预防措施：预防性的管理是阻止这个物种传播最好的选择，应特别注意土壤的移动，特别是在盆栽植物，以及所有其它从感染区来的材料。太平洋的蚂蚁预防 计划 是一份被准备太平洋的植物保护组织的提议与地区的为植物保护的技术上的会议。这一个计划打算避免入侵红火蚁蚂蚁 而且其它侵入的蚂蚁物种用经济、环境以及/ 或社会的冲击, 进入而且建立在或在太平洋区域的国家之间(或在)里面传布。
化学方法：良好的控制是使用诱饵' Amdro '适用于整个感染区。完全的根除能在 24 小时之内被达成。在澳洲 Kakadu 国家公园里面的一个主要的根除事件，于 2002 年尾完成。化学防治使用一般的杀虫剂和氯化烃如DDT，七氯和MirexR 直到最近都是可以使用的，如今这些大多数的化学物质由于环境的后果，已经被淘汰。最新的选项包括昆虫生长调节剂(IGRs) 、 methoprene ， fenoxycarb 与pyriproxyfen，藉由回转蚁皇后的卵巢组织使其不孕与胃毒物毒杀所有接触到它的工蚁的。
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia’s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the longterm survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), tropical fi re ant (S. geminata), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a).
The background document to the Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories provides supporting information on a range of issues such as tramp ant biology, population dynamics, spread, biodiversity impacts and management measures (Commonwealth of Australia. 2006b).
Kakadu National Park
P. megacephala was eradicated from Kakadu National Park in northern Australia using
broadcast applications of Amdro at 2.5 kg/ha (Hoffmann & O'Conner, 2004 in Warner et al., 2008).
It has been reported that one application of Amdro on Moku‘auia islet off O‘ahu successfully eradicated P. megacephala (Krushelnycky et al., 2005 in Wetterer, 2007).
The aim of the Invasive ant pest risk assessment project was to assess the threat to New Zealand of a wide range of ant species not already established in New Zealand and identify those worthy of more detailed assessment. A Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment was conducted and a risk assessment scorecard was developed to quantify the threat to New Zealand of a range of ant species, and aid selection of those worthy of more detailed assessment. 75 taxa were scored and grouped into high, medium, or low threats. A summary was prepared for each taxa, outlining why it was considered for assessment, and the mitigating factors that affect its risk to New Zealand. Please see Ranking for more details.
As part of the pest risk assessments, the threat each ant posed to New Zealand was considered in terms of: likelihood of entry; likelihood of establishment; likelihood of spread; and the detrimental consequences of its presence in New Zealand. The scores are compared with two species already established in New Zealand, Linepithema humile (a relatively widespread and abundant pest) and Pheidole megacephala (restricted in distribution and not currently considered a significant pest). Comparison was also made to Solenopsis invicta, which is widely recognized as a significant threat to New Zealand and other countries in Oceania and for which a risk assessment had already been conducted before this project.
Each pest risk assessment contains information under the following sections: Pest information; Likelihood of entry; Likelihood of establishment; Likelihood of spread after establishment; The environmental, human health and economic consequences of introduction; Likelihood and consequences analysis.
Key points that have been drawn from the risk assessment of by the authors are: "S. invicta has a similar score to Linepithema humile, which is already established in New Zealand and is a significant pest. Unlike S. invicta, L. humile does not have medical consequences associated with its presence, but S. invicta is likely to have a more restricted distribution and it is uncertain where it will establish and become abundant".
Please see Information sheet for more details of this species.
Systematic chemical eradication using hydramethylnon in Jabiru commenced 2002, nothing elsewhere.
Tanzania, United Republic of
Control of P. megacephala was achieved for about 5 months using Amdro bait in a coconut plantation in Zanzibar (Zerhusen & Rashid, 1992 in Warner et al., 2008)
1. AntWeb, 2006. Pheidole megacephala
摘要： AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, in-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=pheidole&name=megacephala&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
2. Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its
territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage,
摘要： This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia’s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies
six national priority species as an initial, but
flexible, list on which to focus attention. They
are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta),
tropical fire ant (S. geminata), little fire ant
(Wasmannia auropunctata), African big-headed
ant (Pheidole megacephala), yellow crazy ant
(Anoplolepis gracilipes), and Argentine ant
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
4. Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.
摘要： The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand
2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species.
3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39).
4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata)
5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
(This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
5. Hoffmann D. Benjamin, 2011. Eradication of populations of an invasive ant in northern Australia: successes, failures and lessons for management. Biodivers Conserv DOI 10.1007/s10531-011-0106-0
6. Hoffmann, B. D. 1998. The Big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala: a new threat to monsoonal northwestern Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 250-255.
7. Hoffmann, Benjamin D and O'Connor, Simon., 2004. Eradication of two exotic ants from Kakadu National Park. Ecological Management & Restoration, August 2004, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 98-105(8)
8. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
摘要： This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
9. McEwen, F. L., Beardsley, J. W. Jr., Hapai, M. and Su, T. H. 1979. Laboratory tests with candidate insecticides for control of the big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 23: 119–123.
10. McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
13. Reimer, N. J. and Beardsley, J. W. 1990. Effectiveness of hydroxymethylnon and nenoxycarb for control of Big-headed ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an ant associated with mealybug wilt of pineapple in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83: 74-80.
14. Reimer, N. J., Glancey, B. M. and Beardsley, J. W. 1991. Development of Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colonies following ingestion of fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 56–60.
15. Samways, M. J. 1985. Appraisal of the propeitary ant bait 'Amdro' for control of ants in southern African citrus. Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Journal 621: 14-17.
16. Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California — Davis.
摘要： PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
18. Su, T. H., Beardsley, J. W. and McEwen, F. L. 1980. AC-217,300, a promising new insecticide for use in baits for control of the bigheaded ant in pineapple. Journal of Economic Entomology 73(6): 755–756.
20. Walker, K. 2006. Coastal brown-ant (Pheidole megacephala) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 28/08/2006 10:23:48 PM.
摘要： PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia.
PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=645 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
21. Warner, J., Yang, R.L. & Scheffrahn, R.H. (2008). Efficacy of selected bait and residual toxicants for control of bigheaded ants, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in large field plots. Florida Entomologist 91(2): 277-282.
22. Williams, D. F. 1994. Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
23. Zerhusen, D., Rashid, M. 1992. Control of the Big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala, Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the fire ant bait 'Amdro' and its secondary effect on the population of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latrielle (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 113: 258-264.