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   Chrysanthemoides monilifera (草本植物)  English   
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         管理信息

    预防措施:预防和早期处理是最符合成本效益的控制分法。一旦出现情人菊侵袭,最重要的是要防止种子扩散到周边地区。成熟的植株,应在开花前摧毁。种子可以经由沙滩车传播,应注意防范 (CRC, 2003)。

    请参阅ISSG收集的物理、化学和生物控制方法。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Australia
    Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) has been declared a weed of National Significance in Australia (Australian Weeds Committee, undated). The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service prohibits the entry of C. monilifera. It is a declared weed in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia. In these states, it is required that landholders control it (CRC, 2003a).
    Bay of Plenty Region (North Island)
    Environment Bay of Plenty suggests that stump swabbing with herbicide is the most effective method of controlling boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera), with the stem being cut as close to the ground as possible, and all remaining foliage removed from the stump. The herbicide mix must cover the top and sides of the stump, and can be applied through a knapsack sprayer, small spray bottle or by paint brush. They suggest suitable herbicides and dilution rates for stump swabbing are: Glyphosate/Roundup 200mL/L water, Grazon 50mL/L water, or Metsulfuron-methyl/Escort/Meturon 5 gms/L water + 10mL penetrant (eg. Pulse). Where plants are small, overall spraying of plants may be more convenient and effective.
    Following successful control, sites that have been heavily infested should be replanted to establish a dense, shady canopy to suppress further seed germination. Fast growing native plants such as houpara, pohutukawa, toetoe, taupata, karo and ngaio are recommended (EBOP, 2005).
    Boneseed (C. m. monilifera) is classified as a Progressive Control Pest Plant in the Bay of Plenty region. Land occupiers are required to control boneseed on their properties (EBOP, 2005).
    Break O'Day
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Break O'Day, Tasmania is eradication.
    Brighton
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Brighton, Tasmania is eradication.
    Bundjalung National Park
    75% of the foredunes of Bundjalung National Park were infested with C. monilifera rotundata prior to 2002. In 2001/2002 an extensive wildlife consumed significant levels of the bitou bush infested vegetation, and subsequently managers made the decision to take advantage of the fire to control bitou bush to a higher degree. The principal control method used post-fire was aerial herbicide application and some manual control, with follow up for five years subsequent. Recent results suggest that bitou bush is now down to an average of 5-6% cover (Thomas et al. 2006).
    Burnie
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Burnie, Tasmania is containment.
    Canterbury Region (South Island)
    The boneseed leafroller caterpillar (Tortrix spp.) was released on Banks Peninsula in August 2007, in an attempt to control boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera). The release occurred at Diamond Harbour, and was facilitated by Landcare Research and Environment Canterbury (Environment Canterbury, 2007).
    Central Coast
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Central Coast, Tasmania is containment.
    Circular Head
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Circular Head, Tasmania is eradication.
    Clarence
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Clarence, Tasmania is containment.
    Derwent Valley
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Derwent Valley, Tasmania is containment.
    Devonport
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Devonport, Tasmania is eradication.
    George Town
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in George Town, Tasmania is containment.
    Glamorgan
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Glamorgan, Tasmania is containment.
    Glenorchy
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Glenorchy, Tasmania is containment.
    Hobart
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Hobart, Tasmania is containment.
    Huon Valley
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Huon Valley, Tasmania is containment.
    Iluka Bluff
    In 1996, work began to restore the natural vegetation of the Iluka Bluff area, in a collaboration between the Iluka Land and Dune Care Group and the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Most of the 5 ha site consisted of dense bitou bush. The control methods used included initial herbicide use, hand removal, controlled burning, replanting with native vegetation and the release of the bitou bush seed fly (Mesoclanis polana), which is now established. Native vegetation now covers over 40% of the site (CRC, 2003a).
    King Is.
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in King Island, Tasmania is eradication.
    Kingborough
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Kingborough, Tasmania is containment.
    Latrobe
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Latrobe, Tasmania is eradication.
    Launceston
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Launceston, Tasmania is containment.
    Motuihe Is. (North Island)
    The Motuihe Weed Control Strategy identifies boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) as a weed of high priority for control, and intends to reduce it to zero density levels. The following strategy is outlined: "search the coastal margins for this species during its flowering period in spring and early summer. Most individuals will be able to be hand-pulled. If they are too big for this, they should be cut as close to the ground as possible and the stumps poisoned with metsulfuron (5g/litre). Abseiling equipment will be required for many of the plants growing on cliffs" (DOC, 2005).
    Motuihe Trust volunteers are controlling boneseed on Motuihe Island by handpulling and spraying. The plants tend to grow in similar places to native toi toi (Cortaderia richardii). Trust volunteers have now reduced boneseed to very small numbers so they now destroy it whenever it is found. However, boneseed is transferred from other places by birds, so the Trust would like to think that Motuihe's neighbours would also control boneseed to prevent the ongoing dispersal by birds to Motuihe (Laurence, J., pers. comm., 2008).
    Motuora Is.
    In 1999, the first year of the weed control programme, an abseiling team was used to remove boneseed from the cliffs to the south of Macrocarpa Bay where it was in relatively low numbers by cutting and painting the stumps. However this was expensive and did not appear to be cost effective as new plants quickly established from the seed bank in the same places. It was decided therefore to initially concentrate on preventing it from establishing in the newly planted areas. There were two reasons for this decision. Firstly as funding was limited it was decided that the priority was to target other less widespread invasive species first. Secondly, where boneseed was dominant on the cliffs, clear felling would have meant an increase in erosion. It was therefore considered prudent to establish native forest cover above the boneseed infestations first to contain the infestations and to provide a larger native seed source. Most of the control effort to date has therefore been put into ensuring that all plants germinating in the newly planted areas are removed before they reach seeding stage. This has been extremely successful resulting in minimal plants appearing in the plantings after native shrub cover is established, which takes about two years.
    There are several other invasive species on the island which are targeted annually by grid searching the whole island and removing any plants found by either digging or cutting and painting. Where boneseed is in low numbers, it is included in this control programme. However where it is abundant in locations where abseiling would be required and where there is a large seedbank, the following strategies are being employed:
    -Where there is a good seedbank of native species, selective control of larger boneseed plants is being carried out to encourage the native vegetation and reduce competition from boneseed.
    -Where boneseed infestations are contained in a limited area, all boneseed plants are controlled and native vegetation is assisted to colonise by either introducing seed or planting.
    -On southern cliffs, all boneseed plants are being controlled on a systematic basis while carrying out abseiling searches for other invasives.
    -Where gorse (Ulex europaeus) or muehlenbeckia are present, natural suppression of the boneseed is allowed to take place but boneseed is controlled if other species are being controlled.
    As native species establish in larger numbers and make the boneseed on the cliffs less dominant, all plants will be controlled. However the extent of the infestation means that many years will pass before this species can be eliminated. The ASB Community Trust has been very generous in funding weed control work on Motuora.
    A helicopter spray session was carried out on Motuora Island in 2004 to help control the boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera monilifera) infestation (Manawa, 2004).
    Motutapu Is. (North Island)
    The New Zealand Department of Conservation supports the Motutapu Restoration Trust's re-vegetation programme by conducting an annual survey along the entire coastline of Motutapu during the August/September flowering period and controls any boneseed discovered. Hand-removal is the chosen method of control. They are also investigating the possibility of using a biocontrol agent (Tortrix s.l. sp. "chrysanthemoides") which is currently being trialled on Waiheke Island.
    New South Wales
    National containment zones for C. m. rotundata have been established in NSW on the far north coast and the south coast. Low dosages of herbicide are applied from helicopters in winter, allowing large areas to be treated with minimum impact on native species. Reports indicate better than 95% control (CRCa, 2003). The bitou leaf rolling moth was released on C. m. rotundata in Broadwater and Bundjalung National Parks in 2001 (ARMCANZ 2000).
    New Zealand
    Boneseed (C. m. monilifera) is banned from sale, propagation and distribution in New Zealand.
    Queensland
    Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) has been targeted for eradication in Queensland for the past decade (CRC, 2003a).
    Raglan
    The Raglan community held a weed amnesty day, with sacks of weeds such as boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) being swapped for native plants (EW, 2006).
    Rangitoto Is. (North Island)
    The New Zealand Department of Conservation conducts an annual survey along the entire coastline of Rangitoto during the August/September flowering period and controls any boneseed discovered. Hand-removal is the chosen method of control. In the 2006/07 control period 2,208 plants were removed and in the 2007/08 control period 1,045 plants were removed. They are also investigating the possibility of using a biocontrol agent (Tortrix s.l. sp. "chrysanthemoides") which is currently being trialled.
    Sorell
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Sorell, Tasmania is containment.
    Southshore Spit (South Island)
    Over the past ten years, local residents (in conjunction with Christchurch City Council) have been controlling boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) by pulling out seedlings, and have reduced its infestation markedly (Bradfield, 2007).
    Spring Bay
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Spring Bay, Tasmania is containment.
    Tasman
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Tasman, Tasmania is eradication.
    Tasmania
    The importation, sale or distribution of boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) is prohibited in Tasmania (DPIW, 2003).
    Waiheke Is. (North Island)
    The boneseed leafroller caterpillar (Tortrix spp.) was released on Waiheke Island in March 2007 (Environment Canterbury, 2007).
    Waratah
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Waratah, Tasmania is eradication.
    West Tamar
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in West Tamar, Tasmania is containment.
    Whiritoa
    Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera) is controlled at Whiritoa (Coromandel Peninsula) by the local Beachcare group - a partnership between the local community, the Hauraki District Council and Environment Waikato (EW, 2003).
    Wynyard
    The principal management objective for boneseed (C. m. monilifera) in Wynyard, Tasmania is eradication.


         管理资源 /链接

    1. Adair, R. J.; Holtkamp, R. H., 1999. Development of a pesticide exclusion technique for assessing the impact of biological control agents for Chrysanthemoides monilifera Biocontrol Science & Technology. 9(3). Sept., 1999. 383-390.
    4. Batianoff, George N, 1997. A beachcomber's notes on bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata (DC.) Norl.) in Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly. 12(4). 1997. 177-179.
    5. Benham, S. P., pers. comm.., 2008. Steve P. Benham, Biodiversity Ranger-Flora, Department of Conservation, New Zealand.
    6. Bradfield, G. 2007. Boneseed busting. Weedbusters website.
    9. Cother, E. J., 2000. Pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata (Bitoubush) and Selected Species of the Coastal Flora in Eastern Australia. Biological Control Volume 18, Issue 1, May 2000, Pages 10-17
    16. Department of Conservation (DOC), undated. Weed Alert Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
    19. Downey, Paul O.; Royce H. Holtkamp, John E. Ireson, Raelene M. Kwong and Anthony . Swirepik., 2007. A review of the Chrysanthemoides monilifera biological control program in Australia: 1987–2005. Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.22(1) 2007
    20. Edwards, P. B., 1998. Seasonal abundance and parasitism of Mesoclanis seed flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa, and implications for the biological control of Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Asteraceae) in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 88(4). Aug., 1998. 407-414.
    21. Edwards, Penelope B.; Holtkamp, Royce H.; Adair, Robin J. 1999. Establishment and rapid spread of the bitou seed fly, Mesoclanis polana Munro (Diptera: Tephritidae), in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology. 38(2). May 4, 1999. 148-150.
    22. Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP) Regional Council., Sustainable Options, Pest Plant Control 08. Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
    23. Environment Waikato. 2003. Beachcare group wins community award.
    24. Environment Waikato. 2006. Weed amnesty for Raglan. Media release.
    25. Greater Wellington Regional Council., 2001. Pest Plants Everyone's Responsibility : Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
    27. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    28. Jeff Thomas, Damien Hofmeyer, Andrew S. Benwell., 2006. Bitou Bush control (after fire) in Bundjalung National Park on the New South Wales North Coast Ecological Management & Restoration 7 (2) , 79–92
    29. Kleinjan, C.A.; &, J K. Scott., 1996. Selection of Cassida spp. from southern Africa for the biological control of Chrysanthemoides monilifera in Australia. Annals of Applied Biology 128 (3) , 373–385
    30. Laurence, J., pers. comm., 2008. John Laurence. Motuihe Trust chairman. Auckland. NZ.
    31. Manawa. 2004. Habitat restoration/biodiversity: Motuora - progress on planting year 2004.
    32. Mason, T.J., and French, K., 2007. Management regimes for a plant invader differentially impact resident communities. Biological Conservation Volume 136, Issue 2, April 2007, Pages 246-259
    33. Matarczyk, Julie A.; Willis, Anthony J.; Vranjic, John A.; Ash, Julian E., 2002. Herbicides, weeds and endangered species: Management of bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) with glyphosate and impacts on the endangered shrub, Pimelea spicata. Biological Conservation. 108(2). December, 2002. 133-141.
    34. Scott, John K., 1996. Population Ecology of Chrysanthemiodes monilifera in South Africa: Implications for its Control in Australia. The Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 33, No. 6. (Dec., 1996), pp. 1496-1508.
    37. Willies, A.J & J. Memmott., 2005. The potential for indirect effects between a weed, one of its biocontrol agents and native herbivores: A food web approach. Biological control: 2005 vol:35 iss:3 pg:299 -306
    39. Winks, Chris J.; Simon V. Fowler and Lindsay A. Smith., 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72 (December 2004)
    40. Wood, A. R. and P. W. Crous., 2005b. Epidemic increase of Endophyllum osteospermi (Uredinales, Pucciniaceae) on Chrysanthemoides monilifera. Biocontrol Science and Technology, Volume 15, Issue 2 March 2005 , pages 117 - 125
    41. Wood, A.R., 2002. Infection of Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera by the rust fungus Endophyllum osteospermi is associated with a reduction in vegetative growth and reproduction. Australasian Plant Pathology 2002. 31(4) 409 - 415
    42. Wood, Alan R., Crous, Pedro W., 2005a. Morphological and molecular characterization of Endophyllum species on perennial asteraceous plants in South Africa. Mycological Research: 2005 vol:109 pg:387 -400
    43. Wood, Alan, R., 2006. Preliminary host specificity testing of Endophyllum osteospermi (Uredinales, Pucciniaceae), a biological control agent against Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp monilifera. Biocontrol Science and Technology: 2006 vol:16 iss:5 pg:495 -507

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland