Auckland Region (North Island)
Balloon vine (Cardiospermum grandiflorum) has been included in the Auckland Regional Councils pest plant list, please see balloon vine/small balloon vine. Any sighting of plants need to be reported immediately to the Council where they will arrange for its control at their expense (ARC, 2008). Recommended method of removal is by uprooting the plant and letting it wither and die, regular follow-ups are needed to ensure it does not regrow (ARC, 2008).
Bay of Plenty Region (North Island)
The initial responsibilty for pest control falls on the land owners themselves, but the regional council will be providing technical assistance if required (EBOP 2008).
Canterbury Region (South Island)
Balloon vine (Cardiospermum grandiflorum) is classified as a pest plant and is banned from sale and propagation in the Canterbury region under the Biosecurity Act 1993 (ECAN, 2007).
Chatham Islands Region
The most cost-effective approach to pest management in this region is to adopt a preventative method, such as closely monitoring the pathways between mainland New Zealand (CIC, 2006). In this region, the Chatham Islands Council is responsible for the implementation of management strategies, though private land owners are required to control pests on their property (CIC, 2006)
New South Wales
Aside from hand-pulling young plants, larger infestations of balloon vine (Cardiospermum grandiflorum) can be treated with a variety of herbicides. The cut and stump method uses 1 part glyphosate (360g/l) diluted in 2 parts water (10mL glyphosate, 20ml water). This method is best suited for spring and summer application. The spot spray method uses fluroxypyr (200g/L), 2,4-D amine (500g/l) or 2,4-D amine (625g/l). These are diluted to 500 ml per 100l water, 4ml per 1l water and 3ml per 1l water, respectively (NRW, 2006). For plants with larger stems, cutting or scraping it prior to glyophosate application can be effective. For curtain infestation, the vines are reduced to waist height, whereby the upper portions are left to die in the canopy and the lower part left to regenerate new leaves. At this point, glyphosate with 1:100 to 1:50 dilutions are applied. Thorough disposal is critical, where the seeds and taproots should be removed from site. Regrowth should be dealt with quarterly checkups. Lastly, dying vines can be ignored, as it may damage the surrounding trees as well as disrupting a potential habitat for various species (Wollongong City Council, 2008).
Since the introduction of the Cardiospermum grandiflorum the Australian soapberry bug Leptocoris tagalicus has been reported to have evolved a larger mouth piece, which is better adapted to consume the fruits of the plant. This may act as a natural ecological buffer to prevent and even restore the damage done by the invasive species (Strayer, D et al, 2006).
Several species have been introduced from South America as potential biological controls for Cardiospermum grandiflorum. Studies are currently being undertaken to examine the possible beneficial effects of the seed-feeding butterfly (Chlorostrymon simaethis) and a rust fungus (Puccinia arechavaletae) (ARCSA, 2008).
Indigenous alternatives include: traveller's joy (Clematis brachiata), wild jasmine (Jasminum angulare), glossy forest grape (Rhoicissus rhomboidea).
Waikato Region (North Island)
Cardiospermum grandiflorum is classified as a pest plant and is banned from sale and propagation in the Waikato region under the Biosecurity Act 1993 (EW, 2007).
The Wingham Brush method is formulated with the focus being on the regeneration of canopy by removing canopy weeds using glyphosate, as well as by planting/transplanting early successional trees. For example, Dendrocnide excelsa (giant stinging tree), Ficus coronata (sandpaper fig) and Pararchidendron pruinosum (snow wood) were transplanted. In addition, saplings of local trees such as Toona ciliata (red cedar), Waterhousea floribunda (weeping myrtle) and Casuarina cunninghamiana (river oak) were planted in vulnerable areas (Harden et al, 2004).
5. Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP), 2008. Bay of Plenty Regional Pest Management Strategy.
6. Environment Canterbury (ECAN), undated. Regionally banned plants list
摘要： Available from: estoration of the subtropical rainforest at Wingham, New South Wales, Australia. [Accessed 17 April 2008]
7. Environment Waikato (EW), 2007. EW Waikato Regional Pest management Strategy/Appendix 2: National pest Plant Accord.
9. Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW), 2007. Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Sapindaceae)
摘要： The Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) is a list of plant species (over 28,000 names) that have been cited in specific references (approximately 1,000) as weeds. An expert has assessed the status of the weed based on its context in each document. Sometimes, additional information--such as native range, whether the plant has reported medical/herbal uses, etc.--is included when available.
GCW is available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/; this page is available from http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/cardiospermum_grandiflorum/ [Accessed 1 February 2008]
12. Strayer D, Eviner T, Jeschke, J, & Pace, M. 2006. Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions, Trends Ecol Evol. 21(11): 645-51.
摘要： This report reviews the potential long term effects associated with the introduction of various invasive species.
13. Vivian-Smith, G and Panetta D. 2002. Going with the Flow: Dispersal of Invasive Vines in Coastal Catchments. Coast to Coast, Alan Fletcher Research Station, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland, Australia.
摘要： Study on long distance dispersal with water currents.