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   Celastrus orbiculatus (藤本植物,攀援植物)  English   
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         管理信息

    关于预防措施、化学、物理、生物控制的详细数据,请参阅管理信息。 English   


         地点特有的管理信息
    Marlborough District
    C. orbiculatus has been designated as a "Total Control" plant pest (Marlborough District Council and Department of Conservation Joint Initiative) by the Regional Pest Management Strategy for Marlborough. The strategy has its effect over the entire Marlborough District. Infestations of these plant pests are limited at present but they have the potential to invade large areas of Marlborough’s indigenous forest and coastal scrub. The Marlborough District Council and the Department of Conservation, have formed a joint initiative to carry out the control of the ‘Total Control’ plant pests identified in this category.
    The overall aim of the strategy is to eradicate C. orbiculatus from Marlborough. The strategy aims to prevent any new infestations, reduce the pre-existing seedbank by at least 25% and allow only recruitment from the pre-existing seedbank by 2006. The objective is to contribute to the eradication of C. orbiculatus by destroying infestations from known sites before seed production to prevent new infestations from establishing. Continued inspections and monitoring of sites and adjacent land are to be carried out to ensure effective control. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    Nelson
    C. orbiculatus has been designated as a 'Total Control Pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The objective of the strategy is to eradicate known infestations of C. orbiculatus in the Tasman-Nelson region by 2006. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    New Hampshire
    Preventative measures: C. orbiculatus is classified as a "Prohibited Invasive Species" (No person shall knowingly collect, transport, sell, distribute, propagate or transplant any living and viable portion of any plant species, which includes all of their cultivars and varieties).
    New Zealand
    C. orbiculatus is included in the First Schedule of the National Pest Plant Accord. All plants on the list are designated as Unwanted Organisms, and are banned from sale, propagation and distribution throughout New Zealand. Please see National Pest Plant Accord for the complete list.
    North Carolina
    Preventative measures: In April 2003, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDACS) passed a rule making oriental bittersweet a "Class C Noxious Weed." That means that in North Carolina the plant is illegal to be distributed and sold. The North Carolina Agricultural Board in response to protests from crafters voted unanimously to approve its sale in 18 Western North Carolina counties. It now will be legal to sell and distribute oriental bittersweet items in Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Mitchell, Swain, Transylvania, Watauga, Wilkes and Yancey counties (Asheville Citizen-Times, Nov. 27, 2004).
    Tasman District
    C. orbiculatus has been designated as a 'Total Control Pest' by the the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The objective of the strategy is to eradicate known infestations of C. orbiculatus in the Tasman-Nelson region by 2006. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    Vermont
    Preventative measures: C. orbiculatus is classified as a "Class B noxious weed".
    Waikato Region (North Island)
    C. orbiculatus (referred to as climbing spindleberry) is classified as an “Eradication Plant Pest” by Environment Waikato. Environment Waikato will directly manage and control it, as well as monitor the weed and providing identification and control information to the community.
    Please see definitions for hierarchy of pest designations.


         管理资源 /链接

    1. Asheville Citizen-Times, Nov. 27, 2004. Much bitter, no sweet in ruling on invasive plant.
    6. Environment Waikato. 2002. Climbing Spindleberry (Celastrus orbiculatus).
    8. Greenberg, C. H., L. M. Smith, and D. J. Levey. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasion 3: 363-372.
            摘要: A study into the spread of this invasive species. It describes in detail the invasive pathway of this species and its impacts on the environment. The authors also include management suggestions.
    [Accessed 29 September 2004]
    9. Greenberg, Cathryn H; Smith, Lindsay M and Levey, Douglas J, 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine: An experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy. Biological Invasions. 3(4). 363-372.
    11. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
            摘要: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
    Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
    12. Marlborough District Council (MDC), 2001. Regional Pest Management Strategy for Marlborough.
    13. McNab, W. H., D. L. Loftis. 2002. Probability of occurrence and habitat features for oriental bittersweet in an oak forest in the southern Appalachian mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 155:45-54
            摘要: A study that investigates methods of rapidly surveying land for species. The authors also make note of certain control methods that are available to combat the species, and also certain methods that do now work.
    [Accessed 29 September 2004]
    14. National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
            摘要: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
    Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
    15. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005. Unwanted Organisms. Factsheet Celastrus orbiculatus
    17. Silveri, A., P. W. Dunwiddie, and H. J. Michaels. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions 3: 379-389.
            摘要: This paper documents the impacts logging has had in conjunction with this invasive species. It identifies and points out some of the reasons this species has been allowed to become invasive.
    [Accessed 29 September 2004]
    18. Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
    19. Ward, B. and Henzell, R. 1999. Gel pruning for the control of invasive vines. ConScience, Department of Conservation, New Zealand.
            摘要: Gel pruning is being investigated as an environmentally friendly and effective chemical application system for selectively killing invasive vines.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland