Location Specific Management Information
Diaphorina citri was recorded in Australia, in the Northern Territory in 1915, but it was eradicated by chance during the 1916-1922 eradication campaign for citrus canker.
Current management measures for greening disease in Florida citrus groves include soil application of systemic insecticides (imidacloprid and aldicarb) and multiple applications (up to 8-18) of broad-spectrum foliar insecticides (including fenpropathrin, imidacloprid, abamectin, dimethoate, carbaryl, and chlorpyrifos). Insecticides are applied during the dormant foliar season, when new flushes required for psyllid female oviposition and nymphal development are rare, with the goal of reducing adult psyllid populations prior to the first flush cycle and during the flushing season (Rogers 2008; University of Florida-IFAS Extension 2008). Trees are visually inspected and removed if infected (Cocco and Hoy 2008).
The hymenopterious parasitoid Tamarixia radiata was imported as a part of a classical biological control program and is now established in Florida. In 2005 two fungal pathogens were discovered attacking D. citri in Florida. These were identified as Hirsutella citriformis and Isaria fumosorosea (Meyer et al. 2007; Meyer et al. 2008). Currently there are no fungal pesticides registered for D. citri management in Florida. Meyer et al. (2008) report that there is potential for developing I. fumosorosea (Ifr AsCP) into a microbial insecticide. Infective conidia are readily produced in vitro and D. citri nymphs were killed by Ifr AsCP during a pilot field trial. Further studies are needed to compare Ifr AsCP to the commercially available Ifr 97 and to test its effect on psyllid natural enemies (Meyer et al. 2008).
Pluke et al. (2005) investigated the feeding preferences of 8 coccinellid beetles with potential for use as biocontrol against D. citri. All 8 species consumed D. citri nymphs, with some consuming higher numbers and showing a greater or lesser preference for D. citri. The authors conclude that "Our results suggest that coccinellid species could play an important
role as predators of the psyllid in Puerto Rico and contribute to its natural control" (Pluke et al. 2005).
2. Cocco, A. & Hoy, M.A. 2008. Toxicity of organosilicone adjuvants and selected pesticides to the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Florida Entomologist 91(4): 610-620.
6. Hall, D.G., Hentz, M.G. & Ciomperlik, M. 2007b. A comparison of traps and stem tap sampling for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus. Florida Entomologist 90(2): 327-334.
8. McKenzie, C.L. & Puterka, G.J. 2004. Effect of sucrose octanoate on survival of nymphal and adult Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 970-975.
9. Meyer, J.M., Hoy, M.A. & Boucias, D.G. 2008. Isolation and characterization of an Isaria fumosorosea isolate infecting the Asian citrus psyllid in Florida. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 99: 96-102.
12. Pluke, R.W.H., Escribano, A., Michaud, J.P & Stansly, P.A. 2005. Potential impact of lady beetles on Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in Puerto Rico. Florida Entomologist 88(2): 123-128.
13. Qureshi, J.A. & Stansly. 2008. Rate, placement and timing of aldicarb applications to control Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in oranges. Pest Management Science 64: 1159-1169.
14. Rouseff, R.L., Onagbola, E.O., Smoot, J.M. & Stelinski, L.L. 2008. Sulfur volatiles in guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves: possible defense mechanism. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56: 8905-8910.
17. Yang, Y., Huang, M., Beattie, G.A.C., Xia, Y., Ouyang, G. and Xiong, J.2006. Distribution, biology, ecology and control of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a major pest of citrus: A status report for China. International Journal of Pest Management 52(4): 343-352.
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