ENM was carried out using native and entire range data to predict climatic niches of Hieracium pilosella in New Zealand. It was found to occupy different climatic niches in New Zealand compared to its native range. Incorporating data from the entire range, rather than just native range data, is required to provide more closer approximations of its fundamental niche of H. pilosella (Beaumont et al., 2009).

    A biological control project was initiated in the early 90s on behalf of the Hieracium Control Trust. Five insect species associated with H. pilosella in central Europe were selected for introduction into New Zealand that were chosen. The insects were chosen as they have narrow host ranges and are damaging to the plant (Syrett et al., 2001 in Klöppel et al., 2003). There were: Oxyptilus pilosellae, a plume moth feeding on the above-ground plant parts, Aulacidea subterminalis, a gall wasp causing galls at stolon tips, Macrolabis pilosellae, a gall midge attacking the stolon tips and rosette centres, and Cheilosia urbana and Cheilosia psilophthalma, hoverfly species which feed externally on the roots and on the above-ground plant parts, respectively. All five insect species were released in New Zealand, and the two gall-forming insects established in the field (CABI, 2010).

    Laboratory trials of the gall wasp A. subterminalis were conducted on stressed (water, nutrient and plant competition) and non-stressed plants. The authors concluded that galling by the wasp is likely to reduce vegetative reproduction of H. pilosella whether or not the plants are stressed, indicating that the wasp may be a successful biocontrol agent (Klöppel et al., 2003).

    Grazing by sheep has been suggested as a low-cost method of removing H. pilosella inflorescences in order to reduce seedling establishment. Three studies in New Zealand have provided evidence that sheep grazing can reduce the percentage of plants with flowers (Norton & Reid, 2009 and references therein). However there is evidence that grazing of inflorescences can result in increased stolon production. Further research is necessary to confirm whether grazing is an effective management tool as suggested by Espie (2001 in Norton & Reid, 2009).

    Oregon
    Hieracium pilosella is listed as "A" designated Quarantine weed in the state of Oregon (USDA-NRCS, 2010).
    Saint Pierre and Miquelon
    Hieracium pilosella is listed as "A" designated Quarantine weed in the state of Oregon (USDA-NRCS, 2010).
    Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)
    Cipriotti et al. (2010) carried out extensive field sampling at a regional scale and used a spatial pattern approach using geostatistical techniques to build a map of the invaded areas. Results showed that H. pilosella is widely distributed across the Fuegian steppe with low cover (< 2%). The authors state that information regarding the current state of invasion and factors involved should be rapidly identified. This will increase the possibility of controlling or eradicating the invasion, and reduce cost and time associated with management. This is especially important as the spatial pattern of distribution suggests that H. pilosella is at an initial phase of invasion.

    High rates of invasion frequency and cover in areas with high soil disturbances (e.g. road building, shrub removal, physical impacts of long-term and intense domestic animal use, etc.) suggests that management actions should focus on reducing the presence of bare soil provoked by soil disturbances, on soil sowing and revegetation techniques, in order to restrict colonisation and spread of H. pilosella.



         Management Resources/Links

    2. Beaumont, Linda J., Rachael V. Gallagher, Paul O. Downey, Wilfried Thuiller, Michelle R. Leishman and Lesley Hughes, 2009b. Modelling the impact of Hieracium spp. on protected areas in Australia under future climates. Ecography 32: 757 764, 2009
    3. Beaumont, Linda J., Rachael V. Gallagher, Wilfried Thuiller, Paul O. Downey, Michelle R. Leishman and Lesley Hughes, 2009. Different climatic envelopes among invasive populations may lead to underestimations of current and future biological invasions. Diversity and Distributions, (Diversity Distrib.)(2009) 15, 409–420
    6. Cipriotti, P. A., Rauber, R. B., Collantes, M. B., Braun, K. and Escartin, C., 2012. Control measures for a recent invasion of Hieracium pilosella in Southern Patagonian rangelands. Weed Research, 52: 98–105. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2011.00897.x
    7. Cipriotti, P. A.; Rauber, R. B.; Collantes, M. B.; Braun, K.; Escartin, C., 2010. Hieracium pilosella invasion in the Tierra del Fuego steppe, Southern Patagonia. Biological Invasions. 12(8). AUG 2010. 2523-2535.
    8. Glanznig, A. and Kessal, O. 2004. Invasive Plants of National Importance and their Legal Status by State and Territory. WWF Australia: Sydney
    9. Groves, R. H., 2006. Are some weeds sleeping? Some concepts and reasons. Euphytica Volume 148, Numbers 1-2, 111-120
    10. Hauser, Cindy E. and Michael A. McCarthy, 2009. Streamlining search and destroy : cost-effective surveillance for invasive species management. Ecology Letters, (2009) 12: 683–692
    11. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    13. Otley H, Munro G, Clausen A and Ingham B. 2008. Falkland Islands State of the Environment Report 2008. Falkland Islands Government and Falklands Conservation, Stanley.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland