莫三比克吳郭魚(Oreochromis mossambicu))很強韌而且能在養殖池塘附近的自然水域中輕易地建立族群，他們可能在裝卸或收成時逃脫。莫三比克吳郭魚很強韌，對水中鹽分、氧氣與污染適應範圍很寬，而且能長距離移動。他們很難被釣到。他們佔領各類型的棲息地，而且快速且成功地繁殖。想在他們已經建立族群的自然水域把他移除，也許是不可能的。 最有效的管理是完全把他隔絕於自然水域，以防止引進。 已建立的族群可能需要密集的漁捕，以阻止族群過度繁殖，影響原生物種。(Jeffrey McCrary pers.comm May 2005)
1. Aguirre, W. and Poss, S. 1999. Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852). University of Mississippi, College of Marine Sciences, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum.
摘要： Chapter on Oreochromis mossambicus from a list of non-indigenous species in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.
2. Baird, R. 1976. Historical review of the SPC fisheries activities. South Pacific Commission, Noumea. 5 pp.
3. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
摘要： The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
7. Courtenay, W. R., Jr. 1989. Exotic fishes in the National Park System. Pages 237-252 in L. K. Thomas, editor. Proceedings of the 1986 Conference on science in the national parks, volume 5. Management of exotic species in natural communities. U.S. National Park Service and
George Wright Society, Washington, DC.
8. Courtenay, W. R., Jr. and Robins, C. R. 1989. Fish introductions: good management, mismanagment, or no management? CRC Critical
Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 1(1): 159-172.
12. Hogan, A. and Vallance, T. (undated). An assessment of an NHT project to re-establish riparian zones as a
Tilapia control measure. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Walkamin QLD.
摘要： A management plan that aims to reduce tilapia numbers by improving stream habitat quality.
13. Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montréal (Québec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
摘要： In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with
trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001,
the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG),
a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced
the “Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.” This strategy identified responding to
threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing
invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive
Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers
who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative
process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased
trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse
impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
14. Ranoemihardjo, B. S. 1981. Nauru: eradication of tilapia from fresh- and brackish-water lagoons and ponds with a view of promoting milkfish culture. FI:DP/NAU/78/001 Field Document 1, FAO, Rome.
15. Trewavas, E. 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Museum (Natural History), London, UK: 292-315.
摘要： Taxonomic account and compilation of other biological data available for the mouth-brooding tilapias.