Control of parthenium weed can be managed using a combination of methods depending on the site, including biological control agents, pasture management, cultivation and chemicals.
Preventative measures: Emphasis must be laid on establishing detection/monitoring procedures and stopping the spread of parthenium weed via vehicles and as a contaminant. A Risk assessment of Parthenium hysterophorus for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 18 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).
The Parthenium weed management book provides information on management and control aspects including spread minimization, pasture management, herbicide use, biological control and health aspects. It also describes the parthenium weed and provides basic information about its ecology and biology, reproduction and spread, current distribution, and potential threat. The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.
Biological: Biological control using insects and fungi is being pursued in Australia and in India.
Location Specific Management Information
Epiblema strenuana, the stem-galling moth,has been used as a biocontrol agent against parthenium. Examination of the effectiveness of the biocontrol agent, found that the moth did significantly reduce the flower and seed production of the weed, particularly if the moth attacked the weed when it was young (35 days old). In this situation the weed’s seed production was reduced by about 75% and the weed’s height decreased by about 34%. If the moth attacked the weed at a later stage of growth (after 55 days), there was no effect on the weed’s height and only a 39% reduction in seed production. The effectiveness of the moth was even greater if it was applied to the weed when it was grown in competition with buffel grass. In this situation the weed’s seed production was reduced by about 90% when compared to plants that were not attacked by the moth.
Two recent rust releases may provide additional reductions in impact. The
summer rust research project received significant funds from the Meat and Livestock
Australia ($450,000). Assessment of the impact of the pathogens on weed density is
3. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
5. O'Donnell, C and Adkins, S. W. Management of parthenium weed through competitive displacement with beneficial plants.
Weed Biology and Management Vol. 5 Issue 2 Page 77 June 2005
6. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database., Undated. Parthenium hysterophorus
Summary: A database of Swaziland's alien plant species.
Results Page: 1