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   Phytophthora cinnamomi  English   
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         管理信息

    Drenthet al.2006 描述发展与一个能发现,而且确认 27 不同的 Phytophthora物种的以 DNA 为基础诊断的化验的确认。
    有关预防方法,化学、物理,生物控制选择, 请参阅 管理数据English   


         地点特有的管理信息
    Australia
    Several attempts at eradicating P. cinnamomi have been made but were not successful over time. Key management strategies are now constraining the spread of P. cinnamomi and reducing its impact. Of particular importance is preventing its introduction into conservation areas. The application of organic matter and fertilisers has been found to increase microbial antagonism and energy for root regeneration in infected avocado trees (Pegg and Alcorn, 1972: in: Environment Australia, 2001). The chemical phosphite has been found to be useful in treating P. cinnamomi, but its non-target effects are unclear.

    The Australian Government Minister for the Environment and Heritage has approved a threat Abatement Plan for Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi
    Threat abatement plans provide for the research, management, and any other actions necessary to reduce the impact of a listed Key Threatening Process on a threatened species or ecological community. Implementing the plan should assist the long term survival in the wild of the threatened species or ecological community.
    The threat abatement plan for dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomihas two goals: to protect endangered or vulnerable native species and communities from Phytophthora cinnamomi; and to prevent further species and communities from becoming endangered by reducing the chance of exposure to the pathogen. The objective of the plan is to focus on actions to reduce the threat posed by Phytophthora root rot to native species and ecological communities, its recommendations will also help land managers limit the effects of Phytophthora root rot on Australia's wildflower and forestry (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005).

    California
    Integrated management of avocado root rot includes planting clean avocado nursery stock, selecting low hazard sites, planting on mounds in more hazardous sites, preventing the introduction of P. cinnamomi, using resistant rootstocks, preventing over- or under-irrigation, applying systemic chemicals, treating with gypsum and adding organic mulches. It appears that avocados can survive and grow in the presence of P. cinnamomi if this management scheme is practiced.
    Portugal
    A significant improvement in vegetative growth of holm and cork oaks injected with potassium phosphonate has been reported (Fernandez-Escobar et al. 1999: in Robin et al. 2001)
    Queensland
    Many of the areas in coastal Queensland where P. cinnamomi has been reported are conservation reserves or state forests. Any management action will need to consider visitor access and the potential for further spread of the oomycete.
    Spain
    A significant improvement in vegetative growth of holm and cork oaks injected with potassium phosphonate has been reported (Fernandez-Escobar et al. 1999: in Robin et al. 2001)
    Tasmania
    Research is being undertaken in Australia to determine the effectiveness of fungicides in controlling P. cinnamomi. Management in Tasmania focusses on preventing P. cinnamomi from becoming established in areas in which it is not yet present, such as Maria Island. This oomycete has been listed as a threatening process in the Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act (1992), and a Threat Abatement Team has been established.
    Western Australia
    Phosphite has been shown to be an effective fungicide against P. cinnamomi in Western Australia (Jackson et al. 2000).


         管理资源 /链接

    2. Barker, P.C.J., Wardlaw, T.J., and Brown, M.J. 1996. Selection and design of Phytophthora management areas for the conservation of threatened flora in Tasmania. Biological Conservation. 76 (2): 187-193.
            摘要: Provides management and observation data based on Tasmania's treatment program of their Phytophthora cinnammomi infestation.
    3. Bergot, M., E. Cloppet, V. Perarnaud, M. Deque, B. Marcais, and M.L Desprez-Loustau. 2004. Simulation of potential range expansion of oak disease caused by Phytophthora cinnammomi under climate change. Global Change Biology 10: 1-14
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
    5. Botanic Gardens Trust. UNDATED. Phytophthora root rot - fact sheet.
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
    Available from: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/information_about_plants/pests_diseases/fact_sheets/phytophthora_root_rot [Accessed 01 September 2005]
    10. Fairbanks, M.M., Hardy, G.E., and McComb, J.A.. 2001. The effect of phosphite on the sexual reproduction of some annual species of the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of southwest Western Australia. Sexual Plant Reproduction. 13: 315-321.
            摘要: This document details a sufficient and cost-effective control for cinnamomi.
    11. Ferraris, L., F. Cardinale, D. Valentino, P. Roggero, and G. Tamietti. 2004. Immunological Discrimination of Phytophthora cinnammomi from other Phytophthorae Pathogenic on Chestnut. Journal of Phytophathology 152: 193-199.
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
    12. Garbelotto, M., Hüberli, D. and Shaw, D. 2006. First Report on an Infestation of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Natural Oak Woodlands of California and its Differential Impact on Two Native Oak Species, in Plant Disease 90(5): 685.
            摘要: A study looking at the effect of P. cinnamom on native oak stands and the varying susceptibilty of different oak species to the pathogen.l
    13. Glevan Dieback Consultancy Services. Undated.
            摘要: This service was established in 1994 in Western Australia, and provides advice about the management of P. cinnamomi.
    Available from: http://www.glevan.com.au/page3.html [Accessed 19 November 2004]
    15. Jackson, T.J., Burgess, T., Colquhoun, I., and Hardy, G.E. StJ. 2000. Action of the fungicide phosphite on Eucalyptus marginata inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Pathology. 49: 147–154.
            摘要: This article gives information about the use of phosphite in controlling P. cinnamomi on Eucalyptus marginata.
    19. Moreira, A. C. & J. M. S. Martins., 2005. Influence of site factors on the impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi in cork oak stands in Portugal Forest Pathology Volume 35 Issue 3 Page 145
    21. Pryce, J., W. Edwards, and P. A. Gadek. 2002. Distribution of Phytophthora cinnammomi at different spatial scales: When can a negative result be considered positively?. Austral Ecology 27: 459-462
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
    22. Rhoades, C. C., S. L. Brosi, A. J. Dattilo, and P. Vincelli. 2003. Effect of soil compaction and moisture on incidence of phytophthora root rot on American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 184: 47-54
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
    23. Robin, C., G. Capron, and M. L. Desprez-Loustau. 2001. Root infection by Phytophthora cinnammomi in seedlings of three oak species. Plant Pathology 50: 708-716
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
    25. Shearer, B. L., Fairman, R. G. & Grant, M. J. 2006. Effective concentration of phosphite in controlling Phytophthora cinnamomi following stem injection of Banksia species and Eucalyptus marginata. Forest Pathology 36 (2), 119-135.
    29. Vannini A. and Vettraino A.M. 2001. Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut. For Snow lands. Res. 76(3), 345-350.
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, history, and impacts and management of ink disease of chestnut
    30. Vettraino A.M., Morel O., Perlerou C., Robin C., Diamandis S., Vannini A. 2005. Occurrence and distribution of Phytophthora species in European chestnut stands, and their association with Ink disease and crown decline. EJPP 111, 169-180.
            摘要: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, history, and impacts and management of ink disease of chestnut

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland