Preventative measures:: It is important for the general public to be informed on preventative steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of contact with mosquitoes. The following are personal protective measures that individuals can carry out to protect themselves from the transmission of disease resulting from mosquito bites: schedule outdoor activity to avoid periods of high mosquito activity (dusk to dawn), use mosquito repellents properly, use mosquito netting on baby carriages and play pens when outdoors, cover as much skin with clothing as much as possible, use and repair screens on windows and doors in homes, remove any standing water from any type of natural or artificial container near homes, and avoid camping near freshwater sources if possible (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2007).
Gravid traps placed at a trapping density of 44 square kilometers may be used for seasonal monitoring of Oc. j. japonicus (Falco et al., 2002). In order to avoid failure in detecting Oc. j. japonicus due to low capture rates from gravid or light traps, larvae collection should be carried out in natural and artificial habitats within the sampling area (Moberly et al., 2005). Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) are a cheap alternative to CDC ovitraps for egg collection devices for container dwelling species like Oc. j. japonicus for detection and monitoring purposes (Scott & Crans 2003).
To reduce the risk of introduction of Oc. j. japonicus and other vectors, governing bodies can utilize the inspection and treatment of imported used tires and tire collection facilities, the disinfection of airline cargo holds, increase quarantine inspections, and develop sterile corridors around airports and port facilities (Larish & Savage 2005). In a study of CDC gravid trap attractants in New York state, a common lawn sod infusion using Kentucky bluegrass was found to be a better attractant for Oc. j. japonicus than that of rabbit chow infusion, both under a seven day infusion period (Lee & Kokas 2004). In a New Jersey study, infusion baited gravid traps were found to be the best method of sampling or monitoring for Oc. j. japonicus (Scott et al., 2001). Gravid traps have an increased chance of attracting mosquitos that have had a blood meal, making these traps ideal for arbovirus surveillance studies (Falco et al., 2002).
Location Specific Management Information
Oc. j. japonicus was detected in Saginaw County, Michigan in September 2004. It has since spread through the county and has been trapped in increasing numbers (Saginaw County Mosquito Abatement Commission, 2007).
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