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   Oreochromis niloticus (魚類)  English  français 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    預防措施:養殖可能有入侵性的外來生物,並讓它們逃逸或釋放,會對本地生物多樣性和生態系統,產生負面的影響。Hewitt等人, (2006)養殖的外來物種:負責任的使用注意事項 ,提供決策者和管理者,現有的國際和地區性規定資料,解釋水產養殖業使用的外來物種,直接或間接的影響; 並舉三個國家(澳大利亞,紐西蘭和智利)對此問題的反應為例。該出版物還為發展中國家提供一個簡單的建議和一套指導方針和原則,可以應用在區域或國內一級負責管理外來物種的使用在水產養殖的發展。這些準則主要側重於海洋生態系統,但可能也同樣適用於淡水。
    Copp等人,(2005)風險識別和評估非本地淡水魚類 提出了一個淡水魚風險評估方法的概念,包括英國環境風險策略的前兩個元素(危險源辨識,風險評估)。文獻中引入了一些物種評估的工作案例,以方便討論。電子決策支持工具,入侵物種識別工具,包括淡水魚和海水魚入侵性評分工具,可在Cefas(環境、漁業和水產養殖科學中心)網頁免費下載(官方版權所有2007-2008)。
    過去二十年來,尼羅口孵魚(Oreochromis niloticus)水產養殖急劇增加,從管理的角度來看,是值得擔心的事。低成本的口孵魚養殖,會造成水質惡化量,因為小規模養殖戶一般都選擇用網箱養殖,網箱會直接與開放的水域連接。這種養殖方法與水污染問題關係密切,進而造成原生魚類及水生植物族群減少。在中美洲,大多數嘗試讓地方繁榮的口孵魚養殖,都是失敗的。雖然口孵魚在美國市場上能獲取一個良好的價格,但在本地市場,如尼加拉瓜,一般品質與價格都很差。此外,口孵魚在本地飲食文化中往往沒有一席之地(GISD, 2006)。
    預防措施:Mahmud-ul-Ameen(2000)報告指出,口孵魚可以引入沒有原生魚種或原生魚種少的地方,但不應該引入多樣性豐富的地方。
    化學方法面對一個口孵魚的威脅,島國帛琉開始實施一項計劃,以去移除該國的口孵魚。一種化學劑(魚藤酮)被直接應用到5個出現地點。此計劃是成功的(口孵魚移除計畫, 2004; 帛琉生物多樣性)。
    文化教育:島國帛琉利用教育行動,提醒民眾口孵魚會負面地影響當地的植物群和動物群(口孵魚移除計畫, 2004)。 English  français 


         管理資源 /鏈接

    2. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    5. Mahmud-ul-Ameen, 2000. "Development of Guiding Principles for the prevenvtion of impacts of alien species." Government Grant Proposal submitted to Bangledesh, Ministry of Environment and Forest.
            摘要: This paper outlines necessary standards for developing a nationwide invasive species protocol. It also touches on a few examples of invasive species in Bangladesh and discusses ways in which they have affected the country's ecosystems.
    7. Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montréal (Québec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
            摘要: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the “Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.” This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
    Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
    French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
    Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
    8. Ogutu-Ohwayo, Richard, and Balirwa, John. "Management challenges of freshwater fisheries in Africa." Published in Lakes and Resivoirs: Research and Management. Volume 11, issue 4. 2006.
            摘要: This article outlines issues and management approaches to fisheries in Africa. It highlights positive and negative impacts of fish introductions and discusses the importance of biodiversity.
    11. Zambrano, Luis, 2006. "Invasive potential of common carp Cyprinus carpio and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in American Freshwater Systems. " Published in The Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquaculture Science. Vol 63. 2006.
            摘要: This paper discusses a extensive modeling program that located areas of possible and likely spread for the Nile tilapia.

         結果頁: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland